China: Its State and Prospects

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CHINA:
ITS STATE AND PROSPECTS,


WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO


THE SPREAD OF THE GOSPEL:


CONTAINING

ALLUSIONS TO THE ANTIQUITY, EXTENT, POPULATION, CIVILIZATION, LITERATURE,
AND RELIGION OF THE CHINESE.


BY W. H. MEDHURST,

OF THE LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY.
FIFTH THOUSAND

Title page illustration (China-Its State and Prospects).jpg

Illustrated with Engravings on Wood,

BY G. BAXTER.

LONDON: JOHN SNOW, 35, PATERNOSTER ROW.

1840.

INTRODUCTION.




The writer of the present volume was sent out by the London Missionary Society, in 1816, to labour for the benefit of China.

The fundamental principle of this Institution is, that "its design is not to send Presbyterianism, Independency, Episcopacy, or any other form of church order or government, about which there may be a difference of opinion among serious Christians, but the glorious Gospel of the blessed God, to the heathen; leaving it to the minds of the persons whom God may call into the fellowship of his Son from among them, to assume for themselves such form of church government, as to them shall appear most agreeable to the word of God."

In conformity with this principle, no question was ever asked, or direction given to the author as to his personal views of church government, or what form of ecclesiastical polity he should adopt, in the event of his labours being successful abroad. After residing at Malacca and Penang for several years, he settled in Batavia, where he collected a congregation, and built a chapel for the worship of Almighty God. In conducting the services of the sanctuary, he invited and obtained the assistance of Gospel ministers from various communions; and when a church was formed, the members who joined it drew up and signed a constitution, in which, after stating their belief in the Inspired Oracles as the only sure ground of faith and practice, they acknowledged the standards of the English, Scotch, and Dutch Reformed Churches, as exhibiting those views of Christian doctrine, which they considered the most in accordance with the revealed will of God. Based on this broad principle, the society of Christians thus collected together, though originally of different communions, consented to lay aside their denominational prejudices, and unite on the safe ground of our common Christianity; while Episcopalian, Presbyteterian, Baptist, and Independent ministers alternated with each other in the performance of religious services, and the celebration of the holy sacraments. The native church connected with the mission has been established on the same principle.

Should the author and his esteemed coadjutors ever succeed in introducing Christianity extensively into China, they purpose spending their utmost energies in spreading the simple Gospel through that important empire, without wasting themselves in dissensions on non-essential points, which have so long and unhappily divided the Christian world. It is on this ground alone that they can confidently look for the blessing of the great head of the church, and claim the countenance and co-operation of Christians of every name. So great is the work, and so feeble the energies that can be brought to bear on it, that we have no time "to fall out by the way;" and it is a pleasing feature of the Protestant mission to China, that hitherto the agents of various societies, the members of different communions, and the representatives of distant hemispheres, have consented to merge their national and denominational prejudices, and to join heart and hand in making known the great doctrine of justification by faith, to the sceptical and superstitious Chinese. May brotherly love continue; and may one strenuous and persevering effort be made, till the millions of China be brought under the influence of Christianity!

But it is necessary that the author should give some account of the origin and nature of the following work. Having been called upon, in the year 1835, to undertake a journey along the north-east coast of China, in order to ascertain whether or not that country was open to the Gospel; and having kept a record of passing events, he contemplated, on his return, the publication of a journal, with some brief remarks on the situation of foreigners in Canton, and the state of the native Christian community there. In the course of his tour through England, however, to plead the cause of missions, he found it necessary to dilate more at large on the political, moral, and spiritual condition of the Chinese, and to relate in order the efforts that have been made for their evangelization. These statements having been listened to with some interest, and awakened a sympathy on behalf of China, the thought suggested itself that, possibly, the feeling thus created might be extended and perpetuated by a publication, embracing the general state of China, and its state and prospects, with especial reference to the diffusion of the Gospel.

The most important feature in the condition of that country is its population; about which so many different opinions have been held, and for the benefit of which Christian missionaries so ardently long and labour. The question of amount, therefore, is discussed, and the suggestion thrown out, that probably the highest census given of the Chinese people is the right one. Their civilization and political state next demand attention; and some references are made to their singular language and the state of education among them. As we contemplate the introduction of a new religion into the country, it is natural to enquire, what are their present views of divine and eternal things, and to shew the defects of their own systems as a prelude to the recommendation of another. Before treating on the recent efforts of Protestants to evangelize China, it was thought necessary to allude to the previous exertions of other missionaries; and therefore the devoted, self-denying, and persevering labours of Syrian, Nestorian, and Catholic Christians are briefly enumerated. The missions to Canton, the Straits, and Batavia, are then severally described; and the attempts to carry the Gospel by means of Scriptures and tracts along the coast of China are delineated. This review is concluded by appeals for more agents and increased facilities for the vigorous prosecution of the work, as it is only when we use the appointed means that we can consistently look for the Divine blessing on our labours.

The short time that could be spared for preparing this work for publication must necessarily have occasioned many defects in point of style and arrangement. Sent forth when very young on this important mission, occupied during his whole stay abroad in studying foreign and difficult languages, and accustomed to write and speak for the benefit of Mahomedans and heathens, it can hardly be expected that the author should be skilled in European composition. Public engagements, for the first year after his return to England, called him incessantly from home; and it was only during the retirement of the last winter that he has had the least opportunity for arranging his thoughts on the subject now discussed. Being about to quit his native country during the present summer, to revisit the scene of his former labours, it was necessary that he should begin to print almost as soon as he began to write, in order to have the book published before his departure. He must cast himself, therefore, on the indulgence of the public, hoping that the circumstances under which the information contained in this volume has been collected and communicated, will be a sufficient apology for the many omissions and incongruities which may appear. The critic will perhaps survey with a lenient eye the productions of the foreign missionary, who, by his residence abroad, in regions where the human mind has been long stationary, has not been able to keep pace with the improving spirit of the age. Any observations, however, on his matter or manner, made in kindness and candour, will be thankfully received, and should the work reach a second edition, be carefully improved upon.

Some discrepancy may appear between the diffusiveness of the first few chapters, and the conciseness of other parts of the work; but it is honestly confessed, that, finding the matter grow upon his hands, the author was obliged to condense before he had reached the middle of the volume, and to leave out many interesting particulars regarding his own travels in the Malayan archipelago, in order to introduce what had more especial reference to the evangelization of China. Some difference of style will also appear between the descriptive and narrative parts of the publication; but it was thought better to give the views and impressions of the moment, than to abridge them of their interest by presenting them in a more laboured style.

As it is, with all its imperfections, the author commits his production to the candour of the benevolent reader and the blessing of almighty God; hoping that this feeble attempt will be instrumental in awakening an interest on behalf of China, and in promoting the spread of the Gospel in that populous and interesting empire.

In conclusion, the author would gratefully acknowledge the assistance kindly afforded him by the Rev. Drs. Reed and Burder, of Hackney; while he would state the obligations he is under to the following works, which he has consulted in the course of his labours; viz.: Sadler's Law of Population, Milne's Retrospect, the Chinese Gleaner and Repository, Morrison's Dictionary, and View of China for Philological Purposes, Du Halde's History of China, and the Reports and Chronicles of the London Missionary Society.

Hackney, May 1, 1838.

CONTENTS.




CHAPTER I.

CHRONOLOGY AND EXTENT.

Page
The Evangelization of China contemplated—General scope of the subject—Antiquity of China—partly fabulous—not credited by Chinese writers—The Traditionary Period—The Ante and Postdiluvian Ages—The Historical Period—The Seven Years' Famine—The Chinese Samson—The Magnetic Needle—Confucius—Laou Tsze—The burning of the Books—The Building of the Wall—Subsequent Dynasties—The Cycle—Sketch of Chinese Chronology—The Dominions of China—Original Possessions small—Territories enlarged—The Annexation of Tartary
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1


CHAPTER II.

PROBABLE POPULATION.

The Question of Population interesting to the Philosopher, the Politician, the Merchant, and the Christian—The possibility and probability of a large Population, argued from the fertility of the Soil —the extensiveness of the Cultivation—The paucity of the Roads—The manner of disposing of the Dead—The encouragement given to Agriculture—The Industry of the Inhabitants—The Skill of the Husbandman—The Economy in Food, Dress, and Dwellings—contrasted with the scarcity of Provisions—and want of feeling—Emigration, with its difficulties—Bounty on the Importation of Rice—Infanticide—its prevalence—Foundling Hospitals—Conclusion
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22


CHAPTER III.

CENSUS OF THE POPULATION.

Testimony of the Catholic Missionaries—and Chinese Authorities—The law of the Census, and the way of taking it. The reason for so doing—its credibility—the different accounts reconciled—increase accounted—for—increase sketched—Amiot's estimate—Grosier's—Morrison's—and Sir G. Staunton's—comparison of the whole—which most to be depended on—the discrepancies of some—the most credible Census—The Revenue of China—and its light pressure on the People
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48
 

CHAPTER IV.

REFLECTIONS ON THE POPULATION.

Their overwhelming numbers—Their sinful condition—The work of Evangelizing them difficult—Dependence on Divine aid—The diffusive character of the Gospel—Encouragement drawn from the uniformity of their Government, Language, Morals, and Sentiment—Their extending Population—only checked by Europeans—and the introduction of Opium—The effect of Opium smoking—its rapid increase—Chinese laws against it—Memorial of a Mandarin—Extent of Smuggling—Appeal to the Opium Merchant—and the East India Company—Demoralizing effect of the Drug—Remonstrance to the Government of Great Britain
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
71


CHAPTER V.

CIVILIZATION OF CHINA.

Comparative Civilization—Soliloquy of a Chinese—Native Politeness—displayed in Conversation—and daily Intercourse—Genius of the Chinese—Discovery of the Compass—The Art of Printing—The invention of Gunpowder—The Sciences—Astronomy—Botany—Medicine—Surgery—the Arts—Painting—Engraving—Manufacture of Silk—Porcelain—Paper—Lacked Ware—Metals—Conclusion
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
97


CHAPTER VI.

GOVERNMENT AND LAWS.

The Empire united—the Government based on Parental Authority—The Emperor supreme—The Ministers of State—The Tribunals—of Civil Office—of Revenue—of Rites—of War—of Punishments—of Public Works—The Censorate—the National Institute—The laws of China—their Character—Civil Laws—Fiscal Regulations—Ritual Enactments—Military Arrangements—Criminal Code—Directions about National Improvements—Imperial Palace—The Forbidden Enclosure—The Gardens and Pavilions—The Northern City—the Southern
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
122


CHAPTER VII.

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE.

Origin of Language—Hieroglyphics—Phonetic Characters—Chinese mode of recording Events—Six classes of Characters—Number of Symbols—reducible to few Elements—Modes of Writing—Question about Egyptian origin—Porcelain Bottle—Inscription explained—Date ascertained—Chinese Classics—Authorized Commentaries—Esteemed Works—Heterodox productions—Oral Language—Monosyllabic mode of Spelling—initials and finals—variety of tones—collocation of phrases—Chinese Grammar—Figures of Speech—Poetry—Literary Examinations— Honorary Degrees—Village Inspection—First—second—third—and fourth Examinations—Effort necessary—Advantages and disadvantages of the system
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
148
 

CHAPTER VIII.

THE RELIGIONS OF CHINA.

Three Systems of Religion—Confucius—his life—moral and political opinions—Notions about Heaven—and the Supreme—His Theory of the Universe—The two Powers of Nature—The Diagrams—Scheme of Metaphysics—Material Trinity—Ideas of Spiritual Beings—of the Future World—and of Human Nature—The Religion of Taou—Eternal Reason—Incarnations of it—Philosopher's Stone—Ghosts and Charms—Treading on Fire—Demoniacal Possessions—Magic Arts—Religion of Buddha—History of its Founder—Entrance into China—Buddhist Temples—Meditation on Buddha—Repetition of his Name—Absorption of a Blacksmith—Form of Prayer—Compassion to Animals—Feeding Hungry Ghosts—Paper Money—and Houses—Scrambling for Holy Food—Doctrine of Annihilation—despised by the Confucians—Resemblance to the Catholics—Review of the three Systems
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
181
 

CHAPTER IX.

CATHOLIC MISSIONS IN CHINA.

The Gospel designed for the World—Early Diffusion in India and China—Ancient Intercourse—The Marble Tablet—its contents—its authenticity—Efforts of the Nestorians—and of the Catholics—Alission of Xavier—Arrival of Ricci—his journey to the Capital—his success—Christian Mandarin—his daughter Candida—Death of Ricci—Arrival of Schaal—Illustrious Converts—Arrival of Verbiest—Persecutions—Revival—Cannon cast by the Missionaries—Patronage of the French king—Death of Verbiest—New Persecutions—again allayed—Disputes among the Missionaries—Papal Bulls—Romish Legates—Failure of Negotiations—Expulsion of the Missionaries—New efforts—present state—number of Converts—Mode of operations—Character of the Catholic Missionaries—and their adherents—Conclusion
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
220
 

CHAPTER X.

PROTESTANT MISSION TO CANTON.

Mission projected—Want of information—Morrison appointed—Sails for Canton—Mode of living there—Pious breathings—Extreme caution—Marriage and appointment—religious services—Printing commenced—Adverse Edict—Arrival of Milne—Voyage to Java— New Testament completed—Baptism of a Convert—Genesis printed—Removal of Milne—Embassy to Peking—Old Testament completed—character of the translation—Dictionary finished—Morrison visits England—Presented to the King—Reception by the Society—Returns to China—Labours of Afah—his letter—Baptism of Teen Ching—Agang—and Choo Tsing—Death of Morrison—Persecutions of Afah—Proclamation of the Magistrate—Afah's account—Conclusion
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
251
 

CHAPTER XI.

MISSION TO CANTON, CONTINUED.

Situation of foreigners in Canton—Surveillance of the Hong-merchants—and Compradores—Confinement—and Insult—Restrictions on Missionaries—Study of the native language prohibited—Difficulties of printing native books—Mode of obviating them—State of Macao—How far open to Missionary operations—Enquiry after native Converts—The literary graduate—The printers—The family of Afah—Agang and his son—Edict of the Emperor—Commission of enquiry—its fate—Missionaries not involved—Need of caution—Little interest in behalf of Canton—Recommendations
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
283
 

CHAPTER XII.

THE MISSION TO MALACCA.

Resolutions regarding Malacca—Occupation of the Station by Mr. Milne—Baptism of Afah—his experience—Arrival of the Author and other brethren—Schools—Tracts—and Translations—Anglo-Chinese college—Various labours—Rescue of a Malay family—Death of Milne—Morrison visits Malacca—Arrival of Kidd—Visit of the Deputation—Death of Collie—Baptism of a Malay slave—and a Chinese youth—Tomlin's superintendence—Arrival of Evans—Fresh Baptisms—Dyer joins the Mission—more encouragement—Twenty individuals Baptized—Ten more added—Their experience—Mission to Penang—Station at James Town—Labours of Dyer—Mission to Singapore—Joined by the American Missionaries
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
306
 

CHAPTER XIII.

MISSION TO DATAVIA.

First three Missionaries—Supper's labours—Slater's misfortunes—The Author's arrival—Schools—Printing—and other exertions—Christian village—Conversations with Heathen—Malay Judge—Napoleon's picture—Visit of the Deputation—Desultory labours—Tract against the Missionary—Journey to Soerabaya—The Tanggar Mountains—Japanese Books—Chinese Preaching—Ironical arguments—Communication of the Gospel—Work on Chronology—Javanese types—Journey to Pahang—Tringano—Klintan—Patani—and Songora—Voyage to Pontianak—State of Borneo—Chinese under convictions—another incensed—Visit to Bali—Erection of the Chapel—Preaching to convicts—Accessions to the Church—Baptism of soldiers—Covenant with the Dyaks—Baptism of a Chinese
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
329
 

CHAPTER XIV.

VOYAGES UP THE COAST OF CHINA.

Summary of Missionary attempts in the Colonies—Desire to benefit the Mother Country—Gutzlaff's voyages—Different views—Anxiety for more information—Author's arrival in Canton—Discussion regarding opium vessels—Reasons for not embarking in them—as disreputable, inconvenient, and involving the Missionary in difficulty—The propriety of hiring a vessel, or purchasing a Missionary Ship—Offer of the Huron—Preparations for departure
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
361
 

CHAPTER XV.

NARRATIVE OF THE VOYAGE.

Embarkation—Apprehension of a storm—Water-spouts—Chinese ideas of them—Voyage up the Yellow Sea—Arrival at Shan-tung and Wei-hae—First landing—Visit of the Mandarins on board—Second landing— Difficulties in the way—Discussions on the beach—Adjournment to the temple—Excursion to the interior—Amicable conference—Eagerness for books—Ramble over the Island of Lew-kung-taou—Visit to a peaceable village—Second day's operations—A burial-ground—Description of the villages—and state of the country—Curiosity of the people—Quiet distribution of books—Anxiety for more—Attention to preaching—second visit of the Mandarins on board—Summary
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
381
 

CHAPTER XVI.

PROCEEDINGS AT KE-SAN-SO.

Providential deliverance—Events on landing—Suspicions of the people—Arrival at the town—Eagerness for books—Dispute with an officer—A temple and a stage—Permission to purchase provisions—Tour through the villages—Objections of a Confucian—Hospitality of a peasant—Rapid distribution of books—A Chinese fort—Excursion to an adjoining bay—Exhibition of an armed force—Invitation of the Mandarins—Second visit to the town—anxiety to see the strangers—Discussion about ceremonies—Introduction to the principal Mandarins—Etiquette observed—Questions proposed—Objections to our enterprise—Advice of the General—Discussion about presents—Conversation on politics—Magisterial dignity and meanness—Presents received and return made—Disturbances on board
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
406
 

CHAPTER XVII.

PROCEEDINGS ON THE SOUTH OF SHAN-TUNG.

Voyage round the promontory—Landing at Tsing-hae—State of the town and defences—Interviews with the people—and Mandarins—Excursion through the villages—Simplicity of the natives—Calmness of the women—Voyage prosecuted—A second landing—Annoying interference—Suspicions of the inhabitants—Solitary journey—Interesting group of villagers—Various adventures—A new harbour discovered—Visit to Nan-hung—Enquiries and alarms—A Chinese fort described—Geological formations—Disposition of the natives—and reception of the Missionaries—Dress and habits of the men—Appearance of the women—their dwellings—Temples and cemeteries—Productions of the soil—Domestic animals—State of the people—Reflections
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
435
 

CHAPTER XVIII.

PROCEEDINGS IN KEANG-SOO PROVINCE.

Voyage to the southward—Arrival at Woo-sung—Appearance of the country—Reception on shore—Journey to Shang-hae—Interview with the officers—Books distributed—Arrival of the chief magistrate—Refusal to stand before him—Discussion about ceremonies—Reasons for decision—Attempt to enter the city—Unpleasantness at parting—Operations among the Junks—Remarks on Woo-sung—and its inhabitants—Arrival of a General—Description of the military—and fortifications—Visit of one Mandarin—Cunningness of another—Unsuccessful voyage—Pleasant tour—The people eager for books—and the soldiers for gain—Difficulties and disappointments
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
491
 

CHAPTER XIX.

OCCURRENCES IN CHE-KEANG AND FUH-KEEN.

Departure from Keang-soo—and arrival at Kin-tang—Visit of War-boats—Operations on shore—Perishing boy—Proceedings at Choo-sans—Eagerness for books—Coffins scattered about—Voyage to Poo-too—Picturesque appearance of the island—its consecration to idolatry—Description of the temples—Character of the priests—Conversation with naval officers—Liberal views of a Mandarin—Providential escape—Arrival at Nan-yih—Appearance of the women—The town of Tung-san—Free distribution—Disorderly conduct of a Mandarin—and subsequent alarm—Surprise of the people—Return
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
491
 

CHAPTER XX.

SUBSEQUENT OCCURRENCES.

Restrictive policy of the Chinese—Exclusion of foreigners—Anger at their intrusion—Edict against the Huron—Appeal to the British authorities —Complaints against the English—Disapprobation of our books—Threat of stopping the trade—Late voyage of Gutzlaff—Tung-san bay—Description of the country and its inhabitants—Barren region—Extensive valley—Mountain ridge—Deserted village—Intestine broils—Chinese temple—Fertile spot—Populous city—Ravenous labourers—Character of the Mandarins—Tsin-kang district—Eagerness for books—Visit to Amoey—Anxiety for more labourers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
508
 

CHAPTER XXI.

CLASS OF LABOURERS REQUIRED FOR CHINA.

Comparative claims of China—Need of more labourers—for the colonies—and the coast—Offers invited—Objections met—Regarding the climate—and the language—The oral and written mediums—compared with the English—Exhortations to engage—Educational agents needed—Schools for schoolmasters required—Pious physicians—Efforts already made—Ophthalmic hospital—More practitioners wanted—The probability of their success—Speech of Sir H. Halford—Moral influence of physicians—Deference paid them—Interesting anecdote—Importance of medicine to Missionaries—Inferiority of Chinese practice—Union of the clerical and medical professions—Persons who should offer
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
532
 

CHAPTER XXII.

DESIDERATA FOR THE CHINESE MISSION.

Translation of the Scriptures—Difficulties in the way—Efforts already made—Need of a revision—Opinions of Chinese Converts—and European students—Resolution of the Bible and Missionary Societies—Steps to be taken—Importance of the subject—Chinese printing—Moveable types—Mode of preparation—Necessity of punch-cutting—and casting Dyer's fount—Parisian type-founding—Various cost of block, stone, and metal type printing—with the advantages and disadvantages of Xilography—Lithography—and Typography—Superiority and importance of the latter—Missionary Ship—Concluding Appeal
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
555

ILLUSTRATIONS.



page

Frontispiece.
 
Title.
 
Summary Execution
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
122
Judicial Process
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ib.
Buddhist Priest on a stage
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
181
Adoration of a celebrated Devotee
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ib.
Service in a Chinese Temple
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ib.
View of the Mission Chapel, at Batavia
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
329
Map of the Maritime Provinces of China
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
381
Chinese Fort
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
406
Guard-room with Soldiers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ib.
Cluster of Temples
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ib.
Landing at Woo-sung
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456

This work was published before January 1, 1924, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.