CIA World Fact Book, 2004/Senegal

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CIA WFB Seal.png Senegal Flag of Senegal.svg
map of Senegal

Introduction Senegal
Background: Independent from France in 1960, Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. However, the envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. Despite peace talks, a southern separatist group sporadically has clashed with government forces since 1982. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping.

Geography Senegal
Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Geographic coordinates: 14 00 N, 14 00 W
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 196,190 sq km
water: 4,190 sq km
land: 192,000 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries: total: 2,640 km
border countries: The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km
Coastline: 531 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
Terrain: generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed feature near Nepen Diakha 581 m
Natural resources: fish, phosphates, iron ore
Land use: arable land: 12.78%
other: 87.01% (2001)
permanent crops: 0.21%
Irrigated land: 710 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues: wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
Geography - note: westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal

People Senegal
Population: 10,852,147 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.2% (male 2,368,011; female 2,325,298)
15-64 years: 53.7% (male 2,803,192; female 3,025,304)
65 years and over: 3% (male 158,881; female 171,461) (2004 est.)
Median age: total: 18 years
male: 17.4 years
female: 18.5 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.52% (2004 est.)
Birth rate: 35.72 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate: 10.74 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 56.53 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 52.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 60.25 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 56.56 years
male: 54.94 years
female: 58.23 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.84 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.8% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 44,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 3,500 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases: typhoid fever, dengue fever, malaria, yellow fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever, schistosomiasis
overall degree of risk: very high (2004)
Nationality: noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese
Ethnic groups: Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%
Religions: Muslim 94%, indigenous beliefs 1%, Christian 5% (mostly Roman Catholic)
Languages: French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 40.2%
male: 50%
female: 30.7% (2003 est.)

Government Senegal
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
Government type: republic under multiparty democratic rule
Capital: Dakar
Administrative divisions: 11 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
Independence: 4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence was achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
National holiday: Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
Constitution: a new constitution was adopted 7 January 2001
Legal system: based on French civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; the Council of State audits the government's accounting office; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Abdoulaye WADE (since 1 April 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Macky SALL (since 21 April 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term under new constitution; election last held 27 February and 19 March 2000 (next to be held 27 February 2005); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abdoulaye WADE elected president; percent of vote in the second round of voting - Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 58.49%, Abdou DIOUF (PS) 41.51%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (120 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve five-year terms)
note: the former National Assembly, dissolved in the spring of 2001, had 140 seats
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SOPI Coalition 89, AFP 11, PS 10, other 10
elections: last held 29 April 2001 (next to be held NA 2006)
Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Council of State; Court of Final Appeals or Cour de Cassation; Court of Appeals; note - the judicial system was reformed in 1992
Political parties and leaders: African Party for Democracy and Socialism or And Jef (also known as PADS/AJ) [Landing SAVANE, secretary general]; African Party of Independence [Majhemout DIOP]; Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]; Democratic and Patriotic Convention or CDP (also known as Garab-Gi) [Dr. Iba Der THIAM]; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]; Front for Socialism and Democracy or FSD [Cheikh Abdoulaye DIEYE]; Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]; Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]; National Democratic Rally or RND [Madier DIOUF]; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]; Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]; SOPI Coalition (a coalition led by the PDS) [Abdoulaye WADE]; Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]; other small parties
Political pressure groups and leaders: labor; Muslim brotherhoods; students; teachers
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Amadou Lamine BA
chancery: 2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: New York
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6315
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard Alan ROTH
embassy: Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Rue Kleber, Dakar
mailing address: B. P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 823-4296
FAX: [221] 822-2991
Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy Senegal
Economy - overview: In January 1994, Senegal undertook a bold and ambitious economic reform program with the support of the international donor community. This reform began with a 50% devaluation of Senegal's currency, the CFA franc, which was linked at a fixed rate to the French franc. Government price controls and subsidies have been steadily dismantled. After seeing its economy contract by 2.1% in 1993, Senegal made an important turnaround, thanks to the reform program, with real growth in GDP averaging 5% annually during 1995-2003. Annual inflation had been pushed down to the low single digits. As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified external tariff. Senegal also realized full Internet connectivity in 1996, creating a miniboom in information technology-based services. Private activity now accounts for 82% of GDP. On the negative side, Senegal faces deep-seated urban problems of chronic unemployment, trade union militancy, juvenile delinquency, and drug addiction.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $17.09 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.5% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,600 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 16.8%
industry: 27.2%
services: 56% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 21.3% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line: 54% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 33.5% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 41.3 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0% (2003 est.)
Labor force: 4.62 million NA (2003)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 70%
Unemployment rate: 48% (urban youth 40%) (2001 est.)
Budget: revenues: $1.304 billion
expenditures: $1.367 billion, including capital expenditures of $357 million (2003 est.)
Public debt: 54.2% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products: peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
Industries: agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate: 2.9% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production: 1.518 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 1.412 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption: 31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports: NA (2001)
Oil - imports: NA (2001)
Natural gas - production: 50 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 50 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance: $-389 million (2003)
Exports: $1.23 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities: fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
Exports - partners: India 13%, France 12.2%, Mali 9.5%, Italy 8.5%, Cote d'Ivoire 5.4%, Spain 5% (2003)
Imports: $1.753 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities: foods and beverages, capital goods, fuels
Imports - partners: France 24.9%, Nigeria 12.2%, Thailand 6.7%, Spain 4.3% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold: $780 million (2003)
Debt - external: $3.009 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $362.6 million (2002 est.)
Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Currency code: XOF
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 581.2 (2003), 696.988 (2002), 733.039 (2001), 711.976 (2000), 615.699 (1999)
Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Senegal
Telephones - main lines in use: 228,800 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 575,900 (2003)
Telephone system: general assessment: good system
domestic: above-average urban system; microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
international: country code - 221; 4 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 20, shortwave 1 (2001)
Radios: 1.24 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)
Televisions: 361,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .sn
Internet hosts: 672 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2002)
Internet users: 225,000 (2003)

Transportation Senegal
Railways: total: 906 km
narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-meter gauge (2003)
Highways: total: 14,576 km
paved: 4,271 km including 7 km of expressways
unpaved: 10,305 km (2000)
Waterways: 1,000 km (primarily on Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance rivers) (2003)
Pipelines: gas 564 km (2004)
Ports and harbors: Dakar, Kaolack, Matam, Podor, Richard Toll, Saint-Louis, Ziguinchor
Airports: 20 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 9
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Senegal
Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police (Surete Nationale)
Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2004)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,490,290 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,301,761 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 119,833 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $95.8 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (2003)

This page was last updated on 1 January 2003

This is a snapshot of the CIA World Fact Book as it existed on 26 March 2005