Church and State under the Tudors

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CHURCH AND STATE


UNDER THE TUDORS



BY

GILBERT W. CHILD, M.A.

EXETER COLLEGE, OXFORD



'Look unto the rock whence ye are hewn, and to the hole
of the pit whence ye are digged'
—Isaiah li. 1



LONDON
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.
AND NEW YORK: 15 EAST 16th STREET
1890


All rights reserved



CONTENTS


CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
date  page
Object of the Book—The Relations between Church and State 1
In Saxon Times 2
Courts, and Law administered by them 3
The Church older than the State—Consequent Foreign Origin of Church Law 4
Norman Conquest 5
Develops still further the Foreign Elements 6
Effect of the Character of the Kings—Rivalry between Church and State 8
Unity of the Western Church until the Reformation 9
Its Independent Position depended on its Unity 10


CHAPTER II

INTRODUCTION (continued)

Historical Sketch from Henry II. to Henry VIII

Increase of Power of the Church—Four Parties in the State, viz., the King, the Baronage, and the Church, and, subsequently, the People 13
Tendencies to Divisions in the Church—Held in check by the Papal Authority 15
Sources of the Power of the Clergy 16
Ideal of the Papacy 17
Development of its Power 18
The Church in England—the Daughter of the Church of Rome 19
Papal Power in England—Not less than elsewhere, but greater 20
Depression of the Papacy after Boniface VIII.—Anti-papal Legislation of the Plantagenets and subsequent Kings coincident with it 21
Papal Power considerable throughout it—Illustrations of this 22
Reign of Richard II. (Wycliffe) 29
Statute of Præmunire 1393 30
Reign of Henry IV 31
He hangs an Archbishop, and is not censured 1405 32
Council of Pisa 1409 33
Reign of Henry V.—Council of Constance—Election of Martin 1414 34
V.—Revival of the Papacy—Its Effect in England 1417 34
Dean Hook's Theory 36
Church in England Papal throughout 37
The Anti-papal Legislation 38
The Relation of the English Clergy to the Papacy and the Crown respectively 39
The Papal Power in France and elsewhere—Social and Moral Influence of the Clergy 40


CHAPTER III

REIGN OF HENRY VIII

Characteristics of the Tudor Times—General Ferment of Ideas 44
Conditions under which Henry VIII.'s Statesmen worked 45
Peculiarities of the Reformation in England—Thomas Cromwell 46
What he learnt from Wolsey 48
His Aims 49
The Præmunire— Its Effect on the Clergy and the Laity respectively 50
Character of Henry VIII. 51
King-worship in the Sixteenth Century 53
Low Moral Standard of the Time 54
Position of the Church at the Accession of Henry VIII. 55


CHAPTER IV

REIGN OF HENRY VIII (continued)

Murder of Hun 1513 58
Case argued before the King—Henry's Speech on the Occasion 59
Unpopularity of the Clergy—Henry's Divorce affords the immediate Occasion of the Breach with Rome 60
Primâ facie Henry was right 61
Different Views of the Papal Dispensation 62
Character of Clement VII.—How Henry became a Reformer 63
Rise of the Divorce Question—Parliament 1529 64
Its important Acts—Henry's Proclamation 1530 65
Submission of the Clergy 1531 65
Important Acts—Limiting the Privilege of the Clergy 1532 66
Petition of Convocation against the Annates—Complaint of the Commons against the Clergy 1532 66
Petition of the Clergy against recent Acts—Surrender of Convocation 67
Comments of Chapuys on the Work of the Session 68
Bishop Stubbs's account of the Mediaeval Theory of Church and State 69
Henry, Pope of England—Protest and Death of Archbishop Warham—Parliament not always submissive 70
Statute of Appeals
April 5th,
 
1533 71
Convocation pronounces Katherine's Marriage null 71
Coronation of Anne Boleyn, June 1st—Date of her Marriage 72
Act for the Submission of the Clergy—Act against Payment of Annates—Act against Payment of Peter's Pence, &c.—The Supremacy Act 1534 73
Convocation Petitions for a Translation of Scripture—The Archbishop changes his Title 74
Act for the Oath to the Succession—Attainder of Fisher and More—Act of Supremacy 75
Made Henry Pope 77
Cromwell becomes Vicegerent—Fisher and More beheaded—Paul III. excommunicates Henry—First Visitation of the Monasteries 1535 78
Act for Review of Ecclesiastical Laws—Act for Dissolving Smaller Religious Houses—Dissolution of Parliament of 1529—New Parliament and Convocation—Fall of Anne Boleyn 78
Cromwell takes his seat as Vicar-General 1536 79
First Articles of Religion—Parliament dissolved 80
Cromwell's Injunctions 80
Act of Proclamations—Act for making Bishops by Letters Patent—Dissolution of the Abbeys—Act of Six Articles 1539 80
History of this Act 81
The Part taken in it by Convocation 83
Bonner takes out a Commission from the King 84
Act for the Dissolution of the Marriage with Ann of Cleves—Act concerning Christ's Religion—Execution of Cromwell—Henry marries Catherine Howard 1540 85
Proclamation for a Bible in every Church 1541 86
Omission of the Pope's Name from Service-Books—Attainder of Catherine Howard and Lady Rochford 1541 86
Bill for Bishops' Chancellors to marry—History of this Measure 87
Publication of the King's Book—Reformation of Service-Books—An Act for the Advancement of True Religion 1543 88
Modification of the Six Articles—Act for Review of Ecclesiastical Laws renewed—Publication of the King's Primer—
Heresy Act disappears in the Commons (Note)
1544
1545
88
89
90
Colleges and Chantries, &c., delivered up to the King—Married Doctors of Law (Chancellors) to exercise Jurisdiction—Attainder of Duke of Norfolk and Lord Surrey—Death of Henry VIII 90


CHAPTER V

REIGN OF HENRY VIII.— SUMMARY

Separation from Rome complete in Henry's Reign—The Five Acts which accomplished it 91
Paul III.'s Excommunication completes it on the opposite side—Changes in Doctrine and Ritual slight, but not non-existent—Not such as to satisfy the Protestants 92
Church in England entirely revolutionised—Henry's Anglican via media—Marillac's Estimate of the Result 93
Judgment of it by the Roman and Protestant Parties 94
Value of these Judgments—Archbishop Bramhall's Judgment 95
Small Share of Convocation in Henry's Legislation 96
It disclaims all Share in it up to 1532 inclusive—Its Share in the Legislation of 1534 96
Subsequently presided over by Cromwell, and entirely helpless 98
The Reasons of this 100
The Clergy had many Enemies—Their only Ally was the Pope—He was worse than none—Character of Clement VII.—Complete Subservience of Convocation 101


CHAPTER VI

REIGN OF EDWARD VI

Cromwell's System of Government—Depended upon a constant Alliance between King and Parliament 103
Henry himself felt this on certain Occasions—But least in the

Government of the Church||style="text-align:center;"|—||style="text-align:right;"|105

Condition of Parties at Henry's Death 105
The Fall of the Howards—Left the Reactionary Party without Leaders 107
Moderate Man helpless in Revolutionary Times 108
Importance of Religious Questions throughout Europe—Lord

Hertford and Sir William Paget overcome the Reactionary Party—Identification of the Progressive Party with the Protestants||style="text-align:center;"|—||style="text-align:right;"|109

Reaction of the last Years of Henry's Reign had embittered both Parties 110
Bishops take out Commissions—Issue of Edward VI.'s Injunctions and of the Book of Homilies—A Royal Visitation announced—Bonner and Gardiner sent to the Fleet 1547 111
Meeting of Parliament (November)—Revolutionary Measures—Repeal of the Act of Proclamations 112
Convocation—Its Petitions—Issue of the first English Prayer Book—Its Significance 1549 114
Different Views of the Intentions of those who issued it 116
Progress of Protestant Opinions—Authors of the two Prayer Books the same 117
Question of Cranmer's Sincerity—Rapid Progress of Opinions during Revolutionary Times—Gardiner an Instance 118
Change of Opinions not necessarily Knavery 119
Rebellions in Yorkshire, Devonshire, and Norfolk—Misgovernment of the Council 120
Fall of Somerset—The Protestant Faction still remains in power 121
Publication of the Ordinal—Bishop Heath sent to the Fleet—Bishopric of Westminster dissolved—Ridley made Bishop of London 1550 122
Hooper's Contention about the Vestments—Reasonableness of Bucer and Peter Martyr—Establishment of John a Lasco's Congregation in London —Publication of Ridley's Injunctions—Deprivation of Gardiner, Heath, and Day 1551 123
Robbery of the Bishop's Lands and continued Misgovernment of the Council—General Distress and Discontent—Change of Religion not the Principal Cause 124
Execution of the Duke of Somerset—Preparation of the Forty-two Articles—Revision of the Prayer Book 125
Dispute as to the Authority of the latter—Change of Doctrine in it 126
The Homilies and the Reformatio legum ecclesiasticarum—Northumberland's Conspiracy to change the Succession 127
Edward himself enters into it—Cranmer's Conduct in the matter 128
Changes in the Position of the Church in Edward's Reign—In its relation to the State far less than in Henry's—Greater Independence of Parliament 130
Great Changes in Ritual—Doctrinal Changes greater in Fact, but not in Principle, than under Henry 131
Popular Effect of Changes in Ritual greater than of any other 132


CHAPTER VII

REIGN OF MARY

Collapse of Northumberland's Conspiracy—Mary's previous Life 134
Her short-lived Popularity—Finds herself Supreme Head—Restoration of the Deprived Bishops 136
Meeting of Parliament—Repeal of the whole of Edward's Ecclesiastical Legislation—Henry VIII.'s Ritual restored—Possible Popularity of these Changes 137
Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer sent to the Tower Spanish Marriage determined on—Its Unpopularity 138
Its Advantages and Disadvantages 139
Mary's Aim the Restoration of the Roman Church—Her Statesmen and Advisers all differ, both from herself and from each other 140
The Commons remonstrate against the Spanish Match—Sir Thomas Wyatt's Rebellion 143
Execution of the Dudleys—Elizabeth sent to the Tower 145
Mary's Letter to Bonner—Commissions to eject seven Bishops 145
This done by the Supremacy only—Marriage Bill passed—Gardiner's Bills rejected 146
Parliament dissolved (May 5)—Marriage of Philip and Mary (July)—Their Characters 1554 147
Bonner's Visitation—Discontent 148
Parliament meets (November)—Reverses the Attainder of Cardinal Pole—Repeals the Anti-papal Legislation of Henry VIII.—Refuses to restore the Church Lands 149
Reconciliation with the Church (Nov. 30)—Parliament refuses to exclude Elizabeth from the Succession, to Repeal the Praemunire, or the Mortmain Acts — Rejects a Regency Bill in Philip's favour, and is dissolved (January)—Mary's Success 1555 150
Its Limits—Unsatisfactory to herself 151
She commences a Persecution 152
Gardiner's, Bonner's, and Pole's Shares in it respectively 153
Character of Pole 154
Convocation in Mary's Reign—Its Doings 155
Is overshadowed by Pole's Synod—Pole obtains a Warrant under the Great Seal to permit to assemble it 156
Arbitrary Character of Mary's Proceedings—Remonstrances against them from unlikely quarters 168
Mary's single-minded Fanaticism—Her Conduct to Cranmer and Gardiner respectively 159
Not accomited for by their Conduct in regard to her Mother's Divorce—Gardiner's Reaction probably due to Cromwell's Policy 160
Character of Gardiner 161
Character and Later History of Cranmer 162
Character of Mary 171
Effects of her Persecution 172
Death of Mary 174


CHAPTER VIII

REIGN OF ELIZABETH

General Rejoicing at Elizabeth's Succession 175
Another Ecclesiastical Revolution—Cecil, Elizabeth's Chief Adviser 176
Changes before the Meeting of Parliament slight 177
Revision of Edward's second Prayer Book—
Meeting of Parliament and Convocation (January)
1558
1559
178
178
Changes in the Views of Convocation between 1549 and 1559 179
This Convocation more independent than any of the Century—Unanimously Roman—The Vicar of Bray and the Bishop of Llandaff Types of the Clergy of the time 180
Proceedings of Parliament 181
Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity—Their Effect 182
Convocation ignored—Disputation at Westminster—Elizabeth's first Ecclesiastical Commission—Her Interview with the Marian Bishops 184
They refuse the Oath, excepting Kitchin of Llandaff, and are deprived—Bonner committed to the Marshalsea—Oath of Supremacy exacted from the Clergy 185
Very few refuse—Probable Reasons why the Bishops refused 186
Matthew Parker made Archbishop of Canterbury 188
His Consecration 189
The Queen's Visitation and Injunctions 190
The Beginning of Difficulties with Scotland—Scotland as much a Foreign Country as France 192
Elizabeth's Foreign Relations 193
Mary Stuart as a Rival—Philip of Spain, Elizabeth's only Ally 194
Elizabeth's temporising Policy 195
Removal of Roods and Images 197


CHAPTER IX

REIGN OF ELIZABETH (continued)

Parliament meets, and also Convocation—Defenders of the Pope's Authority subjected to Prgemunire 1562 199
Revision of Edward's Articles 200
Attempt of Convocation to do away with the Habits, etc.—Nearly succeeds—Humble Protestation appended to its Acts 201
More Commissions issued by the Queen under 1 Eliz. Ch. I.—Re-establishment of the Dutch Church 202
Grindall, Bishop of London, becomes its Superintendent—Calvin's Negotiation with Parker 203
Bonner's Lawsuit with Bishop Home 204
Consequent Act of Parliament for the Validity of the Bishops' Consecrations 205
Personal Supremacy of Elizabeth 206
Rise of the Puritans 207
Elizabeth's Dislike of them 208
Her Bishops mostly sympathise with them 209
The Advertisements—
State Regulation of Foreign Protestant Churches
1564
1567
210
210
Elizabeth and the Jesuits 212
Different Views of her Conduct towards them 213
Elizabeth excommunicated 1570 214


CHAPTER X

REIGN OF ELIZABETH (continued)

Change of Policy produced by the Excommunication 217
Legislation of the thirteenth year of Elizabeth (13 Eliz. c. 12) 1571 218
Elizabeth's Personal Government of the Church 219
Enforcement of Conformity—Deprivation of Cartwright 220
Elizabeth's Religious Views 221
English Protestantism of the Swiss Type 222
Elizabeth and Archbishop Grindall 223
Grindall Sequestrated—Religious Differences increasing 224
Legislation of XXIII. of Elizabeth and of XXIX of Elizabeth
1581
1587
225
And of XXXV. of Elizabeth 1593 226
Whitgift becomes Archbishop—The Bishops mere Tools of Elizabeth 1583 227
Whitgift an Enemy of the Puritans—Whitgift an extreme Calvinist—Case of Dean Whittingham 1578 228
And of Travers 1584 230
The Martin Marprelate Controversy 1590 233
Bitterness of the Puritans and Harshness of the Bishops 234
The Oath ex officio—Inquisitorial Character—Trifling Character of the Points in Dispute 235
A Moderate Party exists notwithstanding 236
Bancroft's Sermon of 'Trying the Spirits' first suggests a Divine Right of Bishops 1588 237
His extreme Doctrine of the Royal Supremacy—Bilson's Perpetual Government of Christ's Church 1591 238
It was the State which persecuted, not the Church 240
The Predestinarian Controversy and the Lambeth Articles 241
Cecil's Letter to Whitgift—The Sabbatarian Controversy arises 1595 242
Elizabeth's high-pressure System 243


CHAPTER XI

REIGN OF ELIZABETH—SUMMARY

Elizabeth's exceptional Position 244
Her System absolutely Erastian 245
The first two Acts of her Reign are passed independently of the Clergy 246
Church afterwards governed by the Queen and Council—Instances which show this 247
Elizabeth, Pope of England—How qualified for such an Office by Nature and Education 250
Peculiar Characteristics of the Church of England mainly due to her—State of Parties during her Reign—Difficulty of her Work 254
Her System hard and narrow, but successful nevertheless 256


CHAPTER XII

GENERAL SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Preliminary Sketch—Church not National before the Reformation 259
Made National by Henry VIII. 262
Henry no Protestant—His Motives in breaking with the Pope 263
Difficulty of the Situation—Completeness of the Schism 1534 264
Under Edward the Council rules—The Protestant Faction supreme in the Council 266
Rapid Changes in Opinion—Mary's tyrannical Reaction 267
Could never have succeeded—Commencement of Elizabeth's Reformation 1559 268
The Clergy have no Share in it 269
Elizabeth's Personal Supremacy 270
Leads to the Development of Nonconformity 271
Tudor System completely Erastian 271
The Church of England the Creature of the State 272
Elizabeth's Divines were Swiss Protestants 274
Conclusions to which the History of Church and State under the Tudors leads 276


APPENDIX I.

Note I. P. 62.
Evidence as to the Divorce—Chapuys' Despatch to Charles V. 283

Note II. P. 68.
Despatches from Chapuys, &c. 283

Note III. P. 72.
Probable Date of Anne Boleyn's Marriage—Mr. Pocock's Evidence 288

Note IV. P. 116.
Mr. Pocock on Edward the Sixth's Prayer Books 288

Note V. P. 145.
Queen Mary's Letter to Bonner 290
Her Commissions for turning out Edward's Bishops 291

Note VI. P. 233.
Orders in the Church of England 293

Note VII. P. 253.
The Protestantism of Elizabeth and her Advisers 305

Note VIII.
Alleged Corruption of the Clergy in the Sixteenth Century 312


APPENDIX II.—STATUTES
320


This work was published before January 1, 1923, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.