Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921)/Abd-el-Kader
ABD-EL-KADER (-Gä′der), was the third son of a marabout of the Arab tribe of Hashem. Born in Oran in 1807, the early days of Abd-el-Kader are lost in obscurity, but by 1828 he had not only acquired the reputation of a scholar, but that of a saint, from his having twice made a pilgrimage to Mecca. Accompanied by his father, he preached a holy war against the French occupation of Algiers, and called upon the faithful to rise and expel the infidels. In 1832, he found himself at the head of 10,000 warriors with whom he attacked Oran, but was several times repulsed with great slaughter. For a period of 15 years he contrived to defend his country, and fight against the encroachments of France; but in 1847 he was compelled to surrender. In 1852 Louis Napoleon restored him to freedom on condition that he would not return to Algiers, or conspire against the French. He died in Damascus, May 26, 1883.