Democracy in America (Reeve)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS.




Page
Preface by the American Editor iii
Introduction 1
CHAPTER I.
Exterior form of North America 17
CHAPTER II.
Origin of the Anglo-Americans, and its Importance in Relation to their future Condition 26
Reasons of certain Anomalies which the Laws and Customs of the Anglo-Americans present 44
CHAPTER III.
Social Condition of the Anglo-Americans 47
The striking Characteristic of the social Condition of the Anglo-Americans is its essential Democracy 47
Political Consequences of the social Condition of the Anglo-Americans 55
CHAPTER IV.
The Principle of the Sovereignty of the People in America 57
CHAPTER V.
Necessity of examining the Condition of the States before that of the Union at large 60
The American System of Townships and municipal Bodies 61
Limits of the Townships 63
Authorities of the Township in New England 63
Existence of the Township 66
Public Spirit of the Townships of New England 68
The Counties of New England 71
Administration in New England 72
General Remarks on the Administration of the United States 81
Of the State 85
Legislative Power of the State 86
The executive Power of the State 87
Political Effects of the System of local Administration in the United States 88
CHAPTER VI.
Judicial Power in the United States, and its Influence on political Society 101
Other Powers granted to the American Judges 107
CHAPTER VII.
Political Jurisdiction in the United States 109
CHAPTER VIII.
The federal Constitution 115
History of the federal Constitution 115
Summary of the federal Constitution 117
Prerogative of the federal Government 119
Federal Powers 121
Legislative Powers 121
A farther Difference between the Senate and the House of Representatives 124
The executive Power 124
Differences between the Position of the President of the United States and that of a constitutional King of France 126
Accidental Causes which may increase the Influence of the executive Government 130
Why the President of the United States does not require the Majority of the two Houses in Order to carry on the Government 131
Election of the President 132
Mode of Election 137
Crisis of the Election 140
Re-election of the President 141
Federal Courts 145
Means of determining the Jurisdiction of the federal Courts 148
Different Cases of Jurisdiction 150
Procedure of the federal Courts 156
High Rank of the supreme Courts among the great Powers of the State 159
In what Respects the federal Constitution is superior to that of the States 161
Characteristics which distinguish the federal Constitution of the United States of America from all other federal Constitutions 166
Advantages of the federal System in General, and its special Utility in America 169
Why the federal System is not adapted to all Peoples, and how the Anglo-Americans were enabled to adopt it 177
CHAPTER IX.
Why the People may strictly be said to govern in the United States 184
CHAPTER X.
Parties in the United States 186
Remains of the aristocratic Party in the United States 191
CHAPTER XI.
Liberty of the Press in the United States 194
CHAPTER XII.
Political Associations in the United States 204
CHAPTER XIII.
Government of the Democracy in America 213
Universal Suffrage 213
Choice of the People, and instinctive Preferences of the American Democracy 214
Causes which may partly correct the Tendencies of the Democracy 217
Influence which the American Democracy has exercised on the Laws relating to Elections 221
Public Officers under the control of the Democracy in America 229
Arbitrary Power of Magistrates under the rule of the American Democracy 225
Instability of the Administration in the United States 228
Charges levied by the State under the rule of the American Democracy 230
Tendencies of the American Democracy as regards the Salaries of public Officers 234
Difficulty of distinguishing the Causes which contribute to the Economy of the American Government 237
Whether the Expenditure of the United States can be compared to that of France 238
Corruption and vices of the Rulers in a Democracy, and consequent Effects upon public Morality 243
Efforts of which a Democracy is capable 245
Self-control of the American Democracy 249
Conduct of foreign Affairs, by the American Democracy 251
CHAPTER XIV.
What the real Advantages are which American Society derives from the Government of the Democracy 257
General Tendency of the Laws under the Rule of the American Democracy, and Habits of those who apply them 257
Public Spirit in the United States 262
Notion of Rights in the United States 265
Respect for the Law in the United States 268
Activity which pervades all the Branches of the Body politic in the United States; Influence which it exercises upon Society 270
CHAPTER XV.
Unlimited Power of the Majority in the United States, and its Consequences 275
How the unlimited Power of the Majority increases in America, the Instability of Legislation inherent in Democracy 278
Tyranny of the Majority 280
Effects of the unlimited Power of the Majority upon the arbitrary Authority of the American public Officers 283
Power exercised by the Majority in America upon public Opinion 284
Effects of the Tyranny of the Majority upon the national Character of the Americans 287
The greatest Dangers of the American Republics proceed from the unlimited Power of the Majority 292
CHAPTER XVI.
Causes which Mitigate the Tyranny of the Majority in the United States 295
Absence of central Administration 295
The Profession of the Law in the United States serves to Counterpoise the Democracy 297
Trial by Jury in the United States considered as a political Institution 307
CHAPTER XVII.
Principal Causes which tend to maintain the democratic Republic in the United States 315
Accidental or providential Causes which contribute to the Maintenance of the democratic Republic in the United States 316
Influence of the Laws upon the Maintenance of the democratic Republic in the United States 326
Influence of Manners upon the Maintenance of the democratic Republic in the United States 327
Religion considered as a political Institution, which powerfully Contributes to the Maintenance of the democratic Republic among the Americans 328
Indirect Influence of religious Opinions upon political Society in the United States 331
Principal Causes which render Religion powerful in America 386
How the Instruction, the Habits, and the practical Experience of the Americans, promote the Success of their democratic Institutions 343
The Laws contribute more to the Maintenance of the democratic Republic in the United States than the physical Circumstances of the Country, and the Manners more than the Laws 348
Whether Laws and Manners are sufficient to maintain democratic Institutions in other Countries beside America 353
Importance of what precedes with respect to the State of Europe 356
CHAPTER XVIII.
The present and probable future Condition of the three Races which Inhabit the Territory of the United States 361
The present and probable future Condition of the Indian Tribes which Inhabit the Territory possessed by the Union 367
Situation of the black Population in the United States, and Dangers with which its Presence threatens the Whites 386
What are the Chances in favour of the Duration of the American Union, and what Dangers threaten it 413
Of the republican Institutions of the United States, and what their Chances of Duration are 450
Reflections on the Causes of the commercial Prosperity of the United States 457
Conclusion 465
Appendix 475



TABLE OF CONTENTS


OF


THE SECOND PART.





FIRST BOOK.


INFLUENCE OF DEMOCRACY ON THE PROGRESS OF OPINION IN THE UNITED STATES.


Page
CHAPTER I.
Philosophical method among the Americans 1
CHAPTER II.
Of the principal source of belief among democratic nations 7
CHAPTER III.
Why the Americans display more readiness and more taste for general ideas than their forefathers the English 12
CHAPTER IV.
Why the Americans have never been so eager as the French for general ideas in political matters 18
CHAPTER V.
Of the manner in which religion in the United States avails itself of democratic tendencies 20
CHAPTER VI.
Of the progress of Roman Catholicism in the United States 29
CHAPTER VII.
Of the cause of a leaning to Pantheism among democratic nations 31
CHAPTER VIII.
The principle of equality suggests to the Americans the idea of the indefinite perfectibility of man 33
CHAPTER IX.
The example of the Americans does not prove that a democratic people can have no aptitude and no taste for science, literature, or art 35
CHAPTER X.
Why the Americans are more addicted to practical than to theoretical science 41
CHAPTER XI.
Concerning the spirit in which the Americans cultivate the arts 49
CHAPTER XII.
Why the Americans raise some monuments so insignificant and others so important 55
CHAPTER XIII.
Literary characteristic of democratic ages 57
CHAPTER XIV.
The trade of literature 63
CHAPTER XV.
The study of Greek and Latin literature peculiarly useful in democratic communities 64
CHAPTER XVI.
The effect of democracy on language 67
CHAPTER XVII.
Of some of the sources of poetry among democratic nations 75
CHAPTER XVIII.
Of the inflated style of American writers and orators 82
CHAPTER XIX.
Some observations on the Drama among democratic nations 84
CHAPTER XX.
Characteristics of historians in democratic ages 90
CHAPTER XXI.
Of parliamentary eloquence in the United States 94




SECOND BOOK.


INFLUENCE OF DEMOCRACY ON THE FEELINGS OF THE AMERICANS.


CHAPTER I.
Why democratic nations show a more ardent and enduring love of equality than of liberty 99
CHAPTER II.
Of individualism in democratic communities 104
CHAPTER III.
Individualism stronger at the close of a democratic revolution than at other periods 107
CHAPTER IV.
That the Americans combat the effects of individualism by free institutions 109
CHAPTER V.
Of the use which the Americans make of public associations in civil life 115
CHAPTER VI.
Of the relation between public associations and newspapers 119
CHAPTER VII.
Connexion of civil and political associations 123
CHAPTER VIII.
The Americans combat individualism by the principle of interest rightly understood 129
CHAPTER IX.
That the Americans apply the principle of interest rightly understood to religious matters 133
CHAPTER X.
Of the taste for physical well-being in America 136
CHAPTER XI.
Peculiar effects of the love of physical gratifications in democratic ages 139
CHAPTER XII.
Caases of fanatical enthusiasm in some Americans 141
CHAPTER XIII.
Caases of the restless spirit of the Americans m the midst of their prosperity 144
CHAPTER XIV.
Taste for physical gratifications united in America to love of freedom and attention to public affairs 148
CHAPTER XV.
That religious belief sometimes turns the Americans to immaterial pleasures 152
CHAPTER XVI.
That excessive care of worldly welfare may impair that welfare 157
CHAPTER XVII.
That at times marked by equality of conditions it is important to remove to a distance the object of human actions 159
CHAPTER XVIII.
That among the Americans all honest callings are honourable 162
CHAPTER XIX.
What leads almost all the Americans to follow industrial callings 164
CHAPTER XX.
That aristocracy may be engendered by manufactures 169




THIRD BOOK.


INFLUENCE OF DEMOCRACY ON MANNERS, PROPERLY SO CALLED.


CHAPTER I.
That manners are softened as social conditions become more equal 173
CHAPTER II.
That democracy renders the habitual intercourse of the Americans simple and easy 178
CHAPTER III.
Why the Americans show so little sensitiveness in their own country, and are so sensitive in Europe 181
CHAPTER IV.
Consequences of the three preceding chapters 185
CHAPTER V.
How democracy affects the relation of masters and servants 187
CHAPTER VI.
That democratic institutions and manners tend to raise rents and shorten the terms of leases 196
CHAPTER VII.
Influence of democracy on wages 199
CHAPTER VIII.
Influence of democracy on kindred 202
CHAPTER IX.
Education of young women in the United States 209
CHAPTER X.
The young woman in the character of a wife 212
CHAPTER XI.
That the equality of conditions contributes to the maintenance of good morals in America 217
CHAPTER XII.
How the Americans understand the equality of the sexes 224
CHAPTER XIII.
That the principle of equality naturally divides the Americans into a number of small private circles 228
CHAPTER XIV.
Some reflections on American manners 230
CHAPTER XV.
Of the gravity of the Americans, and why it does not prevent them from often committing inconsiderate actions 234
CHAPTER XVI.
Why the national vanity of the Americans is more restless and less captious than that of the English 238
CHAPTER XVII.
That the aspect of society in the United States is at once excited and monotonous 242
CHAPTER XVIII.
Of honour in the United States and in democratic communities 245
CHAPTER XIX.
Why so many ambitious men, and so little lofty ambition, are to be found in the United States 258
CHAPTER XX.
The trade of place-hunting in certain democratic countries 266
CHAPTER XXI
Why great revolutions will become more rare 267
CHAPTER XXII.
Why democratic nations are naturally desirous of peace, and democratic armies of war 280
CHAPTER XXIII.
Which is the most warlike and most revolutionary class in democratic armies 287
CHAPTER XXIV.
Causes which render democratic armies weaker than other armies at the outset of a campaign, and more formidable in protracted warfare 291
CHAPTER XXV.
Of discipline in democratic armies 296
CHAPTER XXVI.
Some considerations on war in democratic communities 298




FOURTH BOOK.


INFLUENCE OF DEMOCRATIC OPINIONS AND SENTIMENTS ON POLITICAL SOCIETY.


Page
CHAPTER I.
That equality naturally gives men a taste for free institutions 306
CHAPTER II.
That the notions of democratic nations on government are naturally favourable to the concentration of power 308
CHAPTER III.
That the sentiments of democratic nations accord with their opinions in leading them to concentrate political power 312
CHAPTER IV.
Of certain peculiar and accidental causes which either lead a people to complete centralization of government, or which divert them from it 317
CHAPTER V.
That among the European governments of our time the power of governments is increasing although the persons who govern are less stable 323
CHAPTER VI.
What sort of despotism democratic nations have to fear 336
CHAPTER VII.
Continuation of the preceding chapters 345
CHAPTER VIII.
General survey of the subject 352