Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Vicariate Apostolic
The following is an account of the newly-erected vicariates Apostolic and of those changed so recently as not to have been included in the earlier volumes of this work.
- 1 Bagamoyo
- 2 Banguelo
- 3 Basutoland
- 4 Brownsville
- 5 Caroline Islands
- 6 Central Africa
- 7 Che-kiang, Western
- 8 Chi-li, Maritime
- 9 Chi-li, Central
- 10 Congo, Upper
- 11 Corea
- 12 Delta of the Nile
- 13 Diego Suarez
- 14 Eritrea
- 15 Fernando Po
- 16 FIANARANTSOA
- 17 Fort-Dauphin
- 18 GUAM
- 19 Ho-nan, Western
- 20 Ivory Coast
- 21 Khartum
- 22 Kien-chang
- 23 Kilima-Njaro
- 24 Kivu
- 25 Libya
- 26 Madagascar
- 27 Mariana Islands and Caroline Islands
- 28 Morocco
- 29 Napo
- 30 Norway and Spitzberg
- 31 Nyassa
- 32 Seoul
- 33 Shensi, Central
- 34 Shensi, Northern
- 35 Solomon Islands, Southern
- 36 Sudan
- 37 Sze-ch'wan, Southern
- 38 Taiku
- 39 Tanarive
- 40 Tientsin
- 41 Zanzibar, Northern
- 42 Zanzibar, Southern
BAGAMOYO in Equatorial Africa.—By a decree dated 7 May, 1913, the boundary between the Vicariates Apostolic of Bagamoyo and Dar-es-Salam or Zanzibar was changed so as to conform with civil limits; the new boundary is the line separating Bagamoyo and Morogoro from Dar-es-Salam and Ruffi, then the Rivers Ruaha, and Umeroke, and finally the railway from the Indian Ocean to the town of Tabora.
BANGUELO, in Equatorial Africa, erected on 27 Jan., 1913, and committed to the care of the White Fathers. It was previously the northern portion of the Vicariate Apostolic of Nyassa.
BASUTOLAND, in South Africa.—The Prefecture Apostolic of Basutoland (q.v.) was erected into a vicariate Apostolic with unchanged boundaries by a Decree dated 18 Feb., 1909. The vicariate at the close of the year 1912 contained 23 priests, all Oblates of Mary Immaculate, 5 Oblate brothers, 7 Marist brothers, 41 European and 21 native nuns, 21 churches, chapels, and stations, 12 convents (9 of the Sisters of the Holy Family, and 3 of Sisters of the Holy Cross), 17 schools, about 10,000 Catholics and 800 catechumens out of 400,000 inhabitants. The first vicar Apostolic is the right Rev. Jules Joseph Cenez, O.M.I, titular Bishop of Nicopolis, who was born at Hampont, Lorraine, on 9 May, 1865; was ordained, 8 Sept., 1890; head of the mission since 1895, appointed to the titular see 27 Feb., 1909, and consecrated at Metz on 1 May following.
BROWNSVILLE, in United States of America, was erected into the Diocese of Corpus Christi, on 23 March, 1912.
CAROLINE ISLANDS. See below MARIANA AND CAROLINE ISLANDS.
CENTRAL AFRICA, VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF. See below KHARTUM.
CHE-KIANG, WESTERN, in China, erected on 10 May, 1910. At the request of Mgr. Paul-Marie Reynaud, Vicar Apostolic of Che-kiang, the western portion of his mission was erected into a new vicariate, that of Western Che-kiang; at the same time the word "Eastern" was added to the official title of the old vicariate. The mission of Western Che-kiang comprises the civil prefectures of Kia-shing, Hu-chu, Hang-che, Yen-che, Hin-chu, and King-hoa. Its boundaries are: on the north the Vicariate of Kiang-nan, and Lake T'al-hu; to the west, the Vicariates of Kiang-nan, and Eastern Kiang-Si; to the south the Vicariates of Eastern Che-kiang and Fu-kien; and to the east, the Vicariate of Eastern Che-kiang and the Chinese Sea, or the Bay of Han-chu. The first mission is entrusted to the Lazarists. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Paul-Albert Faveau, C.M., b. at Crochte, France, 5 April, 1859; appointed to the vicariate, 10 May, 1910, with the title of Bishop of Tamassus.
CHI-LI, MARITIME, in China, erected on 27 April, 1912; it comprises the civil prefecture of Tientsin-fu, previously part of the Vicariate of Northern Chi-li or Peking. Boundaries: on the north the Vicariate of Peking, on the east the Gulf of Chi-li; on the south the missions of Changteng and Southeastern Chi-li; on the west the missions of Southwestern Chi-li and Northern Chi-li. It is entrusted to the care of the Lazarists. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Paul Dumond, C.M., born at Lyons, 2 April, 1864; ordained, 10 Aug., 1888; appointed Vicar Apostolic of Maritime Chi-li, 27 April 1912 and consecrated at Peking titular Bishop of Durubis on 30 June, following.
CHI-LI, CENTRAL, in China, erected on 14 Feb., 1910; comprises the civil Prefectures of Pao-ting-fu, and Y-tchu, formerly part of the Vicariate of Northern Chi-Li. Its boundaries are: on the north the prefecture of Suen-hoa-fu, on the east, Chun-tren-fu, on the south, Ho-kiang-fu; on the west, Ting-chu, Chang-ting-fu, and Shan-Si. The cathedral at Pao-ting-fu is dedicated to Sts. Peter and Paul. The mission is undertaken by the Lazarists, and contains about 72,530 Catholics, 38 priests, 255 churches and chapels, and 914 schools. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Joseph Fabregues, C.M., born at Montpellier, France, 26 Nov., 1872, appointed to the vicariate, 26 Feb., 1910, and consecrated titular Bishop of Alali on 22 May, 1910 by Mgr. Stanislas Jarlin, at Pao-ting-fu.
CONGO, UPPER.—The mission of the Upper Congo was begun on 21 Sept., 1880; it was erected into a vicariate Apostolic on 10 Dec., 1895, its boundaries being: on the north, a line from the mouth of the Elila to Lake Edward Nyanza at the 30 degree E. long.; on the east the Congo Free State frontier to the mouth of the river Kafu at Lake Tanganyka; thence along its course and the western boundaries of Urungu and Loemba to Lake Banguelo; on the south and west Lake Banguelo and the river Congo to the mouth of the Lira. On 8 April, 1911, a decree was published changing the eastern and southern lines separating the Vicariate of the Upper Congo from the missions of N. and S. Victoria Nyanza, Unyanyembe, Tanganika, and Nyassa. The boundary now is: on the east, the Belgo-British and Germano-Belgian frontiers, that is, a line from the south shore of Lake Albert Edward to Sabingo Mountain, thence by Lake Kion, along the Rusizi, and through Lake Tanganika; on the south, a line from Lake Tanganika to Lake Moero; that is, the Belgo-British frontier. The mission is entrusted to the White Fathers. It contains 300,000 inhabitants, of whom 5520 are Catholics, 5148 neophytes, and 29,019 catechumens; there are 7 chief stations and 27 chapels, 31 missionary priests, 8 lay brothers, 9 White Sisters of Notre-Dame d'Afrique, 45 negro catechists teaching 2960 children in 55 schools, 14 orphanages, 7 hospitals, 22 dispensaries, and 1 home for widows. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Victor Roelens, b. at Ardoye, Belgium, 21 Feb., 1853; appointed to the vicariate on 30 March, 1895; he resides at Baudoinville, and is titular Bishop of Girba. On 24 March, 1909, he received as coadjutor Mgr. Auguste-Leopold Huys, b. at Bruges, 9 July, 1871, who has been working as a missionary in the Congo since 1897. He is titular Bishop of Rusicade.
COREA.—The name of this vicariate has been changed to SEOUL (q.v.).
Delta of the Nile
DELTA OF THE NILE, in Egypt, erected 17 Sept., 1909; the boundaries of the mission remained unchanged. It is entrusted to the care of the Society of African Missions of Lyons. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Auguste Duret, b. in the Diocese of Nantes, 2 Jan., 1846; ordained, 17 Dec., 1870; missionary in Oran in 1878; Prefect Apostolic of the Delta of the Nile in 1885; appointed vicar Apostolic on 17 Sept., 1909, and consecrated titular Bishop of Bubastis on 24 Feb., 1910.
DIEGO SUAREZ, in Madagascar.—By a Decree of Propaganda dated 20 May, 1913, the name of the Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Madagascar (q.v.) was changed to Diego Suarez, which is the name of the chief town in the mission.
ERITHREA, in East Africa.—On 13 Sept., 1894, the Italian colony of Erythrea or Eritrea, previously part of the Lazarast mission of Abyssinia, was formed into a prefecture Apostolic, with R. P. Michele da Carbonara (b. at Carbonara, Italy, 10 Oct., 1836; d. there, 24 June, 1910), a Capuchin, as superior. The mission comprises the territory on the coast of the Red Sea from Ras Kasar (18 degrees 2 minutes N.) to the French Possessions at the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb (12 degrees 30 minutes N.) and is bounded on the interior by the Sudan, Abyssinia, and French Somaliland. It includes likewise all the islands in the adjacent part of the Red Sea, subject to the Italians. The inhabitants, mostly of a semi-nomadic disposition, number about 450,000. Of these 12,200 belong to the Latin Rite, about one-half being Italians; 15,000 are Copto-Ethiopians, about 80,000 are Monophysites, and the remainder fetishists or Mohammedans. The ordinary people speak Arabic, Tigrai, and Tigre, and the upper classes Amaric; while Ghez is the liturgical language. On Feb. 7, 1911, after the death of R. P. Michele da Carbonara, the mission was made a vicariate Apostolic. It contains 9 Capuchin fathers and 6 brothers, with 5 residences, 42 native priests, 22 Daughters of St. Anne, some Franciscan tertiary lay sisters (native), 8 churches, 30 chapels in the back-country, served by native Catholic priest of Copto-Ethiopic Rite, 2 seminaries (at Achur and Asherem) with 48 students, 5 schools with over 200 pupils and 2 orphanages. The mission is confided to the Capuchins of the province of Rome. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Francesco Carrara, Capuchin, b. at Albino, in the Diocese of Bergamo, Italy, on 14 March, 1871; professed on 8 Sept., 1887; minister provincial of Lombardy in 1902; appointed to the vicariate in January, 1911, and consecrated at Milan, 26 Feb. following, as titular Bishop of Agathopolis.
FERNANDO PO, in West Africa.—In 1855 a mission was established in the island of Annobon, Corisco, and Fernando Po under R. P. Miguel Martinez, of Toledo. In 1857 the mission became a prefecture Apostolic and was entrusted to the Jesuits; in 1860 their jurisdiction was extended to the mainland. After thirteen years' labour they gave up the mission owing to difficulties with the Spanish Government, as well as to the severity of the climate. Till 1883 there was only one priest in the mission, the parish priest of Santa Elisabeth in Fernando Po. In 1883 the prefecture was revived and the mission entrusted to the Congregation of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. On 25 April, a large territory on the continent was added to the mission, which on 5 May, 1904, was made a vicariate Apostolic. The vicariate now comprises the Islands of Annobon (11 sq. miles), Corisco (11 sq. miles), Elobey, Fernando Po (780 sq. miles), and Spanish Guinea (12,000 sq. miles), extending from the Muni river to the Campo and to Kamerun, the eastern boundary being the meridian of 11 degrees 20 minutes E.; it has in all an area of about 12,814 sq. miles and a population of 235,000. The languages ordinarily spoken in the mission are: Bubi in Fernando Po; Benga in Corisco; Ambu in Annabon, and Pamwe and Kombe on the mainland. The climate in the mission territory is torrid and enervating, and malaria is prevalent. There are 6274 Catholics and 370 catechumens; 42 missionary priests; 10 catechists; 13 churches; 9 chapels, 27 stations; 18 parochial schools with 1170 pupils; 4 hospitals. The Sisters of the Immaculate Conception have 6 houses with 26 nuns. The first Vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Pedro Armengaudio Coll, of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, appointed on 10 May, 1904. He is titular Bishop of Thignica, and resides at Santa Isabel, Fernando Po.
FIANARANTSOA, in Madagascar, erected on 10 May, 1913, and committed to the care of the Jesuits, formed previously the southern part of the Vicariate of Central Madagascar. Its boundaries are: on the north the 20 degree S. lat., the southern limits of Autsirabe, the 20 degree S. lat. again, and then to the Indian Ocean; on the east the Indian Ocean from 20 degrees to 22 degrees S. lat.; on the south the Vicariate Apostolic of Fort Dauphin (formerly Southern Madagascar); on the west the Mozambique Channel from 20 degrees to 22 degrees S. lat. On 16 May, 1913, R. P. Charles Givelet, S.J., was appointed first vicar Apostolic.
FORT-DAUPHIN, in Madagascar.—In order to distinguish more easily the various vicariates in Madagascar, the Holy See decreed on 20 May, 1913, that the vicariates should be called in future by the name of the town in which the vicars reside. Hence the name of the Vicariate Apostolic of Southern Madagascar was changed to Fort-Dauphin.
GUAM, ISLAND OF, in the Mariana Islands.—The Mariana Islands with the exception of Guam belong to Germany; Guam is held by the United States of America. By a Decree dated 1 March, 1911, Guam was withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the Prefect Apostolic of the Mariana Islands, and made a vicariate Apostolic, to prevent troubles arising from differences of nationality. The new vicariate was entrusted to the Capuchins, and Mgr. Francisco Xavier Ricardo Vila y Mateu, O.F.M. Cap., b. at Arenys de Mar, Spain, was appointed on 25 Aug., 1911, vicar Apostolic and titular Bishop of Adraa. In 1911 the population was 12,240, of whom 11,877 were natives; there are about 2500 non-Catholics. The vicariate has 10 Capuchin priests, 3 lay brothers, 6 parishes, and 10 churches. The Island of Guam lies at the Southern end of the Mariana group and was ceded to the United States in 1898; it is about 30 miles long and 6.5 miles wide, and has an area of about 200 sq. miles. The natives are Chamorros, with a mixture of Tagal and Spanish blood. Education has been compulsory since the American occupation; San Ignacio de Agana (population over 7000) is the capital of the island.
HO-NAN, WESTERN, in China.—The Prefecture Apostolic of Western Ho-nan was erected into a vicariate Apostolic by a Decree of 2 May, 1911, its boundaries remaining unchanged, that is, on the north, the yellow River, on the east, the Shen-si, on the south the prefecture of Nan-Yang-fu; on the west that of Kai-fong-fu. The mission is entrusted to the missionaries of the Parma Seminary of St. Francis Xavier for the Foreign Missions. It contains about eight million inhabitants, of whom 2727 are Catholics, 4006 catechumens; 9 priests, 3 churches, 9 chapels, and 5 schools. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Luigi Calza, b. at Rocca Prebalza, Italy, 26 July, 1872; ordained in 1909; appointed Prefect Apostolic of Western Ho-nan, 23 June, 1906, and vicar Apostolic on 18 Sept., 1911. He was consecrated at Parma on 21 April, 1912, as titular Bishop of Termessus.
IVORY COAST, in Equatorial Africa.—On 17 Nov., 1911, the Prefecture Apostolic of the Ivory Coast was erected into a vicariate Apostolic. The mission had been formerly part of the Prefecture Apostolic of the Gold Coast, from which it was separated on 28 June, 1895. Its boundaries are: on the east, the Gold Coast; on the south, the sea from the Gold Coast to Liberia; on the west, Liberia. The inhabitants number over 3,000,000, of whom 1100 are Catholics, 400 catechumens, about 400 Protestants, and the remainder fetishists. The vicariate is under the care of the Society of the African Mission of Lyons, and has 13 churches and chapels, 12 stations, 6 schools, 10 orphanages, 7 Sisters of the Queen of Angels, and 27 missionary priests. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Jules-Joseph Moury, titular Bishop of Ariassus. He was born at Agnat, France, 11 Oct., 1873, and ordained 30 May, 1897; set out for the Ivory Coast on 25 Sept., 1899; founded the mission of Abidjan in 1904 and that of Katiola in 1908; was appointed prefect Apostolic of the Ivory Coast, 18 Jan., 1910, and vicar Apostolic, 17 Nov., 1911; he was consecrated at Lyons on 6 June, 1912. The episcopal residence is at Abidjan.
KHARTUM, in the Sudan.—On 26 May, 1914, the Prefecture Apostolic of Bar-el-Gazal was formed from the Vicariate of the Sudan or of Central Africa; and by a Decree four days later, the name of the Vicariate was changed to that of Khartum.
KIEN-CHANG, in China, was formed on 12 Aug., 1910, by separating from the Vicariate Apostolic of Southern Sze-ch'wan, the southwestern portion called Kien-chang; its boundaries were fixed as those of the civil Province of Nin-yuen-fu. At the request of the vicar Apostolic of Southern Sze-ch'wan, the civil sub-prefecture Tsinkyhiem was transferred from his jurisdiction to that of the Vicar of Kien-chang, on 30 April, 1912. The mission is under the care of the Society of Foreign Mission of Paris. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Jean-Baptiste-Marie de Guebriant, b. at Paris, 11 Dec., 1860; ordained 5 July, 1885; appointed vicar Apostolic 12 Aug., 1910, and consecrated at Su-fu on 20 Nov. following. He resides at Nin-yuen-fu.
KILIMA-NJARO, in Equatorial Africa, erected from the northern part of the Vicariate Apostolic of Bagamoyo, by a Decree of 13 Sept., 1910. Its boundaries are: on the north, the Vicariate of Zanzibar; on the east, the Indian Ocean; on the west, the Vicariate of Unyanyembe, near Lake Balangidda, north of Irangi. The vicariate is entrusted to the Fathers of the Holy Ghost and the Immaculate Heart of Mary. It has 9 missions, with 20 priests, 12 lay brothers, 25 nuns, more than 4500 Catholics. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Louis Munsch, b. at Felleringen, Alsatia, 5 Oct., 1869; ordained in 1896, after which he went on the East African mission; he was appointed to the vicariate, 13 Sept., 1910, and was consecrated as titular Bishop of Magnesia on 5 Feb., 1911. He resides at Kilema (founded 1891), the oldest station in the mission; it contains over 1500 Catholics.
KIVU, in Equatorial Africa, erected on 12 Dec., 1912, and committed to the care of the Society of African Missionaries. The district of Kivu lies beyond the western limits of the Vicariate of Southern Victorian Nyanza and Unyanyembe. The boundaries of the new vicariate are: on the north, the British frontier from the river Kagera to the Belgian frontier, thence to Lake Kivu; on the west, the Belgian frontier; on the south, the northern boundaries of Uvinza and Ujiji; on the east, the Kagera and Ruinvu, then the western boundary of Ussurvi and the eastern boundary of Uha. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Jean-Joseph Hirth, titular Bishop of Theveste, appointed on 12 Dec., 1912; he was at the time of this appointment Vicar Apostolic of Southern Victoria Nyanza.
LIBYA, in North Africa.—On 23 Feb., 1913, the Prefecture Apostolic of Tripoli was erected into a vicariate Apostolic and its name changed to Libya. The boundaries of the old prefecture remained as before.
MADAGASCAR.—By a Decree dated 20 May, 1913, the Propaganda to prevent any ambiguity as to the vicariates in Madagascar, ordered that they should be called by the name of the place of residence of the vicar Apostolic. Therefore the vicariate Apostolic of Northern Madagascar takes the name of Diego Suarez; that of Central Madagascar the name of Tananarive; and that of Southern Madagascar the name of Fort-Dauphin.
Mariana Islands and Caroline Islands
MARIANA AND CAROLINE ISLANDS.—By a Decree of 1 March, 1911, the Prefectures Apostolic of the Mariana Islands and of the Caroline Islands was suppressed, and in their stead a new vicariate was erected, embracing both groups of islands, except the Island of Guam. The mission is under the care of the Capuchins of Westphalia. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Peter Salvator Walleser, O.F.M. Cap., b. at Wieden, near Freibourg im Breisgau, 22 Oct., 1874; professed, 4 Oct., 1898; ordained, 15 Aug., 1901; missionary in the Palau Isles in 1906; appointed vicar Apostolic and titular Bishop of Tanagra on 21 Aug., 1912. He is the author of a Palau grammar and dictionary. The vicariate in 1911 contained 4500 Catholics, 15 capuchin priests, 14 lay brothers, 11 nuns, 14 stations, 14 churches and chapels. There were mission schools in the Caroline Islands, but none in the Mariana group, as the Government claims there a monopoly in educational matters.
MOROCCO.—On 14 April, 1908, the Prefecture Apostolic of Morocco (q.v.) was erected into a vicariate. Mgr. Francisco Maria Cervera, of the Friars Minor, titular Bishop of Fessa, is the first vicar Apostolic. He was born at Valencia, Spain, 13 March, 1858; was professed, 19 Nov., 1878; ordained in 1880 and made Prefect Apostolic of Morocco in 1906; appointed vicar Apostolic, 8 April, 1908, and consecrated at Madrid, 23 May, 1908. He resides at Tangiers.
NAPO, in Ecuador, erected on 3 Feb., 1893, and confided to the Jesuits. The superior of the mission is R. P. Andres Perez, S.J.
Norway and Spitzberg
NORWAY AND SPITZBERG.—By a Decree of 1 June, 1913, the archipelago of Spitzbergen was placed under the jurisdiction of the Vicar Apostolic of Norway, and at the same time the words "and Spitzberg" were ordered to be added to the official title of the vicariate.
NYASSA, in Equatorial Africa.—The portion of this vicariate lying north of the watershed between the Luangwa and the Zambesi, and then of the 13 degree S. Lat., was separated on 28 Jan., 1913, and formed into the Vicariate Apostolic of Banguelo; the remaining part of the vicariate retains its old name.
SEOUL, in Corea.—On 7 April, 1911, two civil prefectures, Kieng-siang-to and Tiyen-la-to, were separated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Corea and formed into a new mission, Tai-kou. In consequence of this the official name of the old vicariate was changed from Corea to Seoul.
SHENSI, CENTRAL, in China.—By a Decree of 12 April, 1911, the Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Shensi was divided, and the northern portion formed into a new mission. The name of the vicariate therefore was changed from Northern Shensi to Central Shensi.
SHENSI, NORTHERN, in China.—On 12 April, 1911, two civil prefectures, Yu-lin-fu and Yen-an-fu, with 14 subprefectures and two towns were detached from the vicariate of Central (then called Northern) Shensi, and erected into a new vicariate, which from its position with regard to the old vicariate was given the name of Northern Shensi. The mission is confided to the Friars Minor. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Celestius Ibanez Aparicio, titular Bishop of Bagi, who was appointed on 12 April, 1911.
Solomon Islands, Southern
SOLOMON ISLANDS, SOUTHERN.—The Prefecture Apostolic of the Southern Solomon Islands was erected into a vicariate Apostolic on 1 June, 1912, its boundaries remaining unchanged. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Jean-Ephrem Bertreux, Marist, b. at Saint-Jean-de-Boseau, France, in Jan., 1853; ordained in June, 1878; went on the foreign mission in the Fiji Islands, 1879; appointed 2 June, 1912, and consecrated at Nantes on 28 Oct. following. He is titular Bishop of Musti, and resides at Rua-Sura.
SUDAN.—By a Decree of 14 Feb., 1911, the northern limits of the Prefecture Apostolic of Ubanghi-Chari were extended to the 13 degree N. Lat., the new territory being taken away from the Vicariate Apostolic of the Sudan. Furthermore, as on May, 1913, the Prefecture Apostolic of Bar-el-Gazal was formed by separation from the Sudan mission, it was decreed on 30 May, 1913, that the official name of this mission should be changed to the Vicariate Apostolic of Khartum.
SZE-CH'WAN, SOUTHERN, in China.—On 30 April, 1912, the civil subprefecture of Tsinkyhiem was transferred from the jurisdiction of the Vicar Apostolic of Southern Sze-ch'wan to that of the Vicar Apostolic of Kien-chang.
TAIKU comprises Kieng-siang-to and Tiyen-la-to, two civil prefectures formerly part of the Vicariate of Corea (now Seoul). It was erected on 7 April, 1911, and committed to the care of the Society of Foreign Missions in Paris. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Florien Demange, b. at Saulxures-les-Salles, France, 25 April, 1875; ordained, 26 June, 1898; set out for the foreign mission in Corea on 3 Aug. following; appointed vicar Apostolic, 8 April, 1911; and consecrated at Seoul on 11 June, 1911, as titular Bishop of Adrassus.
TANARIVE, in Madagascar.—This new name was given by a decree of 20 May, 1913, to the Vicariate Apostolic of Central Madagascar (q.v.)
TIENTSIN, in China.—This is another name for the Vicariate Apostolic of Maritime Chi-li (q.v.)
ZANZIBAR (ZANGUEBAR), NORTHERN.—In 1869 a mission was begun in the island of Zanzibar through the efforts of Mgr. Armand Maupoint, Bishop of St. Denis (Reunion); on 12 Nov., 1862, this was made a prefecture Apostolic under Mgr. Maupoint as Apostolic delegate. The mission was confided to the Fathers of the Holy Ghost on 9 Sept., 1872; on 13 Nov., 1883, it was erected into a vicariate Apostolic, from which were separated later the Prefectures Apostolic of Benadir and Kenia, the Vicariate Apostolic of Southern Zanzibar and on 11 May, 1906, that of Bagamoyo or Central Zanzibar. It now comprises the British East Africa territory (except the district of Kenia) and the Islands of Zanzibar and Pemba. The chief languages spoken are Kiswahili and Kikuya. There are about 3,000,000 inhabitants, of whom 4450 are Catholics, and 4800 catechumens; the mission has 34 priests, 22 lay brothers, 8 catechists, 31 nuns (sisters of St. Joseph, and Dominican Tertiaries), 17 stations, 12 schools with 1000 children, 26 orphans, 1 leper asylum, 2 hospitals, and 11 pharmacies. An agreement was made on 24 Oct., 1906, between the Sultan of Zanzibar and the vicar Apostolic by which the bishop was to take care of all the lepers and the poor of Zanzibar, to feed them and care for them, and provide Sisters to look after their wants, while the Government was to build and furnish two homes. The vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Emile-Auguste Allgeyer, b. at Rixheim in Alsatia, in 1856, appointed to the vicariate, 17 Feb., 1897; as titular Bishop of Ticelia.
ZANZIBAR, SOUTHERN or DAR-ES-SALEM, in German East Africa.— This mission was erected into a prefecture Apostolic, under the care of the German Benedictines of St. Odila for the Foreign Missions, on 16 Nov., 1887. Previously it had formed part of the Vicariate of Zanguebar (Zanzibar). On 10 July, 1897, its southern boundaries were extended to Cape Delgado, and its inland limits made to embrace Magwangwara. On 10 Sept., 1902, it was made a vicariate Apostolic; the first vicar being R. P. Cassian Spiess, who was slain by the natives in Aug., 1905. Mgr. Speiss was born at Sankt Jacob in Austria, 12 July, 1866. He was appointed vicar Apostolic and titular Bishop of Ostracina on 15 Sept., 1902. With him were slain two lay brothers and two Benedictine Sisters. The name of the vicariate was changed on 10 Aug., 1906, to Dar-es-Salem-the name of the town where the vicar Apostolic resides. The boundary between the Vicariates of Bagamoyo and Dar-es-Salem was modified by a Decree of 7 May, 1913; it is now the line separating Bagamoyo and Morogoro from Dar-es-Salem and Rufiji; then the rivers Ruaha and Umeroke and finally the railway from the Indian Ocean to Tabora. The vicariate contains about 1,000,000, most of whom speak Kiswahili, which language was reduced to writing and a grammar and dictionary of two of its dialects compiled by the missionaries in 1904; there are 3967 Catholics, 2600 catechumens, 14 missionary priests, 18 lay brothers, 55 catechists, 11 chief and 36 secondary stations, 66 schools with 2577 pupils, 15 orphanages, and 18 Benedictine nuns. The second and present vicar Apostolic is Mgr. Thomas Spreiter, O.S.B., b. at Ratisbon, 28 Dec., 1865; professed, 2 Feb., 1888; ordained, 28 July, 1897; sent to the Zanzibar mission in 1900; appointed vicar, 13 March, 1906, and consecrated at Augsburg, on 6 Dec., 1906, as titular Bishop of Thaenae.
Acta Apostolicae Sedis (Rome, 1909-); BATTANDIER, Annuaire pontifical catholique (Paris, 1909-13); Missiones catholicae (Rome, 1897); BAUDRILLART, Dict. d'hist. et de geog. eccl. (Paris, 1911-).
A. A. MacErlean.