Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921)/Abd-ul-Aziz
ABD-UL-AZIZ, the 32d Sultan of the Ottoman Turks, was born Feb. 9, 1830, and succeeded his brother, Abd-ul-Medjid, in 1861. His government had great difficulties to contend with in the Cretan insurrection, the struggle of Rumania and Servia for full autonomy, and finally the outbreak of Mohammedan fanaticism. In 1871, the Sultan strove to get the succession settled upon his son, instead of his nephew Murad, in accordance with Turkish custom. He next entered into intrigues with Russia, and plunged ever into deeper financial difficulties. At last a conspiracy forced him to abdicate the throne, May 30, 1876. Four days later, he was found dead.