Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia

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Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia  (2019) 
Parliament of the Republic of Indonesia

Official translation of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia
first adopted August 18, 1945 - superseded 1949-1959 - restored 1959, consolidated, as amended by the First Amendment (19 October 1999), the Second Amendment (18 August 2000), the Third Amendment (9 November 2001) and the Fourth Amendment (11 August 2002).

THE 1945 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

PREAMBLE

Whereas Independence is the inalienable right of all nations; therefore, colonialism must be abolished in the world as it is not in conformity with humanity and justice.

And the moment of rejoicing has arrived in the struggle of the Indonesian independence movement to guide the people safely and well to the gate of the independence of the state of Indonesia which is independent, united, sovereign, just and prosperous; By the blessings of Almighty God and motivated by the noble desire to live a free national life, the people of Indonesia hereby declare their independence.

Subsequent thereto, to form a government of the state of Indonesia which protect all the people of Indonesia and all the independence and the land that

has been struggled for, and to improve public welfare, to educate the life of the nation and to participate toward the establishment of a world order based on freedom, perpetual peace and social justice, therefore the independence of Indonesia is formulated into a constitution of the Republic of Indonesia which is built into a sovereign state based on a belief in the One and Only God, just and civilized humanity, the unity of Indonesia, and democratic life led by wisdom of thoughts in deliberation amongst representatives of the people, and achieving social justice for all the people of Indonesia.

CHAPTER I
FORM OF STATE AND SOVEREIGNTY

Article 1
  1. Indonesia is a Unitary State in the form of a Republic.
  2. Sovereignty is in the hands of the people and is implemented according to this Constitution.
  3. Indonesia is a law-based state.

CHAPTER II
PEOPLE'S CONSULTATIVE ASSEMBLY

Article 2
  1. The People’s Consultative Assembly consists of the members of The House of Representatives and the members of The Council of Representatives of The Regions elected through general elections, and regulated further by law.
  2. The People’s Consultative Assembly holds a meeting at least once in every five years in the capital of the state.
  3. Any decisions of the People’s Consultative Assembly is made by voting.
Article 3
  1. The People’s Consultative Assembly has the authority to amend and enact the Constitution.
  2. The People’s Consultative Assembly inaugurates the President and/or Vice-President.
  3. The People’s Consultative Assembly may only discharge the President and/or Vice-President during his/her tenure in accordance with the Constitution.

CHAPTER III
EXECUTIVE POWER

Article 4
  1. The President of the Republic of Indonesia holds the power of government in accordance with the Constitution.
  2. In exercising his/her duties, the President is assisted by a Vice-President.
Article 5
  1. The President is entitled to submit draft law to the House of Representatives.
  2. The President enact government regulations to implement laws accordingly.
Article 6
  1. Candidates for President and Vice-President must be Indonesian nationals and never have acquired another citizenship by his/her own will, never have committed an act of treason against the state, and are mentally and physically capable of implementing the duties and obligations of President or Vice-President.
  2. The requirements to become President and Vice-President are further regulated by law.
Article 6A
  1. The President and Vice-President are elected directly as a pair by the people.
  2. The pair of candidates for President and Vice-President is proposed by political parties or coalitions of political parties which are participants in the general elections prior to the holding of general elections.
  3. The pair of candidates for President and Vice-President polling more than fifty percent of the total number of votes during the general election with at least twenty percent of the votes in more than half of the total number of provinces in Indonesia is inaugurated as the President and Vice-President.
  1. In the event that no pair of candidates for President and Vice-President is elected, the two pairs of candidate polling the first and second most voted in the general elections by people directly, and the pair that polling the most votes is innaugurated as President and Vice-President.
  2. The procedures for holding the election of the President and Vice-President is further regulated by law.
Article 7
The President and Vice-President serve for a term of five years and may subsequently be re-elected for another term only.
Article 7A
The President and/or the Vice-President may be discharged during his/her term of office by the People’s Consultative Assembly on the proposal of the House of Representatives, both if it is proven that he/she has violated the law through an act of treason, corruption, bribery, other act of a grave criminal nature, or through moral turpitude, and if the President and/or Vice-President no longer meets the qualifications as President and/or Vice-President.
Article 7B
  1. Any proposal for the discharge of the President and/or the Vice-President may be submitted by the House of Representatives to the People’s Consultative Assembly only by first submitting a request to the Constitutional Court to investigate, bring to trial, and issue a decision on the opinion of the House of Representatives either that the President and/or Vice-President has violated the law through an act of treason, corruption, bribery, or other act of a grave criminal nature, or through moral turpitude, and/or that the President and/or Vice-President no longer meets the qualifications as President and/or Vice-President.
  1. The opinion of the House of Representatives that the President and/or Vice-President has violated the law or no longer meets the qualifications as President and/or Vice-President is undertaken in implementing the supervision function of the House of Representatives.
  2. The request of the House of Representatives to the Constitutional Court can only be submitted with the support of at least 2/3 of the total members of the House of Representatives who are present in a plenary session attended by at least 2/3 of the total members of the House of Representatives.
  3. The Constitutional Court has the obligation to examine, bring to trial, and reach the most just decision on the opinion of the House of Representatives not later than ninety days after the request of the House of Representatives was received by the Constitutional Court.
  4. If the Constitutional Court decides that the President and/or Vice-President is proved to have committed violation of law through an act of treason, corruption, bribery, or other act of a grave criminal nature, or through moral turpitude; and/or the President and/or Vice-President is proved no longer to meet the qualifications as President and/or Vice-President, the House of Representatives holds a plenary session to submit the proposal to discharge the President and/or Vice-President to the People’s Consultative Assembly.
  5. The People’s Consultative Assembly has the obligation to hold a session to decide on the proposal of the House of Representatives not later than thirty days after its receipt of the proposal.
  6. The decision of the People’s Consultative Assembly over the proposal to discharge the President and/or Vice-President must be taken during a plenary session of the People’s Consultative Assembly which is attended by at least 3/4 of the total members and requires the approval of at least 2/3 of the total members who are present, after the President and/or Vice-President have been given the opportunity to present his/her explanation to the plenary session of the People’s Consultative Assembly.
Article 7C
The President may not freeze and/or dissolve the House of Representatives.
Article 8
  1. If the President passes away, resigns, is discharged, or is incapable of performing his/her obligations during his/her term of office, he/she will be replaced by the Vice-President until the end of his/her term of office.
  2. In the event that the position of Vice-President is vacant, the People’s Consultative Assembly holds a session not later than sixty days to elect a Vice-President from two candidates nominated by the President.
  3. If the President and the Vice-President pass away, resign, are discharged, or are incapable of performing their obligations within their term of office simultaneously, the caretaker of the presidential office is undertaken by a joint administration of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Home Affairs, and the Minister of Defense. Not later than thirty days thereafter, the People’s Consultative Assembly holds a session to elect a President and Vice-President from the two pairs of candidates by the political parties or coalitions of political parties acquired the first and the second majority votes in the previous general election, up to the expiry of the term of their office.
Article 9
  1. Prior to taking office, the President and Vice President swear an oath in accordance with their respective religions or make a solemn promise before the People’s Consultative Assembly or House of Representatives. The oath or promise is as follows:
    Presidential (Vice-Presidential) Oath:
    "In the name of God, I swear to fulfil the obligation of the President of The Republic of Indonesia (the Vice-President of Indonesia) to the best of my ability and as justly as possible, to strictly hold the Constitution and to enforce all the laws and regulations there under consistently and devote myself to the Country and Nation."
    Presidential (Vice-Presidential) Pledge:
    "I solemnly pledge to fulfil the obligations of the President of the Republic of Indonesia (the Vice-President of the Republic of Indonesia to the best of my ability and as justly as possible to strictly hold the Constitution and to enforce all the laws and regulations there under consistently and devote myself to the Country and Nation."
  1. If that the People’s Consultative Assembly or House of Representatives is unable to hold a session, the President and Vice-President swear an oath in accordance with their respective religions or make a solemn promise before the leadership of the People’s Consultative Assembly witnessed by the Leadership of the Supreme Court.
Article 10
The President is the supreme commander of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force.
Article 11
  1. The President with the approval of the House of Representatives may declare war, make peace and conclude treaties with other countries.
  2. The President in making other international agreements that will produce an extensive and fundamental impact on the lives of the people which is linked to the state financial burden, and/or that will requires an amendment to or the enactment of a law, must obtain the approval of the House of Representatives.
  3. Further provisions regarding international agreements are regulated by law.
Article 12
The President declares a state of emergency. The conditions for such a declaration and the subsequent measures regarding a state of emergency is regulated by law.
Article 13
  1. The President appoints ambassadors and consuls.
  2. In the event of appointing ambassadors, the President pays regard to the consideration of the House of Representatives.
  3. The President receives the accreditation of ambassadors of foreign nations and by paying regard to the consideration of the House of Representatives.
Article 14
  1. The President grants clemency and rehabilitation by paying regard to the consideration of the Supreme Court.
  2. The President grants amnesty and the dropping of charges and by paying regard to the consideration of the House of Representatives.
Article 15
The President grants titles, decorations and other honors as regulated by Law.
Article 16
The President establishes an advisory council with the duty of giving advice and consideration to the President, which will be further regulated by law.

CHAPTER IV
SUPREME ADVISORY COUNCIL

Deleted.

CHAPTER V
STATE MINISTRIES

Article 17
  1. The President is assisted by ministers of the state.
  2. The ministers are appointed and discharged by the President.
  3. Every minister is responsible for a particular area of government affair.
  1. The formation, change, and dissolution of ministries of state is regulated by law.

CHAPTER VI
LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

Article 18
  1. The Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia is divided into provinces and the province is divided into regencies and municipalities, each of which has local government which is regulated by law.
  2. The local governments of the provinces, regencies and municipalities administer and manage their own affairs according to the principles of regional autonomy and the duty of assistance.
  3. The local government of the provinces, regencies and municipalities have Regional House of House of Representatives whose members are elected through general elections.
  4. Governors, Regents and Mayors, respectively as heads of local government of the provinces, regencies and municipalities, are elected democratically.
  5. The local governments exercise wide-ranging autonomy, except in matters specified by law to be the affairs of the Central Government.
  6. The local governments have the authority to issue regional regulations and other regulations to implement autonomy and the duty of assistance.
  7. The structure and procedures for administering local government are regulated by law.
Article 18A
  1. The authority relations between the central government and the local governments of the provinces, regencies and municipalities, or between a province and its regencies and municipalities, are regulated by law by paying regard to the particularities and diversity of each region.
  1. The relations between the central government and local government in finances, public services, and the utilization of natural and other resources are regulated and administered fairly in accordance with laws.
Article 18B
  1. The state recognizes and respects units of local government that have specific or special nature, which are regulated by law.
  2. The state recognizes and respects entities of the adat (indigenous) law communities along with their traditional rights as long as these remain in existence and are in accordance with the development of community and the principles of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia, are regulated by law.

CHAPTER VII
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

Article 19
  1. Members of the House of Representatives are elected through a general election.
  2. The structure of the House of Representatives is regulated by law.
  3. The House of Representatives holds sessions at least once a year.
Article 20
  1. The House of Representatives holds the power to make laws.
  2. Each draft law is discussed by the House of Representatives and the President to acquire joint approval.
  3. If the draft law fails to acquire joint approval, it cannot be resubmitted in a session of the House of Representatives during such period.
  1. The President ratifies a jointly approved draft law to become a law.
  2. In the event that the President fails to ratify a jointly approved draft law within thirty days following such approval, the draft law lawfully becomes a law and shall be promulgated.
Article 20A
  1. The House of Representatives has legislative, budgeting and supervisory functions.
  2. In carrying out its functions, in addition to the rights regulated in other articles of this Constitution, the House of Representatives holds the right of interpellation, the right of inquiry, and the right of expression.
  3. In addition to the rights regulated in other articles of this Constitution, every member of the House of Representatives has the right to submit questions, the right to propose suggestions and express opinions, as well as the right of immunity.
  4. Further provisions regarding the rights of the House of Representatives and the rights of members of the House of Representatives are regulated by law.
Article 21
The members of the House of Representatives have the right to propose draft law.
Article 22
  1. In the event that exigencies compel, the President has the right to enact government regulations in lieu of laws.
  2. The government regulations shall acquire the approval of the House of Representatives during its next session.
  3. If there is no such approval, the government regulations must be repealed.
Article 22A
Further provisions regarding the procedures for making laws are regulated by law.
Article 22B
The members of the House of Representatives may be discharged from their offices, according to conditions and procedures which is regulated by law.

CHAPTER VIIA
REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE COUNCIL

Article 22C
  1. The members of the Regional Representative Council are elected from every province through a general election.
  2. The number of the Regional Representative Council members from every province is the same and the total number of the Regional Representative Council members is not exceed one third of the total members of the House of Representatives.
  3. The Regional Representative Council holds a session at least once a year.
  4. The structure and position of the Regional Representative Council is regulated by law.
Article 22D
  1. The Regional Representative Council may propose to the House of Representatives draft law related to regional autonomy, the relations of central and local government, formation, expansion and merger of regions, management of natural resources and other economic resources, and draft law related to the financial balance between the center and the regions.
  1. The Regional Representative Council participates in the discussion of draft law related to regional autonomy; the relations of central and local government; formation, expansion, and merger of regions; management of natural resources and other economic resources, and financial balance between the center and the regions; and provides consideration to the House of Representatives over draft law on the state budget and on draft law related to taxation, education, or religion.
  2. The Regional Representative Council may supervise the implementation of laws concerning regional autonomy, the formation, expansion and merger of regions, the relations of central and local government, management of natural resources and other economic resources, implementation of the state budget, taxation, education, or religion and submits the result of such supervision to the House of Representatives as consideration to be followed-up.
  3. The members of the Regional Representative Council may be removed from office under requirements and procedures that is regulated by law.

CHAPTER VIIB
GENERAL ELECTIONS

Article 22E
  1. General elections are conducted in a direct, public, free, secret, honest, and fair manner once every five years.
  2. General elections are conducted to elect the members of the House of Representatives, the Regional Representative Council, the President and Vice-President, and the Regional House of Representatives.
  3. The participants in the general election for the election of the members of the House of Representatives and the members of the Regional House of Representatives are political parties.
  4. The participants in the general election for the election of the members of the Regional Representative Council are individuals.
  5. The general elections are organized by a general election commission which is national, permanent, and independent.
  6. Further provisions regarding general elections are regulated by law.

CHAPTER VIII
FINANCIAL MATTERS

Article 23
  1. The state budget as the form of the management of state funds is determined annually by law and implemented in an open and accountable manner in order to best attain the prosperity of the people.
  2. The Draft Law on the state budget is submitted by the President for joint discussion with the House of Representatives, by taking into account the consideration of the Regional Representative Council.
  3. If the House of Representatives does not approve the Draft Law on the state budget submitted by the President, the Government implements the state Budget of the previous year.
Article 23A
All taxes and other levies of compelling character for the purposes of the state are regulated by law.
Article 23B
The denomination and value of currency are regulated by law.
Article 23C
Other matters concerning state finances are regulated by law.
Article 23D
The state possess a central bank, with the structure, position, authority, responsibilities and independence regulated by law.

CHAPTER VIIIA
AUDIT BOARD

Article 23E
  1. In order to audit the management and accountability of state finances, a free and independent Audit Board shall be established.
  1. The audit result of state finances is submitted to the House of Representatives, the Regional Representative Councilor the Regional House of Representatives in line with their respective authority.
  2. The audit result is followed-up by representative institutions and/or board according to law.
Article 23F
  1. The members of the Audit Board are elected by the House of Representatives by taking into account any considerations of the Regional Representative Council, and will be formally appointed by the President.
  2. The leadership of the Audit Board is elected by and from the members.
Article 23G
  1. The Audit Board is domiciled in the capital of state, and has representation in every province.
  2. Further provisions regarding the Audit Board are regulated by law.

CHAPTER IX
JUDICIAL POWERS

Article 24
  1. The judicial power is independent authority in organizing the judicature for the sake of law enforcement and justice.
  2. The judicial power is exercised by a Supreme Court with its subordinated judicial bodies within the form of general courts, religious courts, military courts, administrative courts, and by a Constitutional Court.
  3. Otherbodies whose functions are related to the judicial power are regulated by law.
Article 24A
  1. The Supreme Court has the authority to adjudicate at the level of cassation, to review ordinances and regulations below laws against laws, as well as other authorities given by law.
  1. A Supreme Court justice shall have integrity and impeccable personality, be just, professional, and experienced in matters of law.
  2. The candidates for supreme court justice are proposed by the Judicial Commission to the House of Representatives for approval and subsequently be formally appointed to office by the President.
  3. The chief justice and the deputy chief justice of the Supreme Court are elected from and by the Supreme Court justices.
  4. The structure, position, membership, and judicial procedure of the Supreme Court and its subordinated judicial bodies are regulated by law.
Article 24B
  1. The Judicial Commission is independent and has the authority to propose candidates for the Supreme Court justices and other authorities to preserve and uphold the honor, dignity and conduct of judges.
  2. A member of Judicial Commission shall have legal knowledge and experience as well as integrity and impeccable personality.
  3. A Judicial Commission member is appointed and discharged by the President with the approval of the House of Representatives.
  4. The structure, position, and membership of the Judicial Commission are regulated by law.
Article 24C
  1. The Constitutional Court has the authority to adjudicate at the first and final level whose decision is final to review laws against the Constitution, to adjudicate on authority disputes of state institutions whose authorities are given by the Constitution, to adjudicate on the dissolution of a political party, and to adjudicate on disputes regarding the result of a general election.
  1. The Constitutional Court shall render a decision on the opinion of the House of Representatives regarding an alleged violation by the President and /or Vice-President according to the Constitution.
  2. The Constitutional Court is composed of nine members of constitutional justices who are designated by the President, of whom three are nominated by the Supreme Court, three by the House of Representatives, and three by the President.
  3. The chief justice and the deputy chief justice of the Constitutional Court are elected from and by the constitutional justices.
  4. A Constitutional Justice shall have integrity and impeccable personality, be fair, be a statesperson mastering the constitution and constitutionalism, and not concurrently hold any position as a state official.
  5. The appointment and discharge of constitutional justices, the judicial procedure, and other provisions regarding the Constitutional Court are regulated by law.
Article 25
The requirements of the appointment and discharge of a judge are stipulated by law.

CHAPTER IXA
STATE TERRITORY

Article 25A
The Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia is an archipelagic state having an Archipelagic (Nusantara) character with a territory, the borders and rights of whose territory is stipulated by law.

CHAPTER X
CITIZENS AND RESIDENTS

Article 26
  1. Citizens consists of indigenous Indonesian peoples and persons of foreign origin who have been legalized as citizens in accordance with law.
  1. Residents consists of Indonesian citizens and foreign nationals living in Indonesia.
  2. Matters concerning citizens and residents are regulated by law.
Article 27
  1. All citizens are equal before the law and in government and duty to respect the law and government, with no exceptions.
  2. Each citizen has the right to work and to have a decent living for humanity.
  3. Every citizen has the right and duty to participate in defending the state.
Article 28
The freedom to associate and to assemble, to express written and oral opinions and so-forth is enacted by law.

CHAPTER XA
HUMAN RIGHTS

Article 28A
Every person has the right to live and to maintain their lives and livelihood.
Article 28B
  1. Every person has the right to establish a family and to procreate based upon lawful marriage.
  2. Every child has the right to live, to grow and to develop, and has the right to protection from violence and discrimination.
Article 28C
  1. Every person has the right to self development through the fulfillment of their basic needs, the right to receive education and to benefit from science and technology, arts and culture, for the purpose of improving the quality of their lives and for the welfare of the human race.
  1. Every person has the right to improve themselves in striving for their rights collectively to develop their society, nation and state.
Article 28D
  1. Every person has the right of recognition, securities, protection, and fair legal certainty, and equal treatment before the law.
  2. Every person has the right to work and to receive fair and decent remuneration and treatment in employment relations.
  3. Every citizen has the right to obtain equal opportunity in government.
  4. Every person has the right to citizenship.
Article 28E
  1. Every person is free to choose and to practice their choice of religion, to choose education and schooling, to choose employment, to choose citizenship, and to choose their residences within the state territory and to leave, and to which shall have the right to return.
  2. Every person has the right to freedom of belief, and to express thoughts and tenets, in accordance with their conscience.
  3. Every person has the right to freedom of association, assembly, and expression.
Article 28F
Every person has the right to communicate and to obtain information for the purpose of self-development and social environment, and has the right to seek, obtain, possess, store, process and convey information using any channels available.
Article 28G
  1. Every person has the right to protection of self, family, honor, dignity, and their property, and has the right to security and protection from threats of fear to exercise or not to exercise his human rights.
  1. Every person has the right to be free from torture or inhumane and degrading treatment, and has the right to receive political asylum from another country.
Article 28H
  1. Every person has the right to live in prosperity physically and spiritually, to reside, and to enjoy good and healthy environment, and has the right to obtain medical care.
  2. Every person has the right to receive ease and special treatment to obtain the same opportunity and benefit in order to achieve equality and fairness.
  3. Every person has the right to social security enabling them to develop their entire self as a dignified human being.
  4. Every person has the right to own personal property and such property may not be arbitrarily deprived by any parties.
Article 28I
  1. Right to live, right to be free from torture, right of freedom of thought and conscience, right of religion, right to be free from slavery, right to be recognized as a person before the law, and right not to be prosecuted under a law with retrospective effect are all human rights that cannot be deprived under any circumstances.
  2. Every person has the right to be free from discriminative treatment based upon any grounds and has the right to protection from such discriminative treatment.
  3. Cultural identities and rights of indigenous people are respected in accordance with the development of times/age and civilizations.
  4. Protection, advancement, enforcement, and fulfillment of human rights are responsibilities of the state, especially the government.
  5. For the purpose of enforcing and protecting human rights in accordance with the principle of a constitutional democratic state, the implementation of human rights is guaranteed, regulated and set forth in legislation.
Article 28J
  1. Every person shall respect human rights of others in the order of life of the society, nation, and state.
  2. In exercising their rights and freedoms, every person shall be subject to any restrictions established by law solely for the purpose of ensuring the recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, religious values, security, and public order in a democratic society.

CHAPTER XI
RELIGION

Article 29
  1. The state is based upon the belief in the One and Only God.
  2. The state guarantees the freedom of religion for each citizen and to practice such religion and belief accordingly.

CHAPTER XII
STATE DEFENSE AND SECURITY

Article 30
  1. Every citizen has the right and duty to participate in the defense and security of the state.
  2. The defense and security of the state is conducted through the total people's defense and security system, with the Indonesian National Military and the Indonesian National Police as the main force, and the people as the supporting force.
  3. The Indonesian National Military, consisting of the Army, Navy and Air Force, as an instrument of the state has the duty to defend, protect, and maintain the integrity and sovereignty of the state.
  4. The Indonesian National Police, as an instrument of the state that safeguards public order and security, has the duty to protect, guard, serve the people, and to enforce the law.
  1. The structure and position of the Indonesian National Military and the Indonesian National Police, the relation of authority between the Indonesian National Military and the Indonesian National Police in conducting their respective duties, the requirements concerning the participation of citizens in the defense and security of the state, and other matters related to defense and security, are regulated by law.

CHAPTER XIII
EDUCATION AND CULTURE

Article 31
  1. Every citizen has the right to education.
  2. Every citizen shall undertake basic education, and the government shall provide such funding.
  3. The government administers and organizes a national education system to enhance spiritual belief and devoutness as well as noble character in educating the life of the nation, which is regulated by law.
  4. The state prioritizes the budget for education to a minimum of twenty percent of the state budget and of the regional budgets to fulfill the needs of performing national education.
  5. The government advances science and technology by upholding religious values and national unity for the advancement of civilization and prosperity of humankind.
Article 32
  1. The state promotes Indonesian national culture among the world civilizations by ensuring the freedom of society to preserve and to develop cultural values.
  2. The state recognizes and preserves local languages as national cultural treasures.

CHAPTER XIV
NATIONAL ECONOMY AND SOCIAL WELFARE

Article 33
  1. The economy is organized as a joint endeavor based upon the principles of brotherhood.
  2. Important sectors of production for the country and affect the life of the people are under the powers of the state.
  3. The land and the water as well as the natural resources therein are controlled by the state and utilized for the optimal welfare of the people.
  4. National economy is conducted on the basis of economic democracy upholding the principles of togetherness, fairbased efficiency, sustainability, environment-oriented, independency, and keeping a balance in the progress and unity of the national economy.
  5. Further provisions regarding to the implementation of this Article are regulated by law.
Article 34
  1. Destitute persons and abandoned children are taken care of by the state.
  2. The state develops a system of social security for all of the people and empowers the inadequate and underprivileged in society in accordance with human dignity.
  3. The state is responsible for providing adequate medical and public service facilities.
  4. Further provisions regarding the implementation of this Article are regulated by law.

CHAPTER XV
NATIONAL FLAG, LANGUAGE, EMBLEM AND ANTHEM

Article 35
The national flag of Indonesia is the Red and White (Sang Merah Putih).
Article 36
The national language is Indonesian.
Article 36A
The national emblem is the Garuda Pancasila with the motto Unity in Diversity (Bhinneka Tunggal Ika).
Article 36B
The national anthem is Indonesia Raya.
Article 36C
Further provisions regarding the national Flag, Language, Emblem, and Anthem are regulated by law.

CHAPTER XVI
CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS

Article 37
  1. A proposal to amend the articles of this Constitution can be put on in the agenda of the People’s Consultative Assembly session if it is submitted by at least 1/3 of the total number of the People’s Consultative Assembly members.
  2. Any proposal to amend the articles of this Constitution is submitted in writing and clearly states which part to be amended and the reasons for the amendment.
  3. To amend the articles of this Constitution, the People’s Consultative Assembly session requires at least 2/3 of the total members of the People’s Consultative Assembly to be present.
  4. Decision to amend articles under the Constitution is made with the agreement of at least fifty percent plus one member of the total members of the People’s Consultative Assembly.
  5. Particularly regarding the form of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia no amendment can be made.

TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

Article I
Any existing legislation remains in effect insofar that new legislation have not been established pursuant to this Constitution.
Article II
All state institutions shall remain functioning to the extent of executing the provisions of the Constitution as long as they have not been replaced by new ones in accordance with this Constitution.
Article III
The Constitutional Court is established at the latest by 17 August 2003 and the Supreme Court undertakes its authority before its establishment.

ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS

Article I
The People’s Consultative Assembly is assigned to conduct a review of the materials and the legal status of the Resolution of the Temporary People’s Consultative Assembly and the Resolution of People’s Consultative Assembly for decision by the People’s Consultative Assembly Session in 2003.
Article II
With the enactment of the amendment to this Constitution, the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia consists of the Preamble and the articles.
Jakarta, 24 May 2019
Has been translated as an Official Translation
MINISTER OF LAW AND HUMAN RIGHTS
OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA,

stamped and signed

YASONNA H. LAOLY

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  3. government speech or speech of a government official;
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