Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921)/Aberdeen (Scotland)
ABERDEEN, the chief city and seaport in the N. of Scotland, lies in the S. E. angle of the county at the mouth and on the N. side of the river Dee, 111 miles N. of Edinburgh. William the Lion confirmed its privileges in 1179; the English burned it in 1336, but it was soon rebuilt, and called New Aberdeen. Old Aberdeen, within the same parliamentary boundary, is a small town a mile to the N., near the mouth of the Don, and is the seat of St. Machar's Cathedral (1357–1527), now represented by the granite nave, which, as restored since 1869, is used as a parish church. Among the chief public edifices are the county buildings, the postoffice, the Market Hall, the Trades Hall, the Royal Infirmary, the lunatic asylum, the grammar school, the art gallery and art school, and Gordon's College. The chief exports are woolens, linens, cotton-yarns, paper, combs, granite (hewn and polished), cattle, grain, preserved provisions, and fish. Aberdeen has the largest comb and granite-polishing works in the kingdom. There are also several large paper works. Aberdeen is at the junction of three railway lines and has steamer connections with Leith, Newcastle, Hull, and London. The trade of the port, which has an excellent harbor, has steadily increased. In 1911 the net tonnage of vessels arriving was 1,041,424, and departing, 1,020,498. In the same year the imports were valued at over £1,163,000, and exports at over £1,496,000. Municipal ownership has been extended to its water and gas works, its electric light plant and tramways, public baths, markets, and cemeteries. Its ratable property value in 1920 was more than £1,000,000. Aberdeen is represented in Parliament by two members. The population of the parliamentary burgh is estimated (1918) at 166,000.