Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Sts. Tarachus, Probus, and Andronicus
Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the names of these three martyrs on four different days (the four days 8-11 October evidently signify no more than the date on a single day), with the topographical identification: "In Tarso Cilicie", on 27 Sept. (ed. De Rossi-Duchesne, 126), to which corresponds the expression, "In Cilicia", given on the two days of 5 April, and 8-11 October. The expression, "In Palestina", given under 13 May (ibid., 60), is either an error or refers to a special shrine of the martyrs in Palestine. There are two accounts of the glorious martyrdom of these three witnesses by blood, the first account being held by Ruinart (Acta Martyrum, ed. Ratisbon, 448 sq.) to be entirely authentic. According to these Acts, Tarachus, a native of Cladiopolis in Isauria, Probus of Side in Pamphylia, and Andronicus, who belonged to a prominent family of Ephesus, were tried and horribly tortured three times in various cities at Tarsus, and at Anazarbus of Cilicia. They were then condemned to death by wild beasts, and when the animals would not touch them in the amphitheatre they were put to death with the sword. Harnack, however, expressed doubts as to the genuineness of the account (Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur, pt. II: Die Chronologie, I, 479 sq., note 5), and Delehaye (Les lxgendes hagiographiques, 135 sq.) puts the martyrdom in the class of legends of martyrs that he calls "historical romances". At the same time, however, there can be no doubt as to the actual existence of the three martyrs. Their feast is celebrated in the Latin Church on 11 October, and in the Greek Church on 12 October.