Diary of ten years eventful life of an early settler in Western Australia and also A descriptive vocabulary of the language of the aborigines/A descriptive vocabulary of the language in common use amongst the aborigines of Western Australia/Part 1/B

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Observe! The sounds of B and P are in so many instances used indiscriminately or interchangeably, that it is frequently difficult to distinguish which sound predominates. The predominant sound varies in different districts. The same is to be remarked of D and T, and also of K and G. See Preface.

Babba, a.—Weak; languid; wanting strength; as Bidibabba, weak-veined; unwell; too weak or tired to do anything.

Babbalyă, s.—Pudenda puellulæ.

Babbangwin, s.—Lightning.

Babbin, s.—A friend.

Babilgun, s.—A species of bat.

Badbadin—Pitpatting; from Bardo to go.

Badjang, s.—Matter from a boil or sore. From their temperate habits, all wounds heal with surprising facility; but sometimes sores, like scrofulous eruptions, break out, which do not heal readily, and from want of cleanliness become very offensive, and render the afflicted individual a disgusting object, sometimes wasting him to death by a lingering and loathsome disease.

Badto, s.—(S) Water.

Băk—An affirmative particle always used as an affix, meaning indeed; as Bundobăk, true indeed; Gwabbabăk, good indeed, very good.

Băkadjin, s.—A contest; a fight; throwing of spears.

Băkadju, v.—Pres. part., Băkadjin; past tense, Băkudjăga; to fight; to quarrel.

Bakkan, v.—Pres. part., Bakkanin; past tense, Bakkanăga. To bite; to ache; to pain.

Bal, p.p.—The third person singular of all genders; he; she; it.

Bal, imp. v.—Leave it; let it alone. There is no appreciable difference in sound between this and the foregoing word, the pronoun.

Balbiri, s.—A skewer; a stick with which the cloak is pinned when worn, or the back hair fastened up.

Balbyt, a.—Silly; foolish.

Balga, s.—Xanthorea arborea, grass-tree or blackboy. This is a useful tree to the natives where it abounds. The frame of their huts is constructed from the tall flowering stems, and the leaves serve for thatch and for a bed. The resinous trunk forms a cheerful blazing fire. The flower-stem yields a gum used for food. The trunk gives a resin used for cement, and also, when beginning to decay, furnishes large quantities of marrow-like grubs, which are considered a delicacy. Fire is readily kindled by friction of the dry flower-stems, and the withered leaves furnish a torch. It may be added that cattle are fond of the leaves; sheep pull up the centre leaves when they can reach them, and eat the blanched end of the leaf; and even many settlers have dressed the crown of it as food, which tastes like an artichoke; and used the young stem, when boiled and carefully scraped, which is said to have a taste like sea-kale: but this last-mentioned part should be used with caution, as some are said to have suffered from it.

Balgang, v.—Pres. part., Balganwin; past tense, Balgangăga; to track; to pursue on a track.

Balgor, s.—Young fresh grown trees. In the north dialect, this word is used for Dilbi, leaves of trees in general.

Balgun, p.p.—They.

Balgup, p.p.—Them.

Balingur, v.—(K.G.S.) To climb.

Baljarra, a.—Exposed; naked; uncovered. As Baljarra ngwundow, to sleep exposed, without a hut in the open air.

Ballăgar, s.—(A north word); the small squirrel-like opossum, called at Perth, Ballawara, and at K. G. S. Ballard.

Ballajan, v.—Pres. part., Ballajanin; past tense, Ballajanan. Sometimes it is pronounced short; to assault; to attack; to slay.

Ballak, s.—A species of Xanthorea.

Ballal (Vasse)—He himself; she herself.

Ballar, a.—Secretly.

Ballard, s.—(K.G.S.) A small species of opossum.

Ballarijow, v.—Compounded of Ballar, secretly; and Ijow, to put, place. Pres. part., Ballarijowin; Past tense, Ballarijaga. To secrete; to hide.

Ballărok, proper name. The cognomen of one of the great families into which the aborigines of Western Australia appear to be divided. The general laws relating to marriage have reference to these families. No man can marry a woman of his own family name; and the children all take that of the mother. As the hunting ground or landed property descends in the male line, it follows that the land is never for two generations in the hands of men of the same family name; and in the event of a man having several wives of different family names, his lands are at his death divided between so many new families. His male children owe certain duties to men of their own family, at the same time as to their half brothers, which often clash with each other, and give rise to endless dissensions. There are said to be four of these principal families:–1. Ballarok; 2. Dtondarap; 3. Ngotak; 4. Naganok, which are resolved again into many local or sub-denominations. The Ballaroks are said to have peculiarly long thighs; the Ngotaks are short and stout. The Ballarok, Dtondarap, and Waddarak, are said to be Matta Gyn, of one leg, probably of one stock, or derived from one common ancestor. The Gnotak, and Naganok are of one leg; the Nogonyak, Didarok, and Dijikok are of one leg. The wife is is generally taken from the Matta Gyn, or kindred stock.

Ballawara, s.—A small squirrel-like opossum.

Balluk.,adv.—Accidentally; unintentionally.

Balwungar, s.—A name given to the glaucous-leaved Eucalyptus, which grows in the open sandy downs in the interior.

Bal-yan, a.—Damp; wet.

Bal-yata, a.—Firm; fixed. Applied to man and wife as firmly united together, not likely to be parted. Also, to a rock, as Bu-yi balyata, an embedded rock; and to the roots and stumps of trees, as Djinnara balyata, a stump firmly fixed in the ground.

Bamba, s.—The Sting-rayfish; not eaten by the natives.

Bămbala, s.—Film or cataract formed over the eye.

Bambi, s.—A small sort of flounder fish.

Bambi, s.—A bat.

Bambun, s.—Eopsaltria; yellow-bellied fly-catcher.

Banbar, a.—Round, cylindrical; as a wine-bottle.

Bandak, ad.—Purposely; openly; knowingly; wittingly; outside; in the open air.

Bandang, a.—All.

Bandi. s.—The leg; the shank.

Bandin, s.—Melliphaga; Nov. Holl.; yellow- winged honey-sucker.

Bandyn, a.—(A northern word); hungry.

Băng-al, a.—Separated by distance; stopped or left behind.

Băng-al, s. Retaliation; exchange of one thing for another. As if a man is asked, "Where is your cloak, or spear?" He might answer, "Oh! I have given it away." The remark that followed would be: Băng-al nyt nginni yong-aga? What did they give you in exchange?

Băng-al-buma, v.—To retaliate; to revenge; to avenge; to strike in return.

Bang-al yong-a, v.—To exchange; to barter one thing for another.

Bang-gap, s.—The Walloby, a small species of kangaroo. It is worthy of remark, that, on Rottnest, Garden Island, and one only of the Abrolhos group, there exists a small animal of this sort, which is now rarely if ever found on the adjacent mainland. This seems to favour the tradition that those islands once formed part of the mainland, but were dissevered by a great fissure of the earth from volcanic action.

Bang-ar, s.—(North word); very large species of lizard, four to six feet long.

Bang-ga, s.—Part of; half of anything.

Bang-ga nginnaga, a.—Broken; divided. From Bangga, half; and Nginnow, to remain.

Banggin, s.—Hæmatops; black-headed honey-sucker.

Banjar, a.—Patient.

Bannagul, v.—(Mountain dialect) to flee.

Ban-ya, v.—Pres. part., Banya; past tense, Banya; to perspire; to sweat.

Ban-ya, s.—Sweat; perspiration.

Ban-yadak—Weighty or heavy to carry; as causing perspiration.

Bappigăr, v.—(K.G.S.) To mend; to stop up.

Barrăng-yurar-ăngwin, s.—The act of rubbing between the hands; as in the case of cleaning the By-yu or Zamia nuts; or twirling a stick rapidly round within a hole in a piece of wood, to procure fire.

Bardă-ăr, a.—Bald; bare; clean. Instances of baldness are very rare.

Bărdal-ya, s—A fulness between the upper eyelid and the eyebrow.

Băr-dang, v.—Pres. part., Bardangwin; past tense, Bardang-ăga; to fly; flee; to run away.

Bardangbardo, v.—To flee.

Bardangnginnow, v.—To jump; from Bardang, to fly; and Nginnow, to sit or stoop, because in jumping you stoop to gather strength, to spring or fly forward. This word is evidently derived from the motion of the kangaroo.

Bărdănitch, s.—Botaurus. The bittern.

Bardi, s.—The edible grub found in trees. Those taken from the Xanthorea or grass-tree, and the wattle-tree, have a fragrant, aromatic flavour, and form a favourite food among the natives, either raw or roasted. The presence of these grubs in a Xanthorea is thus ascertained: if the top of one of these trees is observed to be dead, and it contain any Bardi, a few sharp kicks given to it with the foot will cause it to crack and shake, when it is pushed over and the grub extracted, by breaking the tree to pieces with a hammer. The Bardi of the Xanthorea are small, and found together in great numbers; those of the Wattle are cream-coloured, as long and thick as a man's finger, and are found singly.

Bardo, v.—Pres. part., Bardin; past tense, Bardaga. To go.

Barduk, ad.—Near; not far; close.

Bardunguba.—Large-nosed, blue-winged duck.

Bard-ya. s.—Quartz; quartzose rock. Besides the veins and fragments of this rock which are found in the granite districts, very large isolated masses of compact quartz have been seen in several parts of the colony. See Borryl.

Bargar, a.—Light; thin; as a covering.

Barh-ran, s.—A scar; any mark of a wound.

Bărjadda, s.—Dasyurus Maugei. Native cat.

Bărnă, s.—A stray animal; anything which may be found wanting an owner.

Bărnăk, ad.—Openly; publicly; as Nadgul bărnak burda wărrang—I will openly tell or inform, by-and-by.

Bărnăk, a.—Outside; exposed; bleak; open.

Bărnăk warrang.—To inform.

Bărnan, v. Pres. part., Barnanwin; past tense, Bărnanăga. To sweep; to clean; to clear away. To pluck out hair or feathers.

Bărnăp, s.—An orphan. Compounded of Bărna, a thing without an owner, and ăbbin, to become.

Barra, ad.—Wrongly; erroneously.

Barrab, s.—The sky (Vasse).

Barrăb ără, a.—Well, recovered from wounds or sickness.

Barrabart, v.—To go astray; to wander out of the road.

Barrăjit, s.—Dasyarus Maugei. A weasel; colonially, a native cat.

Barrakattidj, v.—To misunderstand.

Bărrang, v.—Pres. part., Barrangwin, or Barrangan; past tense, Barrang, ăgga. To bring; to carry; to abduct—as Kardo Barrang, to carry off a wife; that being a very general mode of obtaining one.

Barrangballar.—To close up; to secrete.

Barrangdedin.—To shut up; to cover up.

Barrang-djinnăn, v.—To handle; to examine.

Barrangdordakănăn, v.—To save the life of a person.

Barrangkattidj.—To recollect; to bring to mind.

Barrangmaulkolo, v.—To drag along; literally, catching; pull, move.

Barrangtăkkan, v.—To break.

Barrawangow, v.—To speak so as not to be understood; to make mistakes in speaking a language; to talk childishly.

Barrit, s.—Lying; deceit.

Barro, s.—The tough-topped Xanthorea or grass-tree, from which the strongest resin, the Kadjo, exudes; that which the natives use for fastening on the heads of their hammers. The Barro grows generally in high and dry situations; whereas the Balga prefers low and rather damp soils.

Bărt, or Bărtu, ad.—No; not; none. Always used as an affix, as Nadgo Kattidj bărt—I do not understand. This is the most general sound of the negative affix; though at Perth it is called Bru, which is probably a shortened sound of Bărtu. This word has been corrupted into "Port" at K. G. S.

Baru, s.—(Vasse and K. G. S.) Blood.

Barukur, s.—(K. G. S.) The bowels.

Barup. s.—(K. G. S.) Dew; water resting in drops.

Batdoin, a.—(Northern dialect.) Small; thin; wasted.

Batta, s.—The sun's rays. Nganga batta: the sun's beams.

Batta, s.—Thysanotus fimbriatus. A rush, with which the natives sew the kangaroo skins together to form their cloaks This word is used in the northern dialects equally with Jilba to express that there is grass in a place. It means also rushes in general.

Battardal, s.—A waste, barren tract of land, destitute of edible roots, or of any means of subsistence.

Battiri, a.—Rough; hard; like an unprepared kangaroo skin.

Bebal, s.—Knee-cap; knee-pan.

Bedoan, s.—A mother-of-pearl-like oyster shell.

Began, v.—(Vasse) To unfasten; to untie; to open.

Bellak, ad.—Enough; sufficient.

Belli, a —Superior; excellent.

Bellibelli, ad.—On this side or that side.

Bellogar, s.—Petaurus Mairarus. Grey squirrel.

Bema, s.—Semen.

Beper, or Bepil, s.—(K. G. S.) A species of fish.

Bepumer.—(K. G. S.) A large species of hawk.

Betan, s.—A knot.

Bettich, s.—(K. G. S.) An old man.

Bettik bettik, ad.—Gently; noiselessly; quietly.

Bettinun, v.—(Northern word.) Pres, part., Bettinun; past tense, Bettinun. To pinch.

Bewel, s.—(Vasse and K. G. S.) The paper-bark tree.

Bi, s.—A fish.

Bian, v.—Pres. part, Bianwin; past tense, Biana, or Bianaga. To dig; to scrape; to scratch; to bury. The natives dig roots, dig animals out of the earth, and dig graves; but they do not cultivate the ground. They neither plant nor sow, but rely wholly upon the spontaneous products of the soil for vegetable food; as they do also on the wild animals for animal food.

Biara, s.—Banksia nivifolia. The Banksia tree, with long narrow leaves; colonially, honeysuckle, from the hairy, long, cone-shaped flowers, producing abundance of honey, which the natives are fond of regaling upon, either by sucking or soaking the flowers in water. This tree furnishes the best and favourite firewood. Biara Kalla, the dead wood of the Banksia fit for firing.

Biargăr, a.—(Upper Swan word.) Light; not heavy.

Bibi, s.—Female breast.

Bibilyer, s.—A bustard; colonially, the wild turkey. A fine large bird, frequently weighing twelve to fifteen pounds, and extending full six feet from tip to tip of the wing. It is excellent for eating.

Bibi mul-ya, s.—Nipple of the breast.

Bibinak, s.—The white-throated creeper bird.

Bib-byl—A mother mourning for her child. See Medărăng.

Biddurong, s.—About two o'clock in the day.

Bidi, s.—A vein; the main path, or track, pursued by the natives in passing from one part of the country to the other, and which leads by the best watering places; also a sinew.

Bidi babba, a.—Weak; unwell; tired; from Bidi, a vein or sinew, and Babba, weak.

Bidi-dur-gul, s.—A straight line.

Bidi murdoin, a.—Strong; powerful; from Bidi, a vein, and Murdoin, strong.

Bidier, s.—A man of a certain importance or influence; from Bidi, a path: and meaning, therefore, a guide, director, or adviser; or from Bidi, a sinew, as being a strong man.

Bidil, s.—Charcoal.

Bidjak, a.—Stinking, offensive.

Bidjar, s.—Sleep. In summer they have merely a screen of bushes, to keep the wind from their back. In winter they build huts, with the door from the wind, and a small fire lighted before the door. See Mya.

Bidjar ngwundow, v.—To sleep; to go to sleep; to lie down to sleep.

Bidjigurdu, s.—An island. The natives have a tradition that Rottnest, Carnac, and Garden Island, once formed part of the mainland, and that the intervening ground was thickly covered with trees; which took fire in some unaccountable way, and burned with such intensity that the ground split asunder with a great noise, and the sea rushed in between, cutting off those islands from the mainland. This is a savage's description of an eruption of subterranean fire; and although there are not many indications of volcanic action in the neighbourhood, yet some recent observations of the officers of H. M. S. Beagle, during an examination of that part of the coast, and of the group of the Abrolhos Islands, would rather tend to confirm than to overthrow this opinion.

Bidjirungo, s.—A species of snake.

Bidjuba, s.—A snake of a white colour, with red bands.

Bigo, s.—Prepared resin of the grass-tree. See Tudteba.

Bigytch, s.—The forehead.

Bildjart, s.—Ptilotis. Yellow honey-sucker.

Bilga, s.—The ancle.


Billang, or Billangur (K. G. S.), verb.—Pres. part., Billangwin; past tense, Billangaga. To push; to roll.

Billangdjinnang, v.—To lift; to turn anything over, for the purpose of examining under it.

Billara, s.—A dead leaf; dried leaves.

Bille—(Vasse). The other.

Bilo, s.— A stream; a river. No names are given to rivers as proper names, but the localities and resting-places on their banks are designated with great minuteness. Few rivers in the colony run continuously throughout the summer, when they present the appearance of a series of ponds, standing at irregular intervals, and only connected by the rains of winter. It is probable that each pond is the actual source of, or is fed by, springs of more or less strength. Some very large rivers have been discovered lately on the north-west coast, but have not been thoroughly examined.

Bilobăng-ga, a.—Wounded severely, but not mortally.

Bilorbăng, s.—A person living on the banks of a river.

Bil-yagorong, s.—Myzantha garrula. The noisy honey-sucker.

Bil-yan, v.—Pres. part., Bilyanwin; past tense, Bilyanaga. To throw off; to take off; to unloose—as Buka bilyan, to throw off the cloak.

Bil-yap, s.—The tailless guana.

Bilyăr—(K. G. S.) A small species of bird.

Bil-yi, s.—The navel. The aborigines suppose a person with a large navel is necessarily a good swimmer; and therefore Bil-yi-gadak, or Bil-yi-gwabba, means a good swimmer. They also think that whether they can swim well or not, depends upon whether their mother has thrown their navel-string into the water or not, at the time of their birth.

Bim.—(K. G. S.) A footstep.

Bimban, v.—Pres. part., Bimbanwin, or Bimbanăn; past tense, Bimban-ăgga. To kiss.

Bina, s.—(Northern word.) Daylight; daydawn.

Binar, s.—Strix Cyclops. The white owl.

Binăng, s.—To-morrow.

Binbart binbart—Rolling from side to side; rocking, unsteady; like a drunken man or a ship—Ngarrăk ngarrăk.

Binda, s.—Dryandria, species nova. A species of Dryandria tree.

Bindak, s.—Calthamnus sanguineus. A plant so named from the colour of the flower.

Bindang, v.—Pres. part., Bindangwin, or Bindangan; past tense, Bindang-ăgga. To smell.

Bindart, s.—Personal effects; that which can be bequeathed by a man at his decease as Durda, Kadjo, Buka: his dog, his hammer, and his cloak. The spear of a deceased person, being first broken, the knives, and the throwing board, are usually stuck into the earth of the grave mound.

Bindi, s. The stick, or skewer, with which the cloak is fastened.

Binitch.—(K. G. S.) Sparks.

Binnar, s.—A meteor, described by the natives as a star of fire; seldom visible, but when seen considered by them as an omen of death. A remarkably large and bright meteor was observed a few years ago traversing a large space in the heavens from east to west. Its progress was accompanied by a loud crackling sound, like the combined discharge of musketry. The unusual number of meteors seen in Europe and America in the months of August and November, have not been observable at Western Australia.

Binnarăngăr.—(K. G. S.) To bury.

Binun, v.—Pres. part., Binwin, or Binunun; past tense, Binăgă To pinch; to squeeze.

Birok, s.—The summer season, December and January. This season follows Kămbarang, and is followed by Burnoru. This is the very height of summer, when iguanas and lizards abound. The aborigines seem to distinguish six particular seasons. They are:

1. Măggoro—June and July—Winter.
2. Jilba—August and September—Spring.
3. Kămbarăng—October and November.
4. Birok—December and January—Summer.
5. Burnoru—February and March—Autumn.
6. Wan-yărăng, or Geran—April and May.

It would be curious, should a more perfect knowledge of their language and ideas give us to understand, that to each of these seasons some definite portion of time was appointed, as sixty or sixty-one days; in which case their year would be made to consist of 360 or 366 days; and it might prove, on further research, that this, and some others of their customs, were fragments splintered off from some ancient fabric of knowledge and civilization, with which they were formerly connected. See Mon-yo.

Birrga, a.—Badly wounded; bruised; sore. Birrga Bogal: a heap, a mass of sores. Their only treatment of a wound is to bind a ligature tightly above the wound where the part is capable of such application.

Birrgyn, s.—A sore, See Badjang. They sometimes shake dust or sand upon a sore to absorb moisture, but they do not wash or clean it.

Birri, s.—The nails. Marh-ra-birri: the nails of the hand.

Birrigon, a.—Bright; glittering; shining; the name given to silver money.

Birrigur, s.—The nails.

Birunbirun.—Merops melanura. Bee-eater. It burrows and makes its nest in the ground.

Birunna, a.—The wind from the north inclining to the west.

Birytch, or Biytch, s.—The cone of the Biara or narrow-leaved Banksia. It burns like touchwood. One is generally carried ignited by the women in summer, as pieces of burning bark are in winter, to make a fire.

Biryt, s.—Daylight. The day as contradistinguished from night. But the natives have no idea of the word day, as used by us for a portion of time. Biryte gudjal; two days; two daylights.

Biwoen, s.—Ocypterus albo-vittatus. The wood-swallow.

Blura, s.—A species of bee. A species of the leaf-cutter bee is indigenous; but the honey-storing bee has not yet been found, and, I think, does not exist. Several attempts have been made to introduce the bee from England; but, whether from the length of the voyage, or from want of proper management on their arrival, they have been hitherto unsuccessful. This is much to be regretted, as, from the numerous honey-bearing flowers in the colony, there is no doubt of their succeeding well. Governor Hutt has offered a premium to the first successful introducer of them.

Bobo, s.—Grass; vegetation.

Bobban, v.—Pres. part., Bobbanwin; past tense, Bobban-agga. To blow with the mouth.

Bobto, s.—The back of the neck.

Bogal, s.—The back; a hillock marking a grave—hence it is sometimes used for the grave itself as Yongar Bogal, a man's hillock or grave. Within twenty-four hours after the death of a native, preparations are made for burying him. An immediate shrieking and howling are set up by his wives and female connexions, who scratch their faces until the blood flows down, and the skin is partially peeled from them. Some of his very near male relatives proceed to dig the grave, and by the time that is nearly finished the body is conveyed to the spot, wraped in the kangaroo-skin cloak of the deceased. There the shrieking and wailing are continued. The beard is usually cut off and burned, and the ashes rubbed on the foreheads of the near relatives. The nail is stripped from the thumb, and sometimes from the little finger also, by the application of fire; and the thumb and one of the fingers of the right hand are firmly bound together, and the body is now ready for burial. The grave is dug about four-and-a-half feet long, and four feet deep. When it is completely prepared, a quantity of freshly-gathered boughs of the Eucalypti or gum-trees are burned within it; after which a bed of fresh boughs is laid at the bottom, and the body is lowered down, still wrapped in the cloak. The grave extends either east and west, or north and south, according to the manner of the tribe to which the deceased belonged. The mountain tribes bury the body north and south; the head to the south, the body on the right side, with the face looking to the rising sun, and the earth from the grave formed into one crescentic mound, on the west side of the grave. This mode of burial is called Gotyt. The lowland tribes lay the body east and west on its back, the face turned to one side towards the mid-day sun; the clay thrown out in two heaps, one at the head and one at the foot. This mode of burial is called D-yuar. More fresh boughs are then heaped upon the body; then stout stakes are laid lengthways; then cross pieces pressed firmly into the sides; and then boughs again, and so on, until the surface reaches to a level with the upper ground; and finally sand or earth is strewed over the top. Whilst all that is above described is going on, the magician, or Bolyagadak, of the tribe sits wrapped in his cloak at the head of the grave, bending his ear from time to time to the ground, attentively listening for the flight of the spirit, and the communication it may have to make as to the evil originator or cause of his death; and having feigned to obtain this intelligence, he raises his miro in silence, and points in the direction where the enemy is to be found who has robbed the tribe of a warrior,–of course taking care to stimulate the vengeance of those who are eagerly waiting round, against some hated family or individual; and as soon has revenge has been obtained by the death of the member of a rival tribe, the trees near the place of burial which have been previously scored are now marked afresh, and more deeply, to record that an atonement has been effected. The grave is regularly visited during a certain period, to see that it is not disturbed or profaned; and for a long time afterwards a small hut of reeds or boughs may be observed erected over the grave, before which a fire is frequently lighted, that the spirit of the deceased may, if it pleases, continue still to solace itself as before, in the quiet of the night.

Bogalngudi, a.—Humpbacked.

Bohn, or Bohrn, s.—A small red root of the Hæmadorum spicatum. This root in flavour somewhat resembles a very mild onion. It is found at all periods of the year in sandy soils, and forms a principal article of food among the natives. They eat it either raw or roasted.

Boiloit, (Vasse)—Skilful; dexterous.

Boka, s.—A cloak or covering. See Buka.

Bokanbokan, s. Calandra; Bellbird.

Bokojo, ad.—There; in that place; speaking of some distance away.

Bokyt, a.—A term applied to ground clothed with vegetation which has not yet been burned. Perhaps derived from Boka, a covering.

Bonjun, s.—A native knife, with a polished handle of the raspberry jam-wattle, or some other indigenous wood.

Bonnit, s.—The knee.

Borak, ad.—Down; below.

Borang (K. G. S.)—A male dog.

Bordăn-yăk, a.—Hungry,

Boru, v.—Pres. part, Bornin; past tense, Bornănga; to cut up. To make cuts—as Ngămbărn-born, to cut scars, or tattoo the body, by scarifying the skin with sharp-edged bits of quartz or glass.

Borryl, s.—Quartz; and, from the similarity in the appearance, particularly of the fragments of the two substances, it has come to mean glass—as Borryl Gidji, a spear, the head of which is armed with jagged broken pieces of quartz or glass glued on to the wood. This is a most formidable and even deadly weapon; the cut inflicted by it is that of a coarse saw, and as it severs the veins and arteries, it is much more dreaded than the barbed spear, which only forces its way without cutting laterally.

Botol-yang, a.—(Upper Swan word.) Heavy; weighty.

Bottyn, a,—Thin; small; wasted. Mountain dialect; frequently used at Perth. Batdoin, to the north.

Bo-yăng, a.—Far off; distant. Urrarbo-yang, a stranger.

Boy-ar, s.—A blackguard; a seducer; a whore.

Bo-ye, s.—(Upper Swan dialect.) Stone; rock. The geological features of the country are not yet ascertained with any precision. The principal rocks are limestone, granite, basalt, and ironstone. The great strata appear to run nearly in a north and south direction. Next, and parallel to the sea coast, is a limestone district, with light sandy soil. Upon this are found the Tuart, the Mahogany, and the Banksia. To this succeeds a tract of stiffer soil, and reddish sandy loam, having a ferruginous sandstone, which is colonially called ironstone; and on this the red gum-tree is found intermixed with others. Next is the "Darling range" of hills, of no great elevation, having a granite base, and boulders of ironstone and breccia, which form a coarse gravelly soil, upon which the best mahogany is found. To this, as you proceed eastward, succeeds the granite country of the York district, the granite of which decomposes into a coarse gritty soil, bearing good grass, and capable of cultivation. The entire granite districts are occasionally intersected or interrupted by whinstone, which yields a rich, red, loamy soil. Forty miles to the east of York commences a broad belt of country, having naked rounded masses or hills of granite standing in a slightly undulating country, as islands do in the sea. About these hills water and grass are always found. This belt is nearly a hundred miles broad to the east of York. On this tract are found Tuart, Wurak, Nardarak trees; but there are no kangaroos, and few traces of natives. To this succeeds a country of a different, formation, on which a whitish trapstone was found, but neither water nor grass, as far as it could be penetrated. This, which was about 220 miles in the interior, on the parallel of Perth, is the greatest distance which has yet been reached in that direction.

Boyer, s.—A name given to certain stones of a smooth ovate shape, which are found in several places, and are traditionally said to have fallen from the sky.

Boyl—(K. G. S.) An entrance.

Boyl-ya, s.—A certain supposed power of witchcraft; sorcery.

Boylya Gădăk, s.—One possessed of Boylya; a wizard; magician. The men only are believed to possess this power. A person thus endowed can transport himself through the air at pleasure, being invisible to every one but his fellow-Boylyăgadăk. If he have a dislike to another native, he is supposed to be able to kill him, by stealing upon him at night, and secretly consuming his flesh; entering into his victim like pieces of quartz, and occasioning much pain. Another Boylyăgadăk can, however, disenchant the person thus afflicted. When this is done the Boylya is drawn out from the patient in the form of pieces of quartz, which are kept as great curiosities. The aborigines do not seem to comprehend that mortality is natural to man. All diseases and particularly those of a a fatal kind, are ascribed to supernatural influence, and hence the reason why, when one of them dies, another is invariably killed in return whether the deceased has died by the hand of an enemy, or by accident, or from natural causes. In the first place the death is revenged either on the murderer, or some one of his near relatives of the same family name. In either of the other cases, vengeance is wreaked on a connexion of the Boylyăgadăk, the suspected cause of death.

Boyngadak, a.—Fat; stout; it is sometimes used in the sense of handsome; a fat person being a rarity among the natives.

Boyn, s.—Fat; grease; the fat of meat; oil of any sort. Grease to anoint or smear themselves with seems necessary to the health of the aborigines; they otherwise become covered with scurf, and are subject to violent cutaneous disorders.

Boynkot-yak, s.—Marrow; literally the fat matter of bones.

Brigo, s.—An edible red root resembling the Bohrn.

Bru, ad.—See Bart.—No; not; without. Always used as an affix—as Wangabru, don't speak; Bukabru, naked, without a cloak.

Buatu, s.—Oxura australis. A bird of the duck kind, with very small wings, migratory, and found only in one season on the fresh-water lakes.

Budibudi, s—Hirundo. White-throated swallow.

Budjan, s.—Dryandria Fraseri (a shrub). The flower abounds in honey, and is much sought after by the natives. See But-yak.

Budjan, v.—Pres. part., Budjanin; past tense, Budjannăga. To pluck feathers from a bird.

Budjin, s.—A small species of ant, very troublesome about sugar and meat, which should be covered or hung up.

Budjor, s.—Earth; the ground. The predominant colour of the earth is red; the qualities various, and varying rapidly and unaccountably from one quality to another, as from sand to clay, or to loamy soil, and from sterile to fertile, frequently without any apparent cause. In the York district there are several parallel veins or belts of land which extend for a considerable distance, nearly in a north and south direction. These veins are much superior in fertility to the adjacent lands, and composed of rich, dark vegetable mould. Being generally bare of trees, and covered with rich grass alone, they are locally called "clear streaks." No probable cause has yet been assigned for this appearance.

Budtallang, s.—Pelicanus, Nov. Holl.; Pelican. These birds are frequently seen to come from the interior, across the York districts.

Budto, s.—The bark of the Djarryl, or mahogany tree, or any other of the gum-tree species.

Budulu, s.—Calm weather favourable for fishing; applied also to a space of smooth, glassy water.

Buggalo (Vasse.)—To him.

Buggalong (Vasse.)—His.

Bugor, s.—A brave; one who does not fear. At Leschenault, this is the name of the Mundo or shark.

Buka, or Boka, s.—A kangaroo-skin cloak; clothes or bodily covering of any sort; as Mattabuka, leg clothes or trousers. It requires three kangaroo skins to make a large full cloak, such as one of those worn by the women; and the skins of the female kangaroo are preferred, those of the males being considered too thick and heavy. The skins are prepared by first stretching them out, and pegging them down on the ground in the shade. The women then, with a Dtabba, or native knife, scrape off all the soft inner parts, and afterwards rub them well, to soften them, with grease and wilgi. To form the cloak, the skins are sewn together with the Gwirka, or sinews of the kangaroo; or when they are not at hand, with the Batta, or rush. The cloak is worn with the hairy side inwards.

Bula, a.—Abundant; many; much; plentiful.

Bula—Numeral—(Dual.) Two brothers, sisters, or friends.

Bulala—Numeral—(Dual.) Parent and child; uncle and nephew, or niece.

Bulangat—(K. G. S.) A species of bird.

Bulen—Numeral—(Dual.) They two; husband and wife.

Bulgalla, s.—The large-leaved Banksia, which bears the Metjo, or large cone used for fires.

Bulgangar (K. G. S.)—Uneven; in lumps.

Bulgut, s.—A star; the wife of Tdadăm.

Buljit, s.—Acanthorhyncus superciliosus, least honey-sucker.

Bullalel (Vasse)—They. (Not in frequent use.)

Bullallelăng (Vasse)—Their.

Bullor, s.—A species of large greenish-coloured beetle.

Bulolo, s.—Small species of ant.

Bulordu, s.—Calamanthus, the scrub-lark.

Bul-yar, ad.—Indiscriminately.

Bnma, v.—Pres. part., Bumawin; past tense, Bumagă; to beat; to strike.

Bumakanin, part. adj.—Lying or pressing, one thing upon another. From Buma, to strike; and Cannow, or gannow, to tread; step. Also, stamping; tramping.

Bumburman, v.—Pres. part., Bumburmanin; past tense, Bumburman-ăgga; to shout as the natives do to frighten the kangaroo after they have speared it; or when assembled together at a Kabo.

Bunan, s.—Aperture; opening; entrance; means of access.

Bunarăk, s.—Personal property of any kind; as Kadjo, Dtabba, Buka, the hammer, the knife, the spear.

Bundo, a.—True; truly.

Bundojil, ad.—Certainly; very true.

Bun-gal, s.—The side.

Bun-galla, s.—The part of the body immediately above the hip; the short ribs.

Bun-gallor, s.—Early state of pregnancy.

Bun-garn,s.—A maid. Girls are betrothed in their infancy, and given to their husbands at a very early age.

Bungo—(K G. S.) There.

Bungurt—(K. G. S.) A species of grass.

Bun-gyte, s.—A girl who is not betrothed.

Bunjat, a.—Shining; glittering; adorned; clean. Burnu Yyi bunjat, the trees are now glittering.

Bura, prep.—Within; in safety—as Maryne bura ngwundow, the food is within, or is in safety.

Barabur—(K. G. S.) The wild turkey.

Burarap, s.—The underground Xanthorea or grass-tree. Sheep feed on the centre leaves.

Burbur, s.—Exact resemblance; counterpart one thing of another.

Burda, ad.—By-and-by; presently.

Burdak, ad,—(Murray River dialect.) By-and-by; presently.

Burdi, s.—Macropus; a species of small kangaroo, having the habits of a rabbit.

Burdi, s.—Musk obtained from the musk-duck.

Burdilyup—(K. G. S.) A baby.

Bur-dun, s.—A light straight spear procured from the south, and highly prized by the natives on account of the elasticity of the wood.

Burnu, s.—A tree. Wood. The most abundant tree is the Eucalyptus, of which there is a very great variety of species. The other trees are principally of the Banksia, Casuarina, Melaleuca, Hakea, and Acacia sorts.

Burnunger,—(K. G. S.) A species of paroquet.

Burnur, or Burnuro, s.—The autumn of Western Australia, including the months of February and March. It follows the season Birok, and is followed by Wanyarang. This is the By-yu or Zamia-fruit season; and mullet, salmon and tailor-fish abound.

Burr—(K. G. S.) Rough; hard.

Burtăp—(K. G. S.) To lie; to deceive. Probably from Bărt, not. To say what is not.

Bu-ruro, s.—A neck-band of opossum's hair.

Bu-tăkbu-tăk, v.—To wink ; to open and shut, or move the eyes at all quickly.

Butăngăr—(K. G. S.) To cure.

Butogs, s.—A species of edible fungus. They will not eat the common mushroom, which grows abundantly.

But-yak, s.—Dryandria Fraseri. The flowers are thistle-shaped, and abound with honey; they are sucked by the natives like the Man-gyt or Banksia flowers.

Buyal, s.—The south. They always direct you by the points of the compass, and not by the right or the left.

Buyenak, s.—Hovea pungens.

Bu-yi, s.—Turtle; tortoise. A small snake-necked turtle is found in rivers and swamps; and the large turtle, valued for its shell and for food, is to be found in great abundance at Shark's Bay, and other more northern parts of the coast, weighing about 300 lbs.

Bu-yi, s.—A stone. For geological description, see Boye.

Bu-yibillanăk, s.—Rocky ground; land covered with stones. From Tu-yi, a stone, and Billang, to roll; meaning ground rolled over with stones. It is in sandy soil of this nature that the Djubăk, or native potato is mostly found.

Bu-yit, s.—A species of coleopterous insect.

Bu-yu, s.—Smoke.

Bwolluk, proper name—(K. G. S.) The name of a star.

Bwonegur—(K. G. S.) To pluck. See Barnan.

Bwot—(K. G. S.) Cloudy.

Bwye—(K. G. S.) An egg.

Bwyego, s.—A species of fungus eaten by the natives.

Bwyre-ang—(K. G. S.) The second brother.

Byăngbăng, a.—Light; not heavy.

Byi, s.—Posteriors.

Byl-yi, s.—A small species of leech. There are many in the swamps, lakes, and stagnant pools of rivers, which fasten readily on those who go into such waters.

Byl-yur, a.—Hungry; empty.

By-yu, s.—The fruit of the Zamia tree. This in its natural state is poisonous; but the natives, who are very fond of it, deprive it of its injurious qualities by soaking it in water for a few days, and then burying it in sand, where it is left until nearly dry, and is then fit to eat. They usually roast it, when it possesses a flavour not unlike a mealy chestnut; it is in full season in the Month of May. It is almost the only thing at all approaching to a fruit which the country produces. Wild grape, nutmeg, and peach trees are said to exist on the N.W. coast.

By-yu Gul-yidi, s.—Little magpie.