Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Garland, Augustine

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GARLAND, AUGUSTINE (fl. 1660), regicide son of Augustine Garland, attorney, of Coleman Street, London, by his first wife, Ellen, daughter of Jasper Whitteridge of London, was baptised 13 Jan. 1602(Visitation of London, 1633-5, i. 301; Register of St. Antholin's, Budge Row, London, p. 41; Smyth, Obituary, p. 14). In 1618 Garland was admitted a pensioner of Emmanuel College, Cambridge (Brit. Mus. Addit. MS., Cole, 5870, f. 168), and on leaving the university became a member of Lincoln's Inn. By the death of his father, in 1637, he succeeded to property in Essex at Hornchurch and Waltham-holy-Cross, and at Queenborough in the island of Sheppey (will of Augustine Garland the Elder, P.C.C. 9, Lee). In his recount of himself at his trial Garland says: 'I lived in Essex at the beginning of these troubles, and I was enforced to forsake my habitation. I came from thence to London, where I behaved myself fairly in my way' (Trials of the Regicides, ed. 1660, p. 264). On 26 May 1648 Garland was elected member for Queenborough in place of Sir E. Hales, expelled (Return of Names of Members of Parliament p. 490). He signed the protest against acceptance of the king's concessions (20 Dec. 1648), was appointed one of his judges, and acted as chairman of the committee selected to consider the method of the king's trial (Walker, Hist. of Independency, ed. 1661, ii. 48; Nalson, Trial of Charles I, pp. 10, 14). 'I could not shrink for fear of my own destruction,' pleaded Garland on his own trial. 'I did not know which way to be safe in anything—without doors was misery, within doors mischief' (Trial of the Regicides, p. 265). He attended twelve out of the sixteen meetings of the court, was present when was given, and signed the death warrant. Garland continued to sit in the Long parliament until its expulsion by Cromwell, took no part in public affairs under the protectorate, and was recalled to his place in parliament in May 1659 (Old Parliamentary Hist. xxi. 375). On 9 May 1660 he appeared before the lord mayor of London and claimed the benefit of the king's declaration. Nevertheless he was put on his trial, and on 16 Oct. 1660 condemned to death. Besides his share in the trial he was accused of spitting in the king's face as Charles was led away from Westminster Hall after being sentenced. Garland strenuously denied the charge, saying, 'If I was guilty of this inhumanity I desire no favour from God Almighty' (Trial, p. 264). The death sentence was not put into execution, but Garland's property was confiscated, and he was kept prisoner in the Tower. A warrant for his conveyance to Tangiers was issued on 31 March 1664, but whether he was actually transported is uncertain (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1633-4, p. 536).

[Nalson's Trial of Charles I. 1684; Noble's Lives of the Regicides, 1798; Trials of the Regicides, ed. 1660.]

C. H. F.

Dictionary of National Biography, Errata (1904), p.131
N.B.— f.e. stands for from end and l.l. for last line

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436 ii 14 Garland, Augustine: for Tangiers read Tangier