Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1993/1997-02-04
To introduce a new Constitution for the Republic of South Africa and to provide for matters incidental thereto.
as amended by
Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Amendment Act, No. 2 of 1994
Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Second Amendment Act, No. 3 of 1994
Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Third Amendment Act, No. 13 of 1994
Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Fourth Amendment Act, No. 14 of 1994
Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Fifth Amendment Act, No. 29 of 1994
Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Sixth Amendment Act, No. 24 of 1994
Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Amendment Act, No. 20 of 1995
Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Second Amendment Act, No. 44 of 1995
Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Amendment Act, No. 7 of 1996
Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Third Amendment Act, No. 26 of 1996
Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996
The National Executive
Powers and functions of President
82. (4) (b) The President may—
The Judicial Authority and the Administration of Justice
108. (1) The authority to institute criminal prosecutions on behalf of the state shall vest in the attorneys-general of the Republic.
(2) The area of jurisdiction, powers and functions of an attorney-general shall be as prescribed by or under law.
(3) No person shall be appointed as an attorney-general unless he or she is appropriately qualified in terms of a law regulating the appointment of attorneys-general in the Republic.
Provincial Finance and Fiscal Affairs
Provinces’ share of revenue collected nationally
155. (1) A province shall be entitled to an equitable share of revenue collected nationally to enable it to provide services and to exercise and perform its powers and functions.
(2) The equitable share of revenue referred to in subsection (1) shall consist of—
(3) The percentages referred to in paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of subsection (2), and the conditions referred to in paragraph (e) of that subsection, shall be fixed reasonably in respect of the different provinces after taking into account the national interest and recommendations of the Financial and Fiscal Commission, and all transfers to the provinces shall be effected expeditiously and without any deduction therefrom.
(4) Allocations referred to in subsection (2)(e) shall be determined in accordance with an Act of Parliament, with due regard to the national interest and after taking into account—
Levying of taxes by provinces
156. (1) A provincial legislature shall be competent to raise taxes, levies and duties, other than income tax or value-added or other sales tax, and to impose surcharges on taxes, provided that—
(1B) A provincial legislature shall notwithstanding subsection (1) have exclusive competence within its province to impose taxes, levies and duties (excluding income tax or value-added or other sales tax) on—
(2) A provincial legislature shall not be entitled to levy taxes detrimentally affecting national economic policies, inter-provincial commerce or the national mobility of goods, services, capital and labour.
(3) A provincial legislature shall be competent to enact legislation authorising the imposition of user charges: Provided that—
Raising of loans by provinces
157. (1) A province—
(2) Loans referred to in subsection (1)(a) may be raised for bridging finance during a fiscal year, subject to the condition that they shall be redeemed within 12 months and subject to such further, reasonable conditions as may be prescribed by an Act of Parliament passed after recommendations of the Financial and Fiscal Commission relating to the draft text of any such Act have been submitted to and considered by Parliament.
(3) A province may not guarantee a loan unless the Financial and Fiscal Commission has verified the need for a guarantee and recommended that it be given.
Financial allocations by national government
158. Financial allocations by the national government—
Provincial Revenue Funds
159. (1) There is hereby established in the administration of each province a Provincial Revenue Fund, into which shall be paid all revenue collected by or accruing to the provincial government, and all financial allocations referred to in section 158 made by the national government to such a provincial government and to local governments within the province of such a provincial government.
(2) No money may be withdrawn from a Provincial Revenue Fund otherwise than by virtue of an appropriation made in accordance with a law of the provincial legislature concerned.
Administration and finance
178. (2) A local government shall, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed by law of a competent legislature after taking into consideration any recommendations of the Financial and Fiscal Commission, be competent to levy and recover such property rates, levies, fees, taxes and tariffs as may be necessary to exercise its powers and perform its functions: Provided that within each local government such rates, levies, fees, taxes and tariffs shall be based on a uniform structure for its area of jurisdiction.
(3) A local government shall be entitled to an equitable allocation by the provincial government of funds, and the Financial and Fiscal Commission shall make recommendations regarding criteria for such allocations, taking into account the different categories of local government referred to in section 174(2).
Provision for establishment of Volkstaat Council
184A. (1) The establishment of a Volkstaat Council is hereby authorised.
(2) The Council shall consist of 20 members elected by members of Parliament who support the establishment of a Volkstaat for those who want it.
(3) The Council shall conduct its affairs according to rules made by the Council.
Functions of Council
184B. (1) The Council shall serve as a constitutional mechanism to enable proponents of the idea of a Volkstaat to constitutionally pursue the establishment of such a Volkstaat, and shall for this purpose be competent—
General Financial Affairs
National Revenue Fund
185. (1) There is hereby established a National Revenue Fund, into which shall be paid all revenues, as may be defined by an Act of Parliament, raised or received by the national government, and from which appropriations shall be made by Parliament in accordance with this Constitution or any applicable Act of Parliament, and subject to the charges imposed thereby.
(2) No money shall be withdrawn from the National Revenue Fund, except under appropriation made by an Act of Parliament in accordance with this Constitution: Provided that revenue to which a province is entitled in terms of section 155(2)(a), (b), (c) and (d) shall form a direct charge against the National Revenue Fund to be credited to the respective Provincial Revenue Funds.
186. The Minister responsible for national financial affairs shall in respect of every financial year cause to be laid before the National Assembly an annual budget reflecting the estimates of revenue and expenditure, which shall, inter alia, reflect capital and current expenditure of the government for that year.
Guarantees by national government
188. The national government may not guarantee any provincial or local government loan, unless—
Financial and Fiscal Commission
Objects and functions
199. (1) The objects and functions of the Commission shall be to apprise itself of all financial and fiscal information relevant to national, provincial and local government, administration and development and, on the basis of such information, to render advice and make recommendations to the relevant legislative authorities in terms of this Constitution regarding the financial and fiscal requirements of the national, provincial and local governments, including—
Constitution, expertise and impartiality
200. (1) The Commission shall consist of—
(3) No person shall be qualified to be appointed to the Commission unless he or she—
(5) Vacancies in the Commission shall be filled in accordance with the relevant provisions of this section under which the former member concerned was appointed.
(6) The chairperson and the deputy chairperson shall be appointed for a period of five years, and the other members of the Commission for a period of two years, but shall be eligible for re-appointment.
(7) A member of the Commission shall perform his or her duties fairly, impartially and independently.
(8) The chairperson and deputy chairperson shall not perform or commit himself or herself to perform remunerative work outside his or her official duties.
(9) A member of the Commission shall not hold office in any political party or political organisation.
(10) It shall be an offence to influence or attempt to influence a member of the Commission to act otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of subsection (7).
(11) The chairperson and deputy chairperson—
Meetings of Commission
201. (1) (a) The first meeting of the Commission shall be held within 30 days of its appointment at a time and place to be determined by the chairperson, and subsequent meetings shall be held at a time and place determined by the Commission or, if authorised thereto by the Commission, by the chairperson.
(b) If both the chairperson and deputy chairperson are absent from a meeting, the members present shall elect one from among their number to act as chairperson.
(2) A quorum for a meeting of the Commission shall be not less than one half of all its members.
(3) A decision of two-thirds of the members present shall constitute a decision of the Commission.
(4) All the decisions of the Commission shall be recorded.
202. (1) The Commission may establish committees from among its number.
(2) Any such committee shall consist of such number of members as the Commission may determine.
(3) The Commission shall designate one of the members of a committee as chairperson thereof, and if any such chairperson is absent from a meeting of the committee the members present shall elect one from among their number to act as chairperson.
(4) (a) The Commission may, subject to such directions as it may issue from time to time—
(b) The Commission shall not be divested of a power so delegated or the performance of a function so authorised, and may amend or set aside any decision of a committee.
Co-option of persons by committees
203. (1) A committee may co-opt any person to serve on such committee or to attend a particular meeting thereof in connection with a particular matter dealt with by the committee.
(2) Such a person may take part in the proceedings of the committee in connection with the matter or at the meeting in respect of which he or she has been co-opted, but shall not be entitled to vote.
Remuneration and allowances of members and other persons
204. Members of the Commission and persons referred to in section 203 who are not in the employment of the state, shall be paid, from money appropriated by Parliament for that purpose, such remuneration and allowances as the Minister responsible for national financial affairs may determine.
Appointment of staff
205. (1) The Commission may appoint staff and accept secondment of staff as it may deem necessary in consultation with the Public Service Commission.
(2) Expenditure incidental to the performance of the functions of the Commission in terms of this Constitution or under any other law shall be defrayed from money appropriated by Parliament.
206. The President may make regulations regarding—
Police and Defence
South African Police Service
Powers and functions
215. The powers and functions of the Service shall be—
Responsibilities of National Commissioner
218. (1) Subject to the directions of the Minister of Safety and Security, the National Commissioner shall be responsible for—
219. (1) Subject to section 218(1), a Provincial Commissioner shall be responsible for—
South African National Defence Force
Establishment of South African National Defence Force
224. (1) The South African National Defence Force is hereby established as the only defence force for the Republic.
(2) The South African National Defence Force shall at its establishment consist of all members of—
and whose names, at the commencement of this Constitution, are included in a certified personnel register referred to in section 16(3) or (9) of the said Act: Provided that this subsection shall also apply to members of any armed force which submitted its personnel list after the commencement of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1993 (Act 200 of 1993), but before the adoption of the new constitutional text as envisaged in section 73 of that Constitution, if the political organisation under whose authority and control it stands or with which it is associated and whose objectives it promotes did participate in the Transitional Executive Council or did take part in the first election of the National Assembly and the provincial legislatures under the said Constitution.
(3) Save for the South African National Defence Force, no other armed force or military force or armed organisation or service may be established in or for the Republic other than—
Chief of South African National Defence Force and Secretary for Defence
225. (1) Subject to section section 236(1) and (2), the President shall appoint a Chief of the South African National Defence Force, who shall exercise military executive command of the South African National Defence Force, subject to the directions of the Minister responsible for defence and, during a state of national defence, of the President.
(2) The Minister responsible for defence may appoint a Secretary for Defence who shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as may be provided for in any law.
Members of South African National Defence Force
226. (1) The South African National Defence Force shall comprise both a permanent force and a part-time reserve component.
(2) The establishment, organisation, training, conditions of service and other matters concerning the permanent force shall be as provided for by an Act of Parliament.
(3) The establishment, organisation, training, state of preparedness, calling up, obligations and conditions of service of the part-time reserve component shall be as provided for by an Act of Parliament.
(4) The South African National Defence Force shall be established in such a manner that it will provide a balanced, modern and technologically advanced military force, capable of executing its functions in terms of this Constitution.
(5) All members of the South African National Defence Force shall be properly trained in order to comply with international standards of competency.
(6) No member of the permanent force shall hold office in any political party or political organisation.
(7) A member of the South African National Defence Force shall be obliged to comply with all lawful orders, but shall be entitled to refuse to execute any order if the execution of such order would constitute an offence or would breach international law on armed conflict binding on the Republic.
(8) Provision shall be made by an Act of Parliament for the payment of adequate compensation to-
Functions of South African National Defence Force
227. (1) The South African National Defence Force may, subject to this Constitution, be employed—
(2) The National Defence Force shall exercise its powers and perform its functions solely in the national interest in terms of Chapter 11 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996.
(3) The employment for service, training, organisation and deployment of the South African National Defence Force shall be effected in accordance with the requirements of subsection (2).
228. (1) The Minister responsible for defence shall be accountable to Parliament for the South African National Defence Force.
(2) Parliament shall annually approve a budget for the defence of the Republic.
(3) (a) A joint standing committee of Parliament on defence shall be established, consisting of members of all political parties holding more than 10 seats in the National Assembly and willing to participate in the committee.
(b) The total membership of the committee shall be as determined by or under the rules and orders.
(c) Such a party shall be entitled to designate a member or members on the committee in accordance with the principle of proportional representation and as determined in accordance with the following formula:
(d) The committee shall be competent to investigate and make recommendations regarding the budget, functioning, organisation, armaments, policy, morale and state of preparedness of the South African National Defence Force and to perform such other functions relating to parliamentary supervision of the Force as may be prescribed by law.
(4) (a) The President shall, when the South African National Defence Force is employed for service referred to in section 227(1)(a), (b) or (e), forthwith inform Parliament of the reasons for such employment.
(b) If, in the case of such an employment referred to in section 227(1)(a) or (b), Parliament is not sitting, the President shall summon the joint standing committee referred to in subsection (3) to meet expeditiously, but not later than 14 days after the commencement of such employment, and shall inform the committee of the reasons for such employment.
(5) Parliament may by resolution terminate any employment referred to in section 227(1)(a), (b) or (e), but such termination of employment shall not affect the validity of anything done in terms of such employment up to the date of such termination, or any right, privilege, obligation or liability acquired, accrued or incurred as at the said date under and by virtue of such employment.
General and Transitional Provisions
Transitional arrangements: Public administration
236. (1) A public service, department of state, administration or security service which immediately before the commencement of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (hereinafter referred to as “the new Constitution”), performed governmental functions, continues to function in terms of the legislation applicable to it until it is abolished or incorporated or integrated into any appropriate institution or is rationalised or consolidated with any other institution.
(2) A person who immediately before the commencement of the new Constitution was employed by an institution referred to in subsection (1) shall continue in such employment subject to and in accordance with the new Constitution and other applicable laws regulating such employment.
(3) Subject to subsections (1) and (2), all powers, directions, orders, instructions or delegations which were in force in respect of an institution which immediately before the commencement of the new Constitution performed governmental functions as contemplated in subsection (1) shall, after the said commencement, continue in force for the purpose of the continued functioning within the contemplation of subsection (1) of any such institution, until cancelled or otherwise no longer in force in law.
(6) (a) The President may appoint a commission to review the conclusion or amendment of a contract, the appointment or promotion, or the award of a term or condition of service or other benefit, which occurred between 27 April 1993 and 30 September 1994 in respect of any person referred to in subsection (2) or any class of such persons.
(b) The commission may reverse or alter a contract, appointment, promotion or award if not proper or justifiable in the circumstances of the case.
(7) (b) Any reference in any law to the South African Police or any other police force (excluding a municipal police service) shall, unless the context indicates otherwise, be construed as a reference to the said South African Police Service.
(8) (a) The South African National Defence Force referred to in section 224 shall, subject to the new Constitution and any Act of Parliament, mutatis mutandis be governed by the Defence Act, 1957 (Act No. 44 of 1957).
(b) Any reference in any law to a defence force referred to in section 224(2)(a) or (b), shall be deemed to be a reference to the South African National Defence Force.
(c) If the number of the members of the South African National Defence Force exceeds the personnel strength determined in respect of the force design and structure for the Force, any member of the Force who, due to integration, consolidation and rationalisation of the South African National Defence Force is not accommodated in such force design and structure, shall be dealt with in accordance with a law.
(d) The continuance of membership of members of the South African National Defence Force referred to in section 224(2)(c) shall be subject to such members entering into an agreement for temporary or permanent appointment with the South African National Defence Force within a reasonable time: Provided that such agreements shall be in accordance with normal employment policies and terms and conditions of service.
Rationalisation of public administration
237. (1) (a) The rationalisation of all institutions referred to in section 236(1), excluding military forces referred to in section 224(2), shall after the commencement of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, continue, with a view to establishing—
(b) All military forces referred to in section 224(2) shall be rationalised for the purposes of the South African National Defence Force.
(2) (a) The responsibility for the rationalisation of—
Transitional arrangements: Assets and liabilities
239. (4) Subject to and in accordance with any applicable law, the assets, rights, duties and liabilities of all forces referred to in section 224(2) shall devolve upon the National Defence Force in accordance with the directions of the Minister of Defence.
(5) Anything done in terms of this section shall be subject to audit by the Auditor-General.
Transitional arrangements: Local government
245. (4) Until a period of not less than three years has elapsed from the date on which the members of a district council, a metropolitan substructure, a transitional council, a transitional representative council or a transitional rural council as contemplated in the Local Government Transition Act, 1993, have been elected in terms of that Act, such council or substructure, as the case may be, shall not be disestablished and no change shall be made to the powers, area of jurisdiction, wards or number of seats thereof except in accordance with an Act of Parliament further regulating the local government transition process or by way of proclamation in the Provincial Gazette by the Premier of a province acting in consultation with the Minister for Provincial Affairs and Constitutional Development.
System for Election of National Assembly and Provincial Legislatures
Election of National Assembly
Designation of representatives
Supplementation of lists of candidates
Review of lists of candidates by a party
Publication of supplemented and reviewed lists of candidates
Additional ground for loss of membership of legislatures