Of the Operation of the Trepan.
This Operation is to be perform'd, when it is inferr'd from the Signs of which we have already given a particular Account, that some Matter is diffus'd over the Dura Mater. The Trepan must not be us'd in the Sinus Superciliares, by reason of their Cavity; nor in the Sutures, in regard of the Vessels that pass thro' 'em; nor in the Temporal Bone without great necessity, especially in that part of it which is join'd to the Parietal-Bone, lest the end of this Bone shou'd fly out of its place, since it is only laid upon the Parietal; nor in the middle of the Coronal and Occipital-Bones, by reason of an inner Prominence wherein they adhere to the Dura Mater; nor in the Passage of the Lateral Sinus's that are situated on the side of the Occipital.
If the Fissure be very small, the Trepan may be apply'd upon it, altho' it is more expedient to use this Instrument on the side of the Fissure in the lower part; neither is the Trepan to be set upon the Sinkings; and if the Bones are loosen'd or separated, there needs no other trepanning than to take 'em away with the Elevatory.
The Operation must be begun with Incision, which is usually made in form of a Cross, if the Wound be remote from the Sutures, and there are no Muscles to be cut, and in the shape of the Letter T. or of the Figure 7. if it be near the Sutures, so that the Foot of the 7. or of the T. ought to be parallel to the Suture, the top of the Letter descending toward the Temples; it is also made in the middle of the Forehead. If it be sufficient to make a longitudinal Incision in the Forehead; its Wrinkles may be follow'd, and there will be less Deformity in the Scar; but it is never done Crosswise in this Part, and the Lips of the Wound are not to be cut. If an Incision be made on the Muscle Crotaphites, and on those of the back-part of the Head, it may be done in form of the Letter V. the Point of which will stand at the bottom of the Muscles; nevertheless it is more convenient to make a longitudinal Incision, by which means fewer Fibres will be cut; and it is always requisite to begin at the lower part, to avoid being hindred by the Hæmorrhage. The Incisions are to be made with the Incision-Knife, and that too boldly when there are no Sinkings; but if there be any, too much weight must not be laid upon 'em: Thus the Incision being finish'd, the Lips of the Skull are to be separated either with the Fingers, or some convenient Instrument; Then if there be no urgent Occasion to apply the Trepan, it may be deferr'd till the next Day, the Wound being dress'd in the mean time with Plaisters, Bolsters, Pledgets, and a large Kerchief or upper Dressing, the use of which we shall shew hereafter.
The Operation is begun with the Perforative, to make a little Hole for the fixing of the Pyramid or Pin which is in the Round; afterward the Round is to be apply'd, holding the Handle of the Trepan with the Left-hand, and turning with the other very fast in the beginning; but when the Round hath made its way, it is lifted up to remove the Pin, lest this Point shou'd hurt the Dura Mater: Thus the Round being taken off from time to time, to be cleans'd from the Filings that stick thereto, is set on again, and the Operator begins his Work of turning anew, which must be carry'd on gently when any Blood appears, to the end that the first Table of the piece of Bone which is remov'd may not fly from the second: When it comes near the Dura Mater, the Operator must proceed, in like manner, gently, searching with a Feather round about the Bone, to observe whether he still continueth his Course in the Skull. He must also often lift up the Trepan to search the Hole, to cleanse the Instrument, and to keep it from growing hot. As often as the Trepan is taken off, let him search with a Feather, to see whether the Bone be cut equally; and if it be not, he must lean more on that side which is least cut. If it be necessary to make use of the Terebella, the Hole must be made in the beginning, whilst the Bone is as yet firm; and when the Piece begins to move, the Terebella is to be put very gently into its Hole, without pressing the Bone, to draw it out; or else it may be taken away with the Myrtle-Leaf, which is an Instrument made of a firm Silver-Plate somewhat crooked. When the Piece is thus remov'd, the uneven Parts that remain at the bottom of the Hole, are to be cut with the Lenticula; and if there be any Sinkings, they may be rais'd with the Elevatory. Whereupon the Dura Mater may be compress'd a little with the Lenticula, to facilitate the running out of the Blood, the Wounded Person being oblig'd to stoop with his Head downward, stopping his Nose and Mouth, and holding his Breath for a while, to cause the Matter to run out: Then the Dura Mater may be wip'd with Lint; but if any Pus or corrupt Matter lies underneath, it must be pierc'd with a Lancet wrapt up in a Tent, that it may not be perceiv'd by the Assistants. Afterward a Sindon or very fine Linnen Rag dipt in a proper Medicament, is put between the Dura Mater and the Skull; the Hole is fill'd with small Bolsters steept in convenient Medicinal Liquors; and the Wound is dress'd with Pledgets, a Plaister, and a Kerchief.
But the Hole ought to be well stopt with Bolsters, because the Dura Mater is sometimes so much inflam'd, that it bursts forth; so that if any Excrescences arise therein, and go out of the Hole, having small Roots, they may be bound and cut; but if their Roots be large, they must be press'd close with little Bolsters steept in Spirituous Medicines. Here it may not be improper to observe, that the Operation of the Trepan ought to be perform'd more gently in Children than in adult Persons, in regard that their Bones are more tender, and that Oily Medicines must not be us'd, but Spirituous. The Exfoliation is made sometimes sooner, and sometimes later; but the Callus usually covers the opening of the Skull within the space of forty or fifty Days, if no ill Accident happens. In great Fractures, where there is no longer any connexion between the Bones, it is requisite to take 'em away.
Of the Bandage of the Trepan.
The proper Bandage to be us'd after the Operation of the Trepan, is the great Kerchief, which is a large Napkin folded into two parts after such a manner that the side which toucheth the Head exceeds that which doth not touch it in the breadth of four Fingers; it is apply'd to the Head in the middle, whilst a Servant holds the Dressing with his Hand: Then the two upper ends of the Napkin being brought under Chin, the Surgeon takes the two lower, and draws 'em streight by the sides, so as that side the Napkin, which is four Fingers broader than the other, may be laid upon the Forehead: Afterward the two ends of the Napkin are cross'd behind the Head, and fasten'd at their Extremities with Pins, without making any Folds, that might hurt the Part; but the ends of the Napkin which fall upon the Shoulders, are rais'd up to the Head near the lesser Corner of the Eyes; and the two ends under the Chin are fasten'd with Pins, or else tied in a Knot.
Of the Operation of the Fistula Lachrymalis.
This Operation is perform'd when there is a Fistulous Ulcer in the great Corner of the Eye, after this manner: The Patient being plac'd in a convenient Posture, and having his sound Eye bound up, to take away the sight of the Instruments; the Operator causeth the other Eye to be kept steady with a Bolster held with an Instrument, and makes an Incision with a Lancet in form of a Crescent upon the Tumour, taking care to avoid cutting the Eye-Lid and the little Cartilage which serves as a Pulley to the great Oblique Muscle. If the Bone be putrify'd with a Caries, an Actual Cautery may be apply'd thereto, using for that purpose a small Funnel or Tube, thro' the Canal of which the Cautery is convey'd to the Bone. But the Bone must not be pierc'd, for it is exfoliated entire by reason of its smallness; and so the Hole is made without any Perforation.
The Dressing and Bandage of the Fistula Lachrymalis.
The Wound is fill'd with small dry Pledgets, and cover'd with a Plaister and Bolster: The Bandage is made with an Handkerchief folded triangular-wise, the ends of which are fasten'd behind the Head. If the Flesh grows too fast, it may be consum'd with the Lapis Infernalis; and if there be occasion to dilate the Wound, to facilitate the Exfoliation, it may be done with little pieces of Spunge prepar'd, and put into it. Afterward Causticks are to be us'd, to eat away the Callous Parts, which may be mingled with Oily Medicines, to weaken their Action, taking care, nevertheless, that the Eye receive no dammage by 'em. If the Bone be corrupted, a little Euphorbium may be apply'd; or else the small Pledgets steept in the Tincture of Myrrh and Aloes; then the Ulcer may be handled as all others.
Of the Operation of the Cataract.
This Operation is perform'd when there is a small Body before the Apple of the Eye, which hinders the Sight from entring into it; but it is undertaken only in Blew, Green, and Pearl-colour'd Cataracts, or in those that are of the Colour of polish'd Steel; and not in Yellow, Black, or Lead-colour'd. To know whether the Cataract be fit to be couch'd, the Patient's Eye must be rubb'd; so that if the Cataract remains unmoveable, it is mature enough; but if it changeth its place, it is requisite to wait till it become more solid. The Spring and Autumn are the most proper Seasons for performing the Operation.
To this purpose the Patient being set down with his Eyes turn'd toward the Light, and having his sound Eye bound up, the Surgeon must likewise sit on a higher Seat, whilst the Patient's Head is held by a Servant; and his Eye being turn'd toward his Nose, is kept steady with a Speculum Oculi, which is a little Iron-Instrument made like a Spoon, pierc'd in the middle, so that the Ball of the Eye may be let thro' this Hole: Then the Surgeon taking a Steel-Needle either round or flat, accordingly as he shall judge convenient, perforates the Conjunctive at the end of the Corneous Tunicle, on the side of the little Corner of the Eye, and boldly thrusts his Needle into the middle of the Cataract, which he at first pusheth upward, to loosen it with the Point of the Needle; and then downward, holding it for some time with his Needle below the Apple of the Eye. If it ascend again after it is let go, it must be depress'd a second time; but the Operation is finish'd when it remains in the same place whereto it was thrust; neither is the Needle to be remov'd till this be done, and the Cataract entirely couch'd. In taking out the Needle, the Eye-Lid must be pull'd down, and press'd a little over the Eye.
The Dressing and Bandage,
Is to cause both the Patient's Eyes to be clos'd and bound up; then he must be oblig'd to keep his Bed during seven or eight Days, and some Defensative is to be laid upon the sore Eye, to hinder the Inflammation.
M. Dupré, Surgeon to the Hospital of Hôtel-Dieu at Paris, a Person well vers'd in these kinds of Operations, hath observ'd, that after the same manner as Cataracts were form'd in a very little space of time in perfect Maturity; it happen'd also very often, that the Cataracts which were suppos'd to have got up again, were not the very same with those that were couch'd, but rather a new Pellicula or little Skin, which sometimes hath its Origine in the top of the Uveous Tunicle, and is caus'd only by a very considerable Relaxation of the Excretory Vessels from the Sources of the Aqueous Humour which in filtrating permits the running of many heterogeneous Parts, the Encrease of which produceth a new Cataract.
Of other Operations in the Eyes.
Sometimes a sort of purulent Matter is gather'd together under the Corneous Tunicle; so that to draw it out, the Eye must be fixt in a Posture with the Speculum Oculi, and after a small Incision made therein with a fine Lancet, is to be press'd a little, to let out the Matter; but if it be too thick, it may be drawn forth by sucking gently with a small Tube or Pipe, having a little Vial in the middle, into which the Matter will fall as it is suck'd out.
Sometimes a small Tumour ariseth in the Eye, which being ty'd at its Root with a Slip-Knot, to streighten it from time to time, will at length be dissolv'd: But if the Tumour lie in the Hole of the Apple of the Eye, this Operation must not be admitted, lest the Scar shou'd hinder the Passage of the Light. sometimes also a somewhat hard Membrane, call'd Unguis, appears in the great corner of the eye, which when it sticks thereto, may be cut off by binding it; this is done with a Needle and Thread, which is pass'd thro' the Membrane, and afterward ty'd.
If the Eye-Lids are glu'd together, a crooked Needle without a Point may be threaded, and pass'd underneath 'em; then the ends of the Thread may be drawn, to lift up the Eye-Lids, and they may be separated with a Lancet.
If the Hairs of the Eye-Lids or Eye-Brows offend the Eye, they must be pull'd out with a Pair of Tweezers or Nippers; and when any small, hard, and transparent Tumours arise in the Eye-Lids, they are to be open'd, to let out the corrupt Matter.
Of the Operation of the Polypus.
This Operation is necessary, when there are any Excrescences of Flesh in the Nostrils, which, nevertheless, when they are livid, stinking, hard, painful, and sticking very close, must not be tamper'd with, because they are Cancers. But if they are whitish, red, hanging, and free from Pain, the Cure may be undertaken after this manner: Take hold of the Polypus with a Pair of Forceps, as near its Root as is possible, and turn 'em first on one side, and then on another, till it be pull'd off. If the Polypus descends into the Throat, it may be drawn thro' the Mouth with crooked Forceps; and if an Hæmorrhage shou'd happen after the Operation, it may be stopt by thrusting up into the Nostrils certain Tents soakt in some Styptick Liquor; or else by Syringing with the same Liquor.
Of the Operation of the Hare-Lip.
This Operation is perform'd when the Upper-Lip is cleft; but if there be a great loss of Substance, it must not be undertaken; neither ought it to be practis'd upon old nor scorbutick Persons, nor upon young Children, by reason that their continual Crying wou'd hinder the re-union. But if any are desirous that it shou'd be done to these last, they are to be kept from taking any rest for a long time, to the end that they may fall a-sleep after the Operation, which is thus effected:
If the Lip sticks to the Gums, it is to be separated with an Incision-Knife, without hurting 'em; then the Hare-Lip must be cut a little about the edges with Sizzers, that it may more easily re-unite, the edges being held for that purpose with a Pair of Pincers, whilst the Servant who supports the Patient's Head, presseth his Cheeks before, to draw together the sides of the Hare-Lip: Whereupon the Operator passeth a Needle with wax'd Thread, into the two sides of the Wound, from the outside to the inside at a Thread's distance from each. But care must be had that the two Lips of the Hare-Lip be well adjusted, and very even; the Thread being twisted round the Needle by crossing it above.
The Dressing and Bandage.
After the Lips are wash'd with warm Wine, the Points of the Needles must be cut off, small Bolsters being laid under their ends; then the Wound is to be dress'd with a little Pledget cover'd with some proper Balsam, putting at the same time under the Gum a Linnen Rag steep'd in some desiccative Liquor, lest the Lip shou'd stick to the Gum, if it be necessary to keep 'em a-part. Lastly, upon the whole is to be laid an agglutinative Plaister, supported with the uniting Bandage, which is a small Band perforated in the middle; it is laid behind the Head, and afterward drawn forward, one of its ends being let into the Hole which lies upon the Sore: Then the two ends of the Band are turn'd behind the Head upon the same Folds where they are fasten'd, sticking therein a certain Number of Pins, proportionably to the length of the Wound.
The Patient must be dress'd three Days after; and it is requisite at the first time only to untwist half the Needle, loosening the middle Thread if there be three; to which purpose a Servant is to thrust the Cheeks somewhat forward. On the eighth Day the middle Needle may be taken off, if it be a young Infant; nevertheless the Needles must not be remov'd till it appears that the sides are well join'd; neither must they be left too long, because the Holes wou'd scarce be brought to close.
Of the Operation of Bronchotomy.
This Operation becomes necessary, when the Inflammation that happens in the Larynx hinders Respiration, and is perform'd after this manner:
The Wind-Pipe is open'd between the third and fourth Ring, above the Muscle Cricoides, or else in the middle of the Wind-Pipe; but in separating the Muscles call'd Sternohyodei, care must be had to avoid cutting the recurrent Nerves, lest the Voice shou'd be lost; as also the Glandules nam'd Thyroides. The Space between the Rings is to be open'd with a streight Lancet, kept steady with a little Band, and a transverse Incision is to be made between 'em: Before the Lancet is taken out, a Stilet is put into the Opening, thro' which passeth a little Pipe, short, flat, and somewhat crooked at the end, which must not be thrust in too far, for fear of exciting a Cough. This Pipe hath two small Rings for the fastening of Ribbans, which are ty'd round about the Neck; and it must be left in the Wound till the Symptoms cease. Afterward it is taken away, and the Wound is dress'd, the Lips of it being drawn together again with the uniting Bandage, which hath been already describ'd.
Of the Operation of the Uvula.
When the Uvula or Palate of the Mouth is swell'd so as to hinder Respiration or Swallowing, or else is fallen into a Gangrene, it may be extirpated thus: The Tongue being first depress'd with an Instrument call'd Speculum Oris, the Palate is held with a Forceps, or cut with a Pair of Sizzers; or else a Ligature may be made before it is cut; and the Mouth may be afterward gargl'd with Astringent Liquors.
Of the Operation of a Cancer in the Breast.
The Cancer at first is not so big as a Pea, being a small, hard, blackish Swelling, sometimes livid, and very troublesome by reason of its Prickings; but when it is encreas'd, the Tumour appears hard, Lead-colour'd, and livid, causing in the beginning a Pain that may be pretty well endur'd, but in the increase it grows intolerable, and the Stink is extremely noisome. When it is ready to Ulcerate, the Heat is vehement, with a pricking Pulsation; and the Veins round about are turgid, being fill'd with black Blood, and extended as it were the Feet of a Crab or Crey-Fish, till Death happen. When this Tumour is not ulcerated, it is call'd an Occult Cancer; and an Apparent one when it breaks forth into an open Ulcer.
To palliate an Occult Cancer, and prevent its Ulceration, a Cataplasm or Pultis of Hemlock very fresh may be apply'd to the Part. All the kinds of Succory, the Decoction of Solanum or Night-shade; the Juices of these Plants, as also those of Scabious, Geranium or Stork-Bill, Herniaria or Rupture-Wort, Plantain, &c. are very good in the beginning. River-Crabs pounded in a Leaden-Mortar, and their Juice beaten in a like Mortar, are an excellent Remedy; as also are Humane Excrements or Urine destill'd, and laid upon the Occult Cancer: Or else,
Take an Ounce of calcin'd Lead, two Ounces of Oil of Roses, and six Drams of Saffron; let the whole Composition be beaten in a Mortar with a Leaden Pestle, and apply'd. The Amalgama of Mercury with Saturn is likewise a very efficacious Remedy.
In the mean while the Patient may be purg'd with black Hellebore and Mercurius Dulcis, taking also inwardly from one Scruple to half a Dram of the Powder of Adders, given to drink, with half the quantity of Crab's-Eyes: But very great care must be taken to avoid the Application of Maturatives or Emollients, which wou'd certainly bring the Tumour to Ulceration.
When the Cancer is already ulcerated, the Spirit of Chimney-Soot may be us'd with good Success; and the Oil of Sea-Crabs pour'd scalding hot into the Ulcer, is an excellent Remedy. But if it be judg'd expedient entirely to extirpate the Cancer, it may be done thus:
The sick Patient being laid in Bed, the Surgeon takes the Arm on the side of the Cancer, and lifts it upward and backward, to give more room to the Tumour; then having pass'd a Needle with a very strong Thread thro' the bottom of the Breast, he cuts the Thread to take away the Needle, and passeth the Needle again into the Breast, to cause the Threads to cross one another. Afterward these four ends of the Threads are ty'd together, to make a kind of Handle to take off the Tumour, which is cut quite round to the Ribs with a very sharp Rasor. The Cutting is usually begun in the lower Part to end in the Vessels near the Arm-Pit, where a small Piece of Flesh is left, to stop the Blood with greater Facility: Then having laid a Piece of Vitriol upon the Vessels, or Bolsters soakt in styptick Water; the sides of the Breast are to be press'd with the Hand, to let out the Blood and Humours; and an Actual Cautery is to be lightly apply'd thereto.
The Wound is to be dress'd with Pledgets strew'd with Astringent Powders, a Plaister, a Bolster, a Napkin round the Brest, and a Scapulary to support the whole Bandage.
But instead of passing Threads cross-wise, to form a Handle, with which the Breast may be taken off, it wou'd be more expedient to make use of a sort of Forceps turn'd at both ends in form of a Crescent, after such a manner that those ends may fall one upon another when the Forceps are shut. Thus the Surgeon may lay hold on the Breast with these Forceps, and draw it off, after having cut it at one single Stroak with a very flat, crooked, and sharp Knife. Neither is it convenient to apply the Actual Cautery to stop the Hæmorrhage, because it is apt to break forth again anew, when the Escar is fall'n off,
When the Tumour is not as yet ulcerated, a Crucial Incision may be made in the Skin, without penetrating into the Glandulous Bodies; then the four Pieces of the Glandules being separated, the Cancerous Tumour may be held with the Forceps, and afterward cut off. If there be any Vessels swell'd, they may be bound before the Tumour is taken away; but if the Tumour sticks close to the Ribs, the Operation is not usually undertaken.
Of the Operation of the Empyema.
This Operation is perform'd when it may be reasonably concluded that some corrupt Matter is lodg'd in the Breast, which may be perceiv'd by the weight that the Patient feels in fetching his Breath; being also sensible of the floating of the Matter when he turns himself from one side to another.
If the Tumour appears on the outside, the Abcess may be open'd between the Ribs; but if no external Signs are discern'd, the Surgeon may choose a more convenient place to make the Opening. Thus when the Patient is set upon his Bed, and conveniently supported, the Opening is to be made between the second and third of the Spurious Ribs, within four Fingers breadth of the Spine, and the lower Corner of the Omoplata; to this purpose the Skin is to be taken up a-cross, to cut it in its length, the Surgeon holding it on one side, and the Assistant on the other. The Incision is made with a streight Knife two or three Fingers breadth long, and the Fibres of the great Dorsal-Muscle are cut a-cross, that they may not stop the Opening. Then the Surgeon puts the Fore-Finger of his Left-hand into the Incision, to remove the Fibres, and divides the Intercostal Muscles, guiding the Point of the Knife with his Finger to pierce the Pleuron, for fear of wounding the Lungs, which sometimes adhere thereto, the Opening being thus finish'd, if the Matter runs well, it must be taken out; but if not, the Fore-Finger must be put into the Wound, to disjoyn those Parts of the Lungs that stick to the Pleuron.
To let out the Matter, the Patient must be oblig'd to lean on one side, stopping his Mouth and Nose, and puffing up his Cheeks, as if he were to blow vehemently; then if Blood appears, a greater quantity of it may be taken away than if it were Matter, in regard that a Flux of Matter weakens more than that of Blood. It is also worth the while to observe, that in making the Incision, the Intercostal Muscles ought to be cut a-cross, that the side of the Ribs may not be laid bare, by which means the Wound will not so soon become Fistulous.
If it be judg'd that purulent Matter is contain'd in both sides of the Breast, it is requisite that the Operation be done on each side; it being well known that the Breast is divided into two Parts by the Mediastinum: But in this case the two Holes made by the Incision must not be left open at the same time, for fear of suffocating the Patient.
The Dressing and Bandage.
The Wound is dress'd with a Tent of Lint arm'd with Balsam, being soft, and blunt at the end, which enters only between the Ribs, for fear of hurting the Lungs; but a good Pledget of Lint is more convenient than a Linnen Tent, however a Thread must be ty'd to the Pledget or Tent, lest it shou'd fall into the Breast; and Bolsters are to be put into the Wound; as also a Plaister or Band over the whole. This Dressing is to be kept close with a Napkin fasten'd round the Breast with Pins, and supported by a Scapulary, which is a sort of Band, the breadth of which is equal to that of six Fingers, having a Hole in the middle to let in the Head: One of its ends falls behind and the other before; and they are both fasten'd to the Napkin. Thus the Patient is laid in Bed, and set half upright. If the Lungs hinder the running out of the Matter, a Pipe is us'd, and the Wound afterward dress'd according to Art.
Of the Operation of the Paracentesis of the Lower-Belly.
This Manual Operation is sometimes necessary in a Dropsie, when Watry Humours are contain'd in the Cavity of the Belly, or else between the Teguments. The Disease is manifest by the great Swelling; and the Operation is perform'd with a Cane, or a Pipe made of Silver or Steel, with a sharp Stilet at the end; altho' the Ancients were wont to do it with a Lancet. The Patient being supported, sitting on a Bed, or in a great Elbow-Chair, to the end that the Water may run downward, a Servant must press the Belly with his Hands, that the Tumour may be extended, whilst the Surgeon perforates it three or four Fingers breadth below the Navel, and makes the Puncture on the side, to avoid the White-Line; but before the Opening is made, it is expedient that the Skin be a little lifted up. The pointed Stilet being accompany'd with its Pipe, remains in the Part after the Puncture; but it is remov'd to let out the Water; and a convenient quantity of it is taken away, accordingly as the Strength of the Patient will admit. The Stilet makes so small an Opening, that it is not to be fear'd lest the Water shou'd run out, which might happen in making use of the Lancet, because there wou'd be occasion for a thicker Pipe. When a new Puncture is requisite, it must be begun beneath the former; but if the Waters cause the Navel to stand out, the Opening may be made therein, without seeking for any other place.
The Bandage and Dressing
Are prepar'd with a large four-double Bolster kept close with a Napkin folded into three or four Folds, which is in like manner supported by the Scapulary.
The Operation of the Paracentesis of the Scrotum
Is undertaken when those Parts are full of Water, after this manner: Assoon as the Patient is plac'd in a convenient Posture, either standing or sitting, the Operator lays hold on the Scrotum with one Hand, presseth it a little to render the Tumour hard, and makes a Puncture, as in the Paracentesis of the Abdomen. In an Hydrocele that happens to young Infants, the Opening may be made with a Lancet, to take away all the Water at once: But in Men, especially when there is a great quantity thereof, it is more expedient to do it with the sharp-pointed Pipe; but the Testicles are to be drawn back, for fear of wounding 'em with the Point of the Instrument.
If the Hydrocele be apparently Encysted, the Membrane containing the Water is to be consum'd with Causticks, which is done by laying a Cautery in the place where the Incision shou'd be made, and afterward opening the Escar with a Lancet.
When the Puncture is made, it ought to be done in the upper-part of the Scrotum, because it is less painful than the lower, and less subject to Inflammation.
Of the Operation of Gastroraphy.
This Operation is usually perform'd when there is a Wound in the Belly so wide as to let out the Entrails. If there be a considerable Wound in the Intestine, it may be sow'd up with the Glover's Stitch, the manner of making which we have before explain'd. If the Omentum or Caul be mortify'd, the corrupted Part must be cut off; to which purpose it is requisite to take a Needle with waxed Thread, and to pass it into the sound Part a-cross the Caul, without pricking the Vessels. Then the Caul being ty'd on both sides with each of the Threads that have been pass'd double, may be cut an Inch below the Ligature, and the Threads will go thro' the Wound, so as to be taken away after the Suppuration. Afterward the Intestines are to be put up again into the Belly, by thrusting 'em alternately with the end of the Fingers. But if they cannot be restor'd to their proper Place without much difficulty, Spirituous Fomentations may be made with an handful of the Flowers of Camomile and Melilot, an Ounce of Anise, with as much Fennel and Cummin-Seeds; half an Ounce of Cloves and Nutmegs: Let the whole Mass be boil'd in Milk, adding an Ounce of Camphirated Spirit of Wine, and two Drams of Saccharum Saturni, with two Scruples of Oil of Anise, and bathe the Entrails with this Fomentation very hot. Otherwise,
Apply Animals cut open alive; or else boil Skeins of raw Thread in Milk, and foment 'em with this Decoction in like manner very hot.
Before the Suture of Stitching of the Intestines is made, it is expedient to foment 'em with Spirit of Wine, in which a little Camphire hath been dissolv'd: But if they be mortify'd, they must not be sown up again, but fomented with Spirituous Liquors. No Clysters are to be given to the Patient, for fear causing the Intestine to swell; but a Suppository may be apply'd: Or else he may make use of a Laxative Diet-Drink, if it be necessary to open his Body: He ought also to be very temperate and abstemious during the Cure, so as to take no other Sustenance than Broths and Gellies.
If the Intestines cannot be put up again, the Wound is to be dilated, avoiding the White-Line, and that too at the bottom rather than at the Top, if it be above. To this purpose the Intestines are to be rank'd along the side of the Wound, and a Bolster is to be laid upon 'em dipt in warm Wine, which may be held by some Assistant. Then the Surgeon introduceth a channel'd Probe into the Belly, and takes a great deal of care to fix the Intestine between the Probe and the Peritonæum, which may be effected by drawing out the Intestine a little; then holding the Probe with his Left-hand, to fit a crooked Incision-Knife in its chanelling, he cuts the Teguments equally both on the outside and within, and thrusts back the Entrails alternately into the Wound with his Fore-Finger.
The Stitch must be intermitted, being made with two crooked Needles threaded at each end with the same Thread. The Surgeon having at first put the Fore-Finger of his Left-Hand into the Belly, to retain the Peritonæum, Muscles, and Skin on the side of the Wound, passeth the Needle with his other Hand into the Belly, the Point of which is guided with the Fore-Finger, and penetrates very far: Then he likewise passeth the other Needle thro' the other Lip of the Wound into the Belly, observing the same thing as in the former, and without taking his Fingers off from the Belly. If there are many Points or Stitches to be made, they may be done after the same manner, without removing the Fingers from the Part, whilst a Servant draws together the Lips of the Wound, and ties the Knots. Afterward the Wound may be dress'd, and the Preparatives or Dressings kept close to the Part with the Napkin and Scapulary. But the Patient must be oblig'd to lie on his Belly for some Days successively, to cicatrize the Wound thereof, or that of the Entrails.
If the Intestine were entirely cut, it wou'd be requisite to sow it up round about the Wound, after such a manner that some part of it may always remain open; for if the Patient shou'd recover, his Excrements might be voided thro' the Wound; of which Accident we have an Example in a Soldier belonging to the Hospital Des Invalides at Paris, who liv'd a long time in this Condition.
Of the Operation of the Exomphalus.
This Operation is necessary when the Intestines or Entrails have made a kind of Rupture in the Navel, and may be perform'd thus: When the Patient is laid upon his Back, an Incision is to be made on the Tumour to the Fat, by griping the Skin, if it be possible, or else it may be done without taking it up. Then the Membranes are to be divided with a Fleam to lay open the Peritonæum, for fear of cutting the Intestine; and as soon as the Peritonæum appears, it may be drawn upward with the Nails, in order to make a small Opening therein with some cutting Instrument: Whereupon the Surgeon having put the Fore-Finger of his Left-Hand into the Belly to guide the Point of the Sizzers, with which the Incision is enlarg'd, restores the Intestine to its proper Place, and loosens the Caul if it stick to the Tumour: But if the Entrails are fasten'd to the Caul, it is requisite to separate 'em by cutting a little of the Caul, rather than to touch the Intestine; which last being reduc'd, a Servant may press the Belly on the side of the Wound; so that if a Mass of Flesh be found in the Caul, which hath been form'd by the sticking of the Caul to the Muscles and Peritonæum, this Fleshy Mass must be entirely loosen'd, and then a Ligature may be made to take it away, with some part of the Caul, as we have already shewn in the Gastroraphy. Afterward the Stitch is to be made, as in that Operation, and the Wound must be dress'd, observing the same Precautions. The Dressing is to be supported in like manner with the Napkin and Scapulary.
Of the Operation of the Bubonocele, and of the compleat Rupture.
When the Intestinal Parts are fall'n into the Groin or the Scrotum, the Operation of the Bubonocele may be conveniently perform'd; to which purpose the Patient is to be laid upon his Back, with his Buttocks somewhat high; then the Skin being grip'd a-cross the Tumour, the Surgeon holds it on one side, and the Assistant on the other, till he makes an Incision, following the Folds or Wrinkles of the Groin; when the Fat appears, it is requisite to tear off either with a Fleam or even with the Nails, every thing that lies in the way, till the Intestine be laid open, which must be drawn out a little, to see if it do not cleave to the Rings of the Muscles. The Intestine must be gently handl'd, to dissolve the Excrements; and those Parts must be afterward put up again into the Belly (if it be possible) with the two Fore-Fingers, thrusting 'em alternatively; but if they cannot be reduc'd, the Wound is to be dilated upward, by introducing a channell'd Probe into the Belly, to let the Sizzers into its Channelling. If the Probe cannot enter, the Intestine must be taken out a little, laying a Finger upon it near the Ring, and making a small Scarification in the Ring, with a streight Incision-Knife guided with the Finger, to let in the Probe, into which may be put a crooked Knife, to cut the Ring; that is to say, to dilate the Wound on the inside; but care must be had to avoid penetrating too far, for fear of dividing a Branch of Arteries; and then the Parts may be put up into the Belly. If the Caul had caus'd the Rupture, it wou'd be requisite to bind it, and to cut off whatsoever is corrupted, scarifying the Ring on the inside, to make a good Cicatrice or Scar.
The Dressing and Bandage.
The Dressing may be prepar'd with a Linnen-Tent, soft and blunt, of a sufficient thickness and length, to hinder the Intestines from re-entring into the Rings by their Impulsion, a Thread being ty'd thereto, to draw it out as occasion serves. Then Pledgets are to be put into the Wound, after they have been dipt in a good Digestive, such as Turpentine with the Yolk of an Egg, applying at the same time a Plaister, a Bolster of a Triangular Figure, and the Bandage call'd Spica, which is made much after the same manner as that which is us'd in the Fracture of the Clavicle.
Of the compleat Hernia or Rupture.
It happens when the Intestinal Parts fall into the Scrotum in Men, or into the bottom of the Lips of the Matrix in Women. To perform this Operation, the Patient must be laid upon his Back, as in the Bubonocele, and the Incision carry'd on after the same manner; which is to be made in the Scrotum, tearing off the Membranes to the Intestine. Then a Search will be requisite, to observe whether any parts stick to the Testicle; if the Caul doth so, it must be taken off, leaving a little Piece on the Testicle; but if it be the Intestine, so that those Parts cannot be separated without hurting one of 'em, it is more expedient to impair the Testicle than the Intestine. If the Caul be corrupted, it must be cut to the sound Part, and the Wound is to be dress'd with Pledgets, Bolsters, and the Bandage Spica; as in the Bubonocele.
Of the Operation of Castration.
The Mortification or the Sarcocele of the Testicles, gives occasion to this Operation; to perform which, the Patient must be laid upon his Back, with his Buttocks higher than his Head, his Legs being kept open, and the Skin of the Scrotum taken up, one end of which is to be held by a Servant, and the other by the Surgeon, who having made a longitudinal Incision therein, or from the top to the bottom, slips off the Flesh of the Dartos which covers the Testicle, binds up the Vessels that lie between the Rings and the Tumour, and cuts 'em off a Fingers breadth beneath the Ligature: But care must be taken to avoid tying the Spermatick Vessels too hard, for fear of a Convulsion, and to let one end of the Thread pass without the Wound. If an Excrescence of Flesh stick to the Testicle, and it be moveable or loose, it is requisite to take it off neatly, leaving a small Piece of it on the Testicle; and if any considerable Vessels appear in the Tumour, they must be bound before they are cut.
The Dressing and Bandage.
The Dressing is made with Pledgets and Bolsters laid upon the Scrotum; and the proper Bandage is the Suspensor of the Scrotum, which hath four Heads or Ends, of which the upper serve as a Cincture or Girdle; and the lower passing between the Thighs, and fasten'd behind to the Cincture.
There is also another Bandage of the Scrotum, having in like manner four Heads, of which the upper constitute the Cincture; but it is slit at the bottom, and hath no Seams; the lower Heads crossing one another, to pass between the Thighs, and to be join'd to the Cincture. Both these sorts of Bandages have a Hole to give Passage to the Yard.
Of the Operation of the Stone in the Ureter.
If the Stone be stopt at the Sphincter of the Bladder, it ought to be thrust back with a Probe: If it stick at the end of the Glans, it may be press'd to let it out; and if it cannot come forth, a small Incision may be made in the opening of the Glans on its side.
But if the Stone be remote from the Glans, it is requisite to make an Incision into the Ureter; to which purpose, the Surgeon having caus'd the Skin to be drawn upward, holds the Yard between two Fingers, making a Longitudinal Incision on its side upon the Stone, which must be prest between the Fingers to cause it to fly out; or else it may be taken out with an Extractor. Then if the Incision were very small, the Skin needs only to be let go, and it will heal of it self; but if it were large, a small Leaden Pipe is to be put into the Ureter, lest it shou'd be altogether clos'd up by the Scar: It is also expedient to anoint the Pipe with some Desiccative Medicine, and to dress the Wound with Balsam. Afterward a little Linnen-Bag or Case is to be made, in which the Yard is to be put, to keep on the Dressing; but it must be pierc'd at the end, for the convenience of making Water, having two Bands at the other end, which are ty'd round about the Waste.
Of the Operation of Lithotomy.
This Operation is undertaken when it is certainly known that there is a Stone in the Bladder; to be assur'd of which, it may not be improper to introduce a Finger into the Anus near the Os Pubis, by which means the Stone is sometimes felt, if there be any: The Finger is likewise usually put into the Anus of young Virgins, and into the Vagina Uteri of Women, for the same purpose. But it is more expedient to make use of the Probe, anointed with Grease, after this manner: The Patient being laid on his Back, the Operator holds the Yard streight upward, the Glans lying open between his Thumb and Fore-finger; then holding the Probe with his Right-hand on the side of the Rings, he guides it into the Yard, and when it is enter'd, turns the Handle toward the Pubes, drawing out the Yard a little, to the end that the Canal of the Ureter may lie streight. If it be perceiv'd that the Probe hath not as yet pass'd into the Bladder, a Finger is to be put into the Anus, to conduct it thither. Afterward in order to know whether a Stone be lodg'd in the Bladder, the Probe ought to be shaken a little therein, first on the Right-side, and then on the Left; and if a small Noise be heard, it may be concluded for certain that there is a Stone: But if it be judg'd that the Stone swims in the Bladder, so that it cannot be felt, the Patient must be oblig'd to make Water with a hollow Probe.
Another manner of searching may be practis'd thus: Let the Yard be rais'd upward, inclining a little to the side of the Belly; let the Rings of the Probe be turn'd upon the Belly, and the end on the side of the Anus; and then let this Instrument be introduc'd, shaking it a little on both sides, to discover the Stone.
In order to perform the Operation of Lithotomy, the Patient must be laid along upon a Table of a convenient height, so as that the Surgeon may go about his Work standing; the Patient's Back must also lean upon the Back of a Chair laid down, and trimm'd with Linnen-Cloth, lest it shou'd hurt his Body; his Legs must be kept asunder, and the Soles of his Feet on the sides of the Table, whilst a Man gets up behind him to hold his Shoulders: His Arms and Legs must be also bound with Straps or Bands. Then a channell'd Probe being put up into the Bladder, a Servant standing upon the Table on the side of the Chair, holds the Back of the Instrument between his two Fore-fingers on that Part of the Perinæum where the Incision ought to be begun, which is to be made between his Fingers with a sharp Knife that cuts on both sides: The Incision may be three or four Fingers breadth on the left side of the Raphe or Suture: But in Children its length must not exceed two Fingers breadth. If the Incision were too little to give Passage to the Stone, it wou'd be more expedient to enlarge it than to stretch the Wound with the Dilatators. When the Convex Part where the channelling of the Probe lies, shall be well laid open, the Conductors may be slipt into the same Channelling, between which the Forceps is to be put, having before taken away the Probe. Some Operators make use of a Gorgeret or Introductor to that purpose, conveying the end of it into the Chanelling of the Probe; which is remov'd to introduce the Forceps into the Bladder: And as soon as they are fixt therein, the Conductors or Gorgeret must be likewise taken out. Afterward search being made for the Stone, it must be held fast, and drawn out of the Bladder: But if the Stone be long, and the Operator hath got hold thereof by the two Ends, he must endeavour to lay hold on it again by the Middle, to avoid the great scattering which wou'd happen in the Passage. The Stones are also sometimes so large, that there is an absolute necessity of leaving 'em in the Bladder. Again, if the Stone sticks very close to the Bladder, the Extraction ought to be deferr'd for some time; and perhaps it may be loosen'd in the Suppuration. Lastly, when the Stone hath been taken out, an Extractor is usually introduc'd into the Bladder, to remove the Gravel, Fragments, and Clots of Blood.
After the Operation, the Patient is carry'd to his Bed, having before cover'd the Wound with a good Bolster; and if an Hæmorrhage happens, it is to be stopt with Astringents. A Tent must also be put into the Wound, when it is suspected that some Stone or Gravel may as yet remain therein: But if it evidently appears that there is none, the Wound may be dress'd with Pledgets, a Plaister, and a Bolster, of a Figure convenient for the Part. The Dressing may be staid with a Sling supported by a Scapulary; or else the Bandage of the double T. may be us'd, the manner of the Application of which we have shewn elsewhere. The Patient's Thighs must be drawn close to one another, and ty'd with a small Band, lest they shou'd be set asunder again.
The Operation of Lithotomy in Women is usually perform'd by the lesser Preparative, which is done by putting the Fore-finger and Middle-finger into the Vagina Uteri, or into the Rectum in young Virgins, to draw the Stone to the Neck of the Bladder, and keep it steady, so that it may be taken out with a Hook, or other Instrument.
This Operation may also be effected in Women, almost in the same manner as in Men; for after having caus'd the Female Patient to be set in the same Posture or Situation as the Men are usually plac'd, according to the preceeding Description, the Conductors may be convey'd into the Ureter, to let in the Forceps between 'em, with which the Stone may be drawn out: But if it be too thick, a small Incision is to be made in the Right and Left side of the Ureter.
The lesser Preparative was formerly us'd in the Lithotomy of Men, after this manner: The Finger was put into the Anus, to draw the Stone toward the Perinæum; then an Incision was made upon the Stone on the side of the Suture, and it was taken out with an Instrument.
Of the Operation of the Puncture of the Perinæum.
This Operation is necessary in a Suppression of Urine, where the Inflammation is so great, that the Probe cannot be introduc'd. Then an Incision is to be made with the Knife or Lancet, in the same Place where it is done in Lithotomy; and a small Tube or Pipe is to be put in the Bladder, till the Inflammation be remov'd.
Of the Operation of the Fistula in Ano.
Fistula's are callous Ulcers: If one of these happen in the Fundament, and is open on the outside, it may be cur'd thus: After the Patient hath been laid upon his Belly on the side of a Bed, with his Legs asunder, the Surgeon makes a small Incision with his Knife in the Orifice of the Fistula, in order to pass therein another small crooked Incision-Knife, at the end of which is a Pointed Stilet with a little Silver Head which covers it, to the end that it may enter without causing Pain. When the Surgeon hath convey'd his Knife into the Fistula, having the Fore-finger of his Left-hand in the Anus or Fundament, he pulls off its Head, holding the Handle with one Hand, and the Stilet that pierceth the Anus with the other; and at last draws out the Instrument to cut the Fistula entirely at one Stroke.
If the Fistula hath an Opening into the Intestine, an Incision is to be made on the outside at the Bottom thereof, to open it in the Place where a small Tumour or Inflammation usually appears, or else in the Place where the Patient feels a Pain when it is touch'd. If the Tumour be remote from the Anus, it may be open'd with the Potential Cautery, to avoid a greater Inconvenience. After having thus laid open the very bottom, the little Incision-Knife and Stilet, with its Head, is to be pass'd therein, the end of the Stilet is to be drawn thro' the Anus, and the Flesh is to be cut all at once. But if the Fistula be situated too far forward in the Fundament, the Sphincter of the Anus must not be entirely cut, otherwise the Excrements cannot be any longer retain'd. Lastly, when the Fistula hath been treated after this manner, all its Sinuosities or Winding-Passages ought likewise to be open'd, and the Wound being fill'd with thick Pledgets steept in some Anodyn, is to be cover'd with a Plaister and a Triangular Bolster; as also with the Bandage call'd the T.
Of the Suture or Stitching of a Tendon.
It is requisite to undertake this Operation when the Tendons are cut, and when they become very thick. If the Wound be heal'd, it must be open'd again to discover the Tendon, and the Part must be bended, to draw together again the ends of the Tendons. Then the Surgeon taking a flat, streight, and fine Needle, with a double waxed Thread, passeth it into a small Bolster, and makes a Knot at the end of the Thread, to be stopt upon the Bolster. Afterward he pierceth the Tendon from the outside to the inside, at a good distance, lest the Thread shou'd tear it, and proceeds to pass the Needle in like manner under the other end of the Tendon, upon which is laid a small Bolster, for the Thread to be ty'd in a Knot over it. Then he causeth the Extremities of the Tendons to lie a little one upon another, by bending the Part, and dresseth the Wound with some Balsam. It may not be improper here to observe, that Ointments are never to be apply'd to the Tendons, which wou'd cause 'em to putrifie, but altogether Spirituous Medicaments; and that the Part must be bound up, lest the Extension of it shou'd separate the Tendons.
Of the Cæsarian Operation.
When a Woman cannot be deliver'd by the ordinary means, this bold and dangerous Operation hath been sometimes perform'd with good Success. The Woman being laid upon her Back, the Surgeon makes a Longitudinal Incision beneath the Navel, on the side of the White-Line, till the Matrix appears, which he openeth, taking great care to avoid wounding the Child: Then he divides the Membranes with which it is wrapt up, separates the After-Burden from the Matrix, and takes out the Child. Lastly he washeth the Wound with warm Wine, and dispatcheth the Gastroraphy or Stitching up of the Belly, without sowing the Matrix. After the Operation, Injections are to be made into the Matrix, to cause a Flux of Blood; and a pierc'd Pessary must be introduc'd into its Neck.
Of the Operation of Amputation, with its proper Dressings and Bandages.
The Leg is usually cut off at the Ham; the Thigh as near as can be to the Knee; and the Arm as near as is possible to the Wrist: But an Amputation is never made in a Joynt, except in the Fingers and Toes.
In order to cut off a Leg, the Patient is to be set on the side of his Bed, or in a Chair, and supported by divers Assistants; one of 'em being employ'd to hold the Leg at the bottom, and another to draw the Skin upward above the Knee, to the end that the Flesh may cover the Bone again after the Operation. In the mean while a very thick Bolster is laid under the Ham, upon which are made two Ligatures, viz. the first above the Knee, to stop the Blood, by screwing it up with the Tourniquet or Gripe-Stick; and the second below the Knee, to render the Flesh firm for the Knife. Before the Ligature is drawn close with the Gripe-Stick, a little piece of Paste-board is to be put underneath, for fear of pinching the Skin. Thus the Leg being well fixt, the Surgeon placeth himself between both the Legs of the Patient, to make the Incision with a crooked Knife, turning it circularly to the Bone, and laying one Hand upon the Back of the Knife, which must have no Edge. Afterward the Periosteum is to be scrap'd with an Incision-Knife, and the Flesh with the Vessels that lie between the two Bones are to be cut. When the Flesh is thus separated, a Cleft Band is to be laid upon it, with which the Heads are cross'd, to draw the Flesh upward, to the intent that the Bones may be cut farther, and that it may cover 'em after the Amputation, as also to facilitate the Passage of the Saw. Then the Surgeon holds the Leg with his Left-hand, and saweth with his Right, which he lets fall upon the two Bones, to divide 'em asunder at the same time, beginning with the Perone or Fibula, and ending with the Tibia. But it is necessary to incline the Saw, and to go gently in the beginning, to make way for it, and afterward to work it faster. The Leg being cut off, the Ligature must be unty'd below the Knee, loosening the Gripe-Stick, to let the Blood run a little, and to discern the Vessels with greater facility; and then the Gripe-Stick may be twisted again, to stop the Blood; which some Surgeons effect, by laying Pieces of Vitriol upon the Opening of the Arteries, and Astringent Powders, on a large Bolster of Cotton or Tow, to be apply'd to the end of the Stump; but if such a method be us'd, it is requisite that some Person be employ'd to keep on the whole Dressing with his Hand during twenty four Hours. However this Custom hath prevail'd in the Hospital of Hôtel-Dieu at Paris.
Others make a Ligature of the Vessels, taking up the ends of 'em with a pair of Forceps, having a Spring; or with the Valet a Patin, which is a sort of Pincers that are clos'd with a small Ring let down to the bottom of the Branches. These Pincers being held by a Servant, the Surgeon passeth a Needle with wax'd Thread, into the Flesh, below the Vessel, bringing it back again, and with the two ends of the Thread makes a good Ligature upon the same Vessel; then he looseth the Gripe-Stick and the Band, the Stump is to be somewhat bended, and the Flesh let down to cover the Bones.
The Dressing and Bandage.
After the Operation, it is requisite to lay small Bolsters upon the Vessels, and dry Pledgets upon the two Bones, as also many other Folds of Linnen strew'd with Astringent Powders; and over all another large Bolster or Pledget of Cotton or Tow, cover'd in like manner with Astringent Powders; then the whole Dressing is to be wrapt up with a Plaister and a Bolster, in form of a Malta Cross; so that there are three or four Longitudinal Bolsters, and one Circular.
The Surgeon usually begins to apply the Malta Cross and Bolster under the Ham, crossing the Heads or Ends upon the Stump, and causeth 'em to be held by a Servant that Supports the Part; then he likewise crosseth the other Heads, and layeth on the two Longitudinal Bolsters that cross each other in the middle of the Stump, together with a third Longitudinal, which is brought round about the Stump, to stay the two former: These Bolsters ought to be three Fingers broad, and very long, to pass over the Stump. Afterward he proceeds to apply,
The Bandage commonly call'd Capeline by French Surgeons, or the Head-Bandage.
Which is prepar'd with a Band four Ells long, and three Fingers broad, roll'd up with one Ball, three Circumvolutions being made on the side of the cut Part, the Band is to be carry'd upward with Rollers, passing obliquely above the Knee; and is brought down again along its former Turns; If it be thought fit to make this Bandage with the same Band, it must be let down to the middle of the cut Part, and carry'd up again to the Knee, many back-folds being made, which are stay'd with the Circumvolutions, till the Stump be entirely covered, and the whole Bandage wrapt up with Rollers or Bolsters.
The Capeline or Head-Bandage, having two Heads, is made with a Band of the same breadth, but somewhat longer. This Band being at first apply'd to the middle of the cut Part or Wound, the Heads are carry'd up above the Knee; and one of the Ends are turn'd backward, to bring it down, and to pass it over the end of the Stump. At every back-fold which is form'd above and below the Knee, a Circumvolution is to be made with the other end of the Band, to strengthen the back-folds, continuing to bring the Band downward and upward, till the whole Stump be cover'd: Then Rollers are made round about the Stump, and the Band is stay'd above the Knee. Afterward the Part may be brought to Suppuration, cleans'd and cicatriz'd.
Of the Operation of the Aneurism.
This Operation is perform'd when the Surgeon hath prickt an Artery, or when a Tumour ariseth in an Artery.
To this purpose the Patient is set in a Chair, and a Servant employ'd in holding his Arm in a Posture proper for the Operation; then a Bolster is to be laid four double, following the Progress of the Artery, to the end that the Ligature may better press the Vessel; and the Arm may be also surrounded with another single Bolster, on which is made a Ligature screw'd up with a Gripe-Stick, provided the Arm be not too much swell'd; for in this Case it wou'd be more expedient to deferr the Operation for fear of a Gangrene. The Artery being thus well stopt, the Surgeon lays hold on the Arm with one Hand, below the Tumour, and with the other makes an Incision with his Lancet, beginning at the bottom of the Tumour, and ending on the top along the Progress of the Artery. When the Tumour is open'd, the coagulated Blood may be discharg'd with a Finger; and if there are any Strings at the bottom, they may be cut with a crooked Pair of Sizzers, to the end that all the Clods of Blood, and other extraneous Bodies which are sometimes form'd in Aneurisms when they are very inveterate may be more easily remov'd. But the Gripe-Stick must be loosen'd, to discover the Opening of the Artery with greater facility, and the Artery separated from the Membranes with a Fleam; for it wou'd be dangerous to cut it with a streight Incision-Knife: The Artery must also be supported with a convenient Instrument to divide it from the Nerve and Membranes; and to be assur'd of the Place of its Opening, the Gripe-Stick may be somewhat loosen'd, and afterward screw'd up again. In the mean time the Surgeon gives the Instrument to a Servant to hold, whilst he passeth under the Artery a crooked Needle with a wax'd String, cuts the Thread, and takes away the Needle: Then he begins to make the Ligature beneath the Opening of the Artery, tying at first a single Knot, on which may be put (if you please) a small Bolster, that may be kept steady with two other Knots: It is also necessary that another Ligature be made in the lower part of the Artery, by reason that the little lateral Arteries might otherwise let out Blood.
The Artery ought not to be cut between the two Ligatures, lest the first Ligature shou'd be forc'd by the Impulsion of the Blood; but the Thread must be let fall, that it may rot with the Suppuration. Then the Wound may be dress'd with Pledgets, Bolsters strew'd with Astringent Powders and a Plaister; a Bolster being also laid in the Fold of the Elbow.
Is made with a Band six Ells long, and an Inch broad, roll'd with one end, being at first apply'd with divers Circumvolutions under the Elbow, and moderately bound. Many turns are to be made, and a thick and streight Bolster, is to be laid upon the Tumour, (as in the Bandage for Phlebotomy) along the Artery, till it pass under the Arm-Hole: The Arm and Bolster must be surrounded with the Band, which is brought up with small Rollers, to the Arm-Pit, and stay'd with Circumvolutions round about the Breast. Afterward the Patient is to be laid in his Bed, with the Arm lying somewhat bended on the Pillow, and the Hand a little higher than the Elbow.
Of the Operation of Phlebotomy.
To perform this Operation, the Surgeon holds the Lancet between his Thumb and Fore-finger, and three other Fingers lying upon the Patient's Arm, and thrusts the Point of the lancet into the Vessel, carrying the same Point somewhat upward, to make the Orifice the greater. If a Tendon, which is known by its hardness; or an Artery, which is discover'd by Pulsation, appear beyond the Vein, and very near it, the Lancet must be only set very forward in the Vein, and drawn back again streight, without turning it up, otherwise the Artery or Tendon wou'd be certainly cut with the Point. If the Artery or Tendon lies immediately under the Vein, the later must be prickt somewhat underneath, holding the Lancet inclin'd side-ways, and thrusting it very little forward; so that the Point will finish the Opening, by turning it upward.
If the Artery stick too close to the Vein, the later is to be prickt higher or lower than it is ordinarily done; and if the Vein be superficial, and lie close upon a hard Muscle, the Lancet must not be thrust downright into the Vein, but it is requisite to carry it somewhat obliquely, and to take the Vessel above, lest the Muscle and its Membrane shou'd be prickt, which wou'd cause a great deal of Pain, and perhaps a vehement Inflammation. It is well known that the Veins of the Right Arm are usually open'd with the Right-hand, and those of the Left-Arm with the Left-hand.
Is made thus: The Surgeon having laid a Bolster upon the Orifice, keeps it close with two Fingers, and holds the Band or Fillet with the other Hand; then taking one end of the Fillet with the Middle-Finger, Fore-Finger, and Thumb, and applying it to the Bolster, he makes with the longest end of the Fillet divers Figures in form of the Letters KY in the Fold of the Arm; as also a back-fold with the shorter end of the Fillet, held between three Fingers. Afterward both ends of the Fillet are ty'd beneath the Elbow.
If an Inflammation happens after the Operation, the Bolsters are to be dipt in Oxycratum: but if the Orifice were so small as to produce a Rhombus, it wou'd be requisite to press the Wound often with two Fingers, and immediately to apply a Bolster dipt in Oxycratum.
Of the Operation of Encysted Tumours.
If the Tumours are small and hanging, and have a narrow bottom, a Ligature may be made with Horse-Hair or Silk, dipt in Aqua-Fortis, which will cause 'em to fall off of themselves after some time; or else they may be cut above the Ligature.
If the Tumour or Wen be thick, and its bottom large, a Crucial Incision is to be made in the Skin, without impairing the Cystis or Bagg; and when the Incision is finish'd, the Bag may be torn off with the Nails, or with the Handle of a Pen-Knife; but sometimes it is necessary to dissect it. If there be any considerable Vessels at the Root, they may be bound, or else cut; and the Blood may be stopt with Astringents. If any parts of the Cystis remain, they are to be consum'd with Corrosives; and the Lips of the Wound are to be drawn together without a Stitch, making use only of an agglutinative Plaister. But if the Tumour adheres very close to the Pericranium, it is most expedient not to meddle with it at all.
Ganglions are Tumours arising upon the Tendons and Nervous Parts, which may be cur'd by thrusting 'em violently, and making a very streight Bandage, provided they be very recent; a resolvent Plaister is to be also apply'd to the Part.
Of the Operation of the Hydrocephalus.
This Operation is perform'd when it is necessary to discharge watry Humours out of the Head: If these Waters lie under the Skin, a very large Opening is to be made with a Lancet, and a small Tube or Pipe left therein to let 'em run out. If the Water be situated between the Brain and the Dura Mater, the Membrane is to be perforated with a Lancet, after the Trepan hath been apply'd, according to the usual Method, of which we have already given some account: Cauteries and Scarifications may be also us'd to very good purpose in this Disease.
Of the operation of cutting the Tongue-String.
When the Ligament of the Tongue in Infants is extended to its Extremity, they cannot suck without difficulty; and when grown up, they have an impediment in their Speech.
This Ligament may be cut with a little pair of Sizzers; to which purpose the Thumb of the Left-hand being laid upon the Gum of the lower Jaw, to keep the Mouth open, the Tongue may be rais'd upward with the Fore-Finger of the same Hand, and the Sizzers may be pass'd between the two Fingers, to divide the String as near as is possible to the Root of the Tongue, avoiding the Vessels: If an Hæmorrhage happens, recourse may be had to Styptick-Waters. Afterward the Nurse must take care to let a Finger be often put into the Child's Mouth, to prevent the re-uniting of the String.
Of the Operation of opening stopt Ductus's.
If there be only one Membrane that stops the Entrance of the Vagina, an Incision may be made, and a Leaden Pipe put into it, having Rings to fasten it to the Waste, to hinder the re-uniting of the Wound.
If the Lips of the Pudendum are conglutinated or clos'd up, the Patient must be laid upon her Back, and her Knees rais'd up, in order to make an Incision with a crooked Incision-Knife, beginning at the Top; and then a Leaden Pipe is to be put into the Opening.
If the Vagina be fill'd with a Fleshy Substance, an Incision is to be made therein, till it be entirely perforated, putting at the same time a Leaden Tube into the Orifice.
If the Urinary Ductus as well in young Boys as in Virgins, be stopt up, an Incision is to be made therein with a very narrow Lancet; and if a small Leaden Pipe can be conveniently introduc'd, it may be done; but it is not very necessary, in regard that Children are almost always making Water, which wou'd of it self hinder the closing of the Orifice.
If the Ductus of the Ear be stopt with a Membrane, it must be perforated, taking care not to go too far, for fear of piercing the Membrane of the Tympanum or Drum, and a small Leaden Pipe is to be put into the Opening.
If there be a carnous Excrescence on the outside of the Ear, a Ligature ought to be made therein, or else it may be cut with a pair of Sizzers, to cause it to fall off; and the rest of the Fleshy Substance that remains in the Ear must be consum'd with Causticks, convey'd to the Part by the means of a small Tube, care being had, nevertheless, to avoid cauterizing the Tympanum.
Of the Operation of the Phimosis and Paraphimosis.
When the Præputium is so streight that the Glans can be no longer uncover'd, this Indisposition is call'd Phimosis; but if the Præputium be turn'd back above the Glans, after such a manner that it can no longer cover the same Glans, it is a Paraphimosis. If in the Phimosis the Præputium cleaves very close round about the Glans, it is most expedient to let it alone; but if in handling the Glans it be perceiv'd that it is moveable, or else that some parts of it only stick together, the Operation may be perform'd after this manner: The Patient being set in a Chair, a Servant is employ'd in pulling back the Skin to the Root of the Penis, to the end that the Incision may be made directly at the bottom of the Glans: Then the Surgeon having drawn out the bottom of the Præputium, introduceth a small Instrument with a very sharp Point on its flat side, at the end of which is fixt a Button of Wax, pierceth the Præputium at the bottom of the Glans on the side of the Thread, and finisheth the Incision by drawing the Instrument toward himself.
The Paraphimosis is cur'd by making Fomentations on the Part, to allay the Inflammation if there be any; and it is to be pull'd down with the Fingers. But if Medicinal Preparations prove ineffectual, Scarifications are to be made round about the Præputium; and afterward convenient Remedies may be apply'd to remove the Inflammation, and prevent the Mortification of the Part; so that at length the Præputium may be drawn over the Glans.
Of the Operation of the Varix.
In order to cure this Tumour, the Surgeon having first cut the Skin to discover the dilated Vein, separates it from the Membranes, and passeth underneath a crooked Needle with a double wax'd Thread; then he makes a Ligature both above and below the dilatation of the Vein, opens the dilated Part with a Lancet, to let out the Blood, and applies a convenient Bandage: But without performing this Operation, the Vein might be open'd with a Lancet, to draw out a sufficient quantity of Blood; and then the Varix is to be press'd with a somewhat close Bandage.
Of the Operation of the Panaritium.
The Panaritium is an Abcess which ariseth at the end of the Fingers; some of these Tumours are only superficial, and others penetrate even under the Periosteum; nevertheless after whatsoever manner the Panaritium may happen, it ought to be open'd on the side of the Finger, that the Tendons may not be hurt. If the Abcess be extended under the Periosteum, the opening must be made on the side, and the Lancet thrust forward to the Bone: Afterward the Pus or corrupt Matter is to be discharg'd, which wou'd cause the Tendons to putrifie, if it shou'd remain too long upon 'em.
The Dressing and Bandage
Are made with a Plaister cut in form of a Malta Cross, which is apply'd at the middle to the end of the Finger, the Heads being cross'd round about. The Bolsters must be also cut in the shape of the Malta Cross, or of a plain Cross only; the Band being a Finger's breadth wide, and long enough to be roll'd about the whole Dressing: It must be pierc'd at one of its ends, and cut the length of three Fingers at the other; so that the two Heads may pass thro' the Hole, to surround the Finger with small Rollers.
Of the Reduction of the falling of the Anus.
To reduce the Anus to its proper place when it is fallen, the Patient being laid upon his Belly, with his Buttocks higher than his Head, the Operator gently thrusts back the Roll that forms the Anus with his Fingers dipt in the Oil of Roses: Then he applies the Bolsters steept in some Astringent Liquor, and causeth 'em to be supported with a sort of Bandage, the Nature of which we shall shew in treating of the Fracture of the Coccyx, that is to say, the T. the double T. or else the Sling with four Heads.
Of the Reduction of the falling of the Matrix.
In this Operation, the Patient being laid upon her Back, with her Buttocks rais'd up, Fomentations are to be apply'd to the Part; a Linnen Cloth is to be laid upon the Neck of the fallen Matrix; and it is to be thrust very gently with the Fingers, without using much force. If the Matrix shou'd fall out again, it wou'd be requisite to convey a Pessary into it, after it hath been reduc'd; and to enjoyn the Patient to lie on her Back with her legs a-cross.
Of the Application of the Cautery.
The Cautery is an Ulcer which is made in the Skin, by applying Causticks to it, after this manner:
The Surgeon having moisten'd the Skin for a while with Spittle, or else having caus'd a light Friction to be made with a warm Cloth, applies a perforated Plaister to the Part, and breaks the Cautery-Stone, to be laid in the little Hole, leaving it for a longer or shorter time, accordingly as he knows its Efficacy, or as the Skin is more or less Fine. Afterward he scarifieth the Burn with his Lancet, and puts a Suppurative, or piece of fresh Butter into the Part, till the Escar be fallen off.
The Dressing and Bandage.
After the Application of the Lapis Infernalis, or any other Cautery-Stone, it is necessary to lay over it a Plaister, a Bolster, and a Circular Bandage, which ought to be kept sufficiently close, to press the Stone, after a Pea or little Piece of Orrice-Root, hath been put into the Ulcer to keep it open. Then the Patient is to make use of this Bandage, with which he may dress it himself. Take a piece of very strong Cloth, large enough to roll up the Part without crossing above it: And let three or four Holes be made in one of its sides, as many small Ribbans or Pieces of Tape being sow'd to the other, which may be let into the Holes, as occasion serves, to close the Band.
Of the Application of Leeches.
It is requisite that the Leeches be taken in clear running Waters, and that they be long and slender, having a little Head, the Back green, with yellow Streaks, and the Belly somewhat reddish. Before they are apply'd, it is also expedient to let 'em purge during some Days in fair Water, fast half a Day in a Box without Water. Afterward the Part being rubb'd or chaf'd with warm Water, Milk, or the Blood of some Fowl, the Opening of the Box is to be set to the Part, or the Leeches themselves laid upon a Cloth; for they will not fasten when taken up with the Fingers. The end of their Tail may be cut with a Pair of Sizzers, to see the Blood run, and to determine its quantity, as also to facilitate their sucking. When you wou'd take 'em away, put Ashes, Salt, or any other sharp thing upon their Head, and they will suddenly desist from their Work; but they are not to be pull'd off by force, lest they shou'd leave their Head or Sting in the Wound, which wou'd be of very dangerous consequence. When they are remov'd, let a little Blood run out, and wash the Part with salt Water.
Is made with a Bolster soakt in some Styptick Water, if the Blood will not otherwise stop; or in Brandy or Aqua-Vitæ if there be an Inflammation; and it is to be supported with a Bandage proper for the Part.
Of the Application of the Seton.
To perform this Operation, a Cotton or Silk Thread is to be taken, after it hath been dipt in Oil of Roses, and let into a kind of Pack-Needle; then the Patient sitting in a Chair, is to hold up his Head backward, whilst the Surgeon gripes the Skin transversely in the Nape of the Neck with his Fingers, or else takes it up with a Pair of Forceps, and passeth the Needle thro' the Holes of the Forceps, leaving the String in the Skin. As often as the Bolster that covers the Seton is taken off, that part of the String which lies in the Wound is to be drawn out, and cut off.
Scarifications are to be made more or less deep, accordingly as necessity requires, beginning at the bottom, and carrying them on upward, to avoid being hinder'd by the Hæmorrhage. They must also be let one into another, that Strings may not be left in the Skin.
Of the Application of Vesicatories.
Vesicatories are compounded with the Powder of Cantharides or Spanish flies, mixt with very sower Leaven, or else with Turpentine. Before they are apply'd, a light friction is to be made on the Part with a warm cloth, and a greater or lesser quantity is to be laid on, accordingly as the Skin is more or less fine, leaving 'em on the Part about seven or eight Hours; then they are to be taken away, and the Blisters are to be open'd, applying thereto some sort of Spirituous Liquor.
Of the Application of Cupping-Glasses.
A Good Friction being first made with warm Clothes, lighted Toe is to be put into the Cupping-Glass, or else a Wax-Candle fasten'd to a Counter, and then it is to be apply'd to the Part till the Fire be extinguish'd, and the Skin swell'd, re-iterating the Operation as often as it is necessary; and afterward laying on a Bolster steept in Spirit of Wine. These are call'd dry Cupping-Glasses: But if you wou'd draw Blood, every thing is to be observ'd that we have now mention'd, besides that Scarifications are to be made, according to the usual manner; and the Cupping-Glass is to be set upon the Scarifications: But when the Cupping-Glass is half full of Blood, it must be taken off to be emptied, and the Application thereof is to be re-iterated, as often as it is required to take away any Blood. Lastly, the Incisions are to be wash'd with some Spirituous Liquor; and a Bandage is to be made convenient for the Part.
Of the opening of Abcesses or Impostumes.
An Abcess or Impostume ought to be open'd in its most mature part, and in the Bias of the Humours, endeavouring to preserve the Fibres of the Muscles from being cut, unless there be an absolute necessity, avoiding also the great Vessels, Tendons, and Nerves. The Opening must be rather large than small, and not too much press'd in letting out the purulent Matter. If the Skin be thick, as it happens in the Heel, it may be par'd with a Razor; and if the Matter be lodg'd under the Nails, it wou'd be required to scrape 'em with Glass before they are pierc'd.