Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921)/Frankfort-on-the-Main
FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN, a city of Germany, the capital of a district of same name, on the Main, 20 miles above its conflux with the Rhine. It is divided by the river into two unequal parts; the one on the N. bank, called Frankfort proper, being considerably larger than the other, which is called Sachsenhausen; and the two communicate by stone bridges. Frankfort was formerly fortified; but most of its outworks are now converted into gardens and promenades, and it is entered by nine gates. The principal streets are wide; there are also many squares, and a number of large buildings, among which may be named the Rœmerberg, or old palace, in which the emperors of Germany were elected and place of the assembling of the Diet; the Taxis palace, a place of residence of the emperors; the Saalhof , a modern imperial palace; the Lutheran, or High church; other churches, Jews' synagogues, hospitals, an academy of painting, and the Senckenberg Museum. Manufactures, carpets, table-covers, oil-cloths, cotton and silk fabrics, woolen stuffs, jewelry, tobacco and printer's black. It has also large printing, lithographic and stereotyping establishments. Frankfort was founded by the Franks in the 5th century. Charlemagne, who had a palace in this city, summoned a council in 794, and it was surrounded with walls by Louis I. in 838. It was the capital of the Eastern Franks from 843 to 889, when Ratisbon was selected. Frederick I. was elected at Frankfort in 1152. From that time it became the place of election of the emperors. Frankfort was made a free city in 1257. The bridge over the Main was built in 1342. Frederick of Prussia signed a treaty, known as the Union of Frankfort, with the empire, France, and Sweden, at this city, May 13, 1744. The French captured it Jan. 2, 1750, and again in 1792; but the Prussians wrested it from them Dec. 2, 1792. It was bombarded by the French July 12, and surrendered July 19, 1796. It formed part of the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806. Napoleon I. erected Frankfort into a duchy in 1810. The Declaration of the Allied Powers was issued at Frankfort Dec. 1, 1813. By the Congress of Vienna, in 1815, it was made one of the four free cities of Germany, and the seat of the Germanic Diet. It was made a free port in 1831. The constituent assembly, elected in 1848, held its sittings at Frankfort. It was occupied by the Prussians July 16, 1866, and is now incorporated with Prussia. Councils were held here in 794, 853, 1001, 1007 (Feb. 2), 1234, and 1400. Pop. about 415,000.