Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921)/Indiana
INDIANA, a State in the North Central Division of the North American Union; bounded by Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois, Michigan, and Lake Michigan; admitted to the Union Dec. 11, 1816; number of counties, 92; capital, Indianapolis; area, 36,350 square miles; pop. (1890) 2,192,404; (1900) 2,516,462; (1910) 2,700,876; (1920) 2,930,390.
Topography.—The surface of the State is generally level or undulating, ranging from 300 to 1,250 feet in altitude. The hills of the Ohio and Wabash river valleys inclose richly wooded bottom lands. The W. portion of the State is mostly prairie lands, interspersed with lakes, wood lands, and swamps. The rivers are mostly affluents of the Ohio and include the Indian Kentucky, Silver, Indian Blue, Big Pigeon, Little Pigeon, and Laughery. The Wabash, rising in Ohio, flows 500 mils through the State, and is navigable for 300 miles. The Maumee is formed in Allen co., by the junction of the St. Joseph's and St. Mary's, and flows N. E. through Ohio, into Lake Erie. The Kankakee flows 100 miles through the State and forms one of the constituents of the Illinois. There are several lakes and large ponds with clear water and sandy shores and bottoms. Beaver Lake, near the Illinois line, once covering an area of 10,000 acres, has been drained nearly dry.
Geology.—Aside from Silurian deposits in the extreme N. W. and S. E. parts of the State, the entire surface is overlaid with Devonian and sub-carboniferous rocks. Three distinct varieties of bituminous coal are found in great abundance and the limestone region in the S. contains many sink holes and caves. The Wyandotte cave in Crawford co. is second only to the Mammoth cave in size. The coal measures cover an area of 6,500 square miles, with a depth of 600 to 800 feet, and present 12 to 14 distinct seams, ranging from 1 to 11 feet in thickness.
Mineralogy.—The State is rich in mineral resources, especially in coal. Block coal, used in pig iron smelting, is mined in blocks weighing upward of a ton each, and cannel coal and peat are found in abundance. Quarries of building stones cover an area of 200 square miles, adjoining the coal measures. The coal production of the State in 1918 was 27,325,000 tons, a gain of 785,000 tons over the production of 1917. The production of petroleum in 1917 was 759,415 barrels, valued at $1,475,548. Other important mineral products are cement, of which there was produced in 1917, 8,148,678 barrels, valued at $11,084,130; pig iron, the production of which in 1917 was 2,162,872 long tons; clay products; sand, and gravel. Other mineral productions are bog iron, antimony, bismuth, cobalt, ganister, lead, manganese, sulphuret of silver, and salt.
Soil.—The soil varies from a deep black sand to clay loam, and is generally fertile, excepting along the lake front. The river valleys of the Wabash and Whitewater are particularly fertile. The climate is changeable and marked by extremes. Nearly one-eighth of the area is open prairie, and well adapted to agriculture. The trees include the white, red, black, and blue oak, ash, beech, hickory, sycamore, elm, tulip, black walnut, red and sugar maple, tamarack, sumach, dogwood, and wild plum.
Agriculture.—The State is largely engaged in agricultural pursuits. All farm and garden vegetables and fruits are grown, and wheat, corn, oats, tobacco, hemp, flax, maple sugar, maple syrup, sorghum molasses, honey, beeswax, cider, vinegar, hops, and wine are among the varied products. The production and value of the principal crops in 1919 were as follows: Corn, 175,750,000 bushels, valued at $219,688,000; wheat, 46,025,000 bushels, valued at $96,642,000; tobacco, 15,215,000 pounds, valued at $5,316,000; hay, 3,080,000 tons, valued at $66,528,000; potatoes, 4,400,000 bushels, valued at $8,585,000; oats, 60,225,000 bushels, valued at $41,555,000; rye, 5,320,000 bushels, valued at $7,448,000.
Banking.—On Oct. 31, 1919, there were 255 National banks in operation, having $28,641,000 in capital, $26,735,653 in outstanding circulation, and $26,704,030 in United States bonds. There were also 435 State banks, with $16,980,000 capital, and $6,051,000 surplus; 179 private banks, with $2,838,000 capital, and $822,000 surplus; and 162 trust and loan companies, with $16,870,000 capital, and $4,811,000 surplus. In the year ending Sept. 30, 1919, the exchanges at the United States clearing house at Indianapolis aggregated $776,325,000, an increase over the previous year of $13,353,000.
Education.—There were in 1918 706,868 children of school age. There was an enrollment in the schools of 564,152. There were over 20,000 teachers and supervisors. Among the colleges are Indiana University, at Bloomington; Purdue University, at Lafayette; De Pauw University, at Greencastle; University of Notre Dame, at Notre Dame; and Franklin College, at Franklin.
Churches.—The strongest denominations in the State of Indiana are the Methodist Episcopal, Roman Catholic, Disciples of Christ, Regular Baptist, United Brethren, Presbyterian, Friends, and Lutheran.
Railroads.—The total railway mileage in the State in 1919 was 7,808. There has been practically no new construction in recent years.
Charities and Corrections.—The principal charitable and correctional institutions are Central Hospital for the Insane, Indianapolis; School for the Blind, Indianapolis; Boys' School, Plainfield; Northern Hospital for the Insane, Logansport; Eastern Hospital for the Insane, Richmond; Southern Hospital for the Insane, Evansville; Southeastern Hospital for the Insane, North Madison; Hospital for Treatment of Tuberculosis, Rockville; State Farm, Putnamville. There was paid for the support of the State institutions in 1918, about $3,600,000.
State Government.—The governor is elected for a term of four years, and receives a salary of $8,000 per annum. Legislative sessions are held biennially, and are limited to 60 days each. The legislature has 50 members in the Senate, and 100 in the House. There are 13 representatives in Congress. In 1920 the government was Republican.
History.—Indiana was part of the territory ceded to Great Britain, in 1763, by France. Early settlements had been made by the French at Corydon and Vincennes in 1702. After the American Revolution the Indians gave considerable trouble to the settlers, but after several years were conquered and brought to peaceful terms by Anthony Wayne. They became troublesome again in 1810, and in 1811 Gov. William Henry Harrison was appointed commander of a force of regulars and militia for the purpose of subduing them. On Nov. 7, 1811, he met and defeated the Indians under Tecumseh, at Tippecanoe, on the Wabash. During the War of 1812, the Indians under British command were again troublesome, but were soon subdued. In 1813 Corydon was made the capital, in 1816 Indiana was admitted to the Union, and in 1825 the capital was removed to Indianapolis. The present constitution was adopted in 1851, and in 1853 a free banking law was passed.
|Copyright, L. L. Poates Eng. Co., 1921|