CIA World Fact Book, 2004/Togo

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map of Togo

Introduction Togo
Background: French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, is Africa's longest-serving head of state. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government continues to be dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967. In addition, Togo has come under fire from international organizations for human rights abuses and is plagued by political unrest. While most bilateral and multilateral aid to Togo remains frozen, the European Union initiated a partial resumption of cooperation and development aid to Togo in late 2004.

Geography Togo
Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 1 10 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 56,785 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries: total: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
Coastline: 56 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain: gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
Natural resources: phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Land use: arable land: 46.15%
permanent crops: 2.21%
other: 51.64% (2001)
Irrigated land: 70 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues: deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna

People Togo
Population: 5,556,812
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.9% (male 1,222,622; female 1,214,443)
15-64 years: 53.6% (male 1,455,373; female 1,522,456)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 59,165; female 82,753) (2004 est.)
Median age: total: 17.6 years
male: 17.2 years
female: 17.9 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.27% (2004 est.)
Birth rate: 34.36 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate: 11.64 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 67.66 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 59.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 75.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 53.05 years
male: 51.07 years
female: 55.09 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.79 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 4.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 110,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 10,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases: typhoid fever, malaria, yellow fever, schistosomiasis
overall degree of risk: very high (2004)
Nationality: noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
Ethnic groups: native African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
Religions: indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 29%, Muslim 20%
Languages: French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.9%
male: 75.4%
female: 46.9% (2003 est.)

Government Togo
Country name: conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
local long form: Republique Togolaise
Government type: republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
Capital: Lome
Administrative divisions: 5 regions (regions, singular - region); Kara, Plateaux, Savanes, Centrale, Maritime
Independence: 27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday: Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
Constitution: multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic 1 July 1992; adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Legal system: French-based court system
Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult
Executive branch: chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 6 February 2005); note - Gnassingbe EYADEMA died on 5 February 2005 and was succeeded by his son, Faure GNASSINGBE, who will be allowed to complete his father's term
head of government: Prime Minister Koffi SAMA (since 29 June 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 1 June 2003 (next to be held NA June 2008); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Gnassingbe EYADEMA reelected president; percent of vote - Gnassingbe EYADEMA 57.2%, Emmanuel Akitani BOB 34.1%, Yawovi AGBOYIBO 5.2%, Maurice Dahuku PERE 2.3%, Edem KODJO 1.0%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 27 October 2002 (next NA 2007)
note: two opposition parties boycotted the election, the Union of the Forces for Change, and the Action Committee for Renewal
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPT 72, RSDD 3, UDPS 2, Juvento 2, MOCEP 1, independents 1
Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders: Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP [leader NA]; Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harryy OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [President Gnassingbe EYADEMA]; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]
note: Rally of the Togolese People or RPT, led by President EYADEMA, was the only party until the formation of multiple parties was legalized 12 April 1991
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Akoussoulelou BODJONA
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gregory ENGLE
embassy: Angle Rue Kouenou and Rue 15 Beniglato, Lome
mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome
telephone: [228] 221 29 91 through 221 29 94
FAX: [228] 221 79 52
Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy Togo
Economy - overview: This small sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings, with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is the world's fourth-largest producer of phosphate, but production fell an estimated 22% in 2002 due to power shortages and the cost of developing new deposits. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on following through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.257 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.3% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,500 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 39.5%
industry: 20.4%
services: 40.1% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 18.4% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line: 32% (1989 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): -1% (2003 est.)
Labor force: 1.74 million (1996)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry 5%, services 30% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA (2003 est.)
Budget: revenues: $214.5 million
expenditures: $296.4 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
Industries: phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement; handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Industrial production growth rate: NA
Electricity - production: 101.6 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 614.5 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports: 520 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by Ghana (2001)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption: 10,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports: NA (2001)
Oil - imports: NA (2001)
Current account balance: $-140 million (2003)
Exports: $398.1 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities: reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Exports - partners: Burkina Faso 16.6%, Ghana 15.4%, Netherlands 13%, Benin 9.6%, Mali 7.7% (2003)
Imports: $501.3 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Imports - partners: France 21.1%, Netherlands 12.1%, Cote d'Ivoire 5.9%, Germany 4.6%, Italy 4.4%, South Africa 4.3%, China 4.1% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold: $257 million (2003)
Debt - external: $1.4 billion (2000)
Economic aid - recipient: ODA $80 million (2000 est.)
Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Currency code: XOF
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 581.2 (2003), 696.988 (2002), 733.039 (2001), 711.976 (2000), 615.699 (1999)
Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Togo
Telephones - main lines in use: 60,600 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 220,000 (2003)
Telephone system: general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; cellular system has capacity of 10,000 telephones
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Symphonie
Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)
Radios: 940,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus two repeaters) (1997)
Televisions: 73,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .tg
Internet hosts: 82 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2001)
Internet users: 210,000 (2003)

Transportation Togo
Railways: total: 568 km
narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2003)
Highways: total: 7,520 km
paved: 2,376 km
unpaved: 5,144 km (1999 est.)
Waterways: 50 km (seasonally on Mono River depending on rainfall) (2003)
Ports and harbors: Kpeme, Lome
Merchant marine: total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 3,918 GRT/3,852 DWT
by type: cargo 1, specialized tanker 1
registered in other countries: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports: 9 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)

Military Togo
Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie
Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary and compulsory military service (2001)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,316,455 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 690,331 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $32.6 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (2003)

This page was last updated on 1 January 2003

This is a snapshot of the CIA World Fact Book as it existed on 26 March 2005