Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921)/Columbia (South Carolina)

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COLUMBIA, city, capital of the State of South Carolina, and county-seat of Richland co.; on the Congaree river near the junction of the Broad and Saluda rivers, on five railroads, and the Columbia canal. The city is built on a bluff, 15 feet above the river, has a fine park, and is noted for its beautiful shade trees and flower gardens.

The industries of the city are important, and include manufactures, cotton, fertilizers, lumber, iron, etc. There are National and private banks.

The city is well supplied with water and gas, and has abundant sources of water-power. The most noteworthy buildings include the State House, costing about $4,000,000; Executive Mansion, State Penitentiary, Insane Asylum, United States Government Building, City Hall, University of South Carolina, College for Women, Lutheran Seminary, Allen University, and a Presbyterian theological seminary.

Columbia was laid out in 1786, and the State Legislature first met there in 1790. During the Civil War a large part of the city was burned by the Federal troops, destroying the old State House with an extensive library, a convent, several churches, and the railroad depot. Pop. (1910) 26,319; (1920) 37,524.