Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Nicholas, Henry

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NICHOLAS, HENRY, or NICLAES, HENRICK (fl. 1502–1580), founder of the religious sect known as the Family of Love, was born at Münster, in Westphalia, on 10 Jan. 1501 or 1502 (cf. Nippold, pp. 340, 341). Under the direction of his father, Cornelius Niclaes, a zealous Roman catholic in humble circumstances, he attended mass daily as a boy. At eight he began to see visions, and to put questions to his father-confessor. While still a youth he established himself in business at Münster as a mercer, and married when he was twenty. At twenty-seven he was imprisoned on suspicion of heresy, but was soon liberated. A few years later, about 1530, he removed with his wife and family to Amsterdam, where he was again imprisoned on suspicion of complicity in the Münster insurrection. In 1539 or 1540, when he was thirty-nine, the manifestations of his childhood were renewed, and he represented that he received a divine summons to become a prophet or ‘elect minister’ and practical founder of a new sect to be called ‘Familia Caritatis,’ ‘Huis der Liefde,’ i.e. ‘Family of Love.’ Three elders—Daniel, Elidad, and Tobias—were appointed to aid him in his enterprise.

Niclaes now left Amsterdam for Embden, and commenced to write down the revelations which were, he conceived, entrusted to himself alone. In Embden he lived for twenty years (1540–1560), and there he wrote most of his books, which he signed with the initials H. N., by some supposed to mean Homo Novus (Jessop, Discovery of the Errors of the English Anabaptists, 1623, pp. 89–91). His business in the meantime, with the assistance of his eldest son, Franz, became lucrative, and in the course of mercantile tours he made many converts in Holland, Brabant, and in Paris. His books, secretly printed at the presses of his friends and adherents, Christopher Plantin at Antwerp, Van Borne at Deventer, the Bohmbergers at Cologne, and Augustyn van Hasselt at Kampen, soon aroused opposition. They were prohibited by the council of Trent in 1570 and in 1582, and by papal bull in 1590 (Reusch, Indices Libr. Prohibit. des sechszehnten Jahrh. pp. 290, 347, 485).

Niclaes's visit to England cannot be dated with certainty. He was here in 1552 or 1553 (cf. Fuller, Church Hist. bk. ix. pp. 282–91), but may have arrived earlier (cf. Original Letters, Parker Soc. ii. 560). According to Karl Pearson, he did not come till 1569 (‘Kingdom of God in Munster,’ Modern Review, 1884). Fuller says Niclaes joined the Dutch church in London; but Martin Micronius and Nicholas Carinæus (d. 1563), its successive ministers, attacked his doctrines in ‘A Confutation of the Doctrine of David George and H. N., the Father of the Familie of Love,’ English translations of which are given by John Knewstub in ‘A Confutation,’ pp. 88–92. Niclaes readily gained some followers in England, although his stay was short, and the story of a second visit is unsupported. Upon leaving he appears to have retired to Kampen, in Holland, and later to Cologne, where he was living in 1579. He probably died there in 1580 or 1581.

Niclaes taught an anabaptist mysticism, entirely without dogma, yet of exalted ideals. He no doubt imbibed his chief doctrines from David Joris or George (d. 1556). Niclaes declared himself the third prophet, sent specially to reveal love. He held himself and his elders to be impeccable, and the license which they claimed for themselves in this spirit gained for them the reputation of ‘libertines.’ But aspersions of the moral character of Niclaes and his chief followers are unfounded. Love of humanity was clearly the familists' essential rule of life.

Although regarded as a protestant sect, Niclaes derived his constitution of the priesthood entirely from the Roman catholic hierarchy. It consisted of the highest bishop, twenty-four elders, seraphims or archbishops, and three orders of priests. He made a new calendar with many additional holy days. In person Niclaes was ‘of reasonable tall stature, somewhat grosse of bodie, brave in his apparell’ (Rogers, Displaying of an Horrible Secte). Henry More (1614–1687) [q. v.], who called him ‘the begodded man of Amsterdam,’ and who answered his books in the ‘Explanation of the grand Mystery of Godliness,’ pp. 171 seq., frequently mentioned the ‘crimson satin doublet, the long beard,’ and ‘large looking-glass’ of the ‘rich shopkeeper’ (Theological Works, ed. 1708, p. 258). A portrait of Niclaes is in John Davies's ‘Apocalypsis. … Faithfully and impartially translated out of the Latine by J. D.,’ London, 1655.

Although the ‘Family of Love’ maintained some existence in England for nearly a century and a quarter, Niclaes's doctrines were unsuited to English ideas, and appealed to a limited section of the population. John Rogers's description of them as ‘the drowsie dreames of a doting Dutchman’ represented the general esteem in which they were held (Displaying of an Horrible Secte). A translation of one of Nicklaes's tracts, ‘Terra Pacis’ (No. 15 below), is said to have suggested to Bunyan the scheme of his ‘Pilgrim's Progress.’ A Dutchman, Christopher Vitells or Vitel, a joiner by trade, born at Delft, and living at Colchester at Michaelmas 1555 (ib.) was the chief of Niclaes's original disciples in England. He was an ‘illuminate elder’ in the ‘Family,’ and the first English translations of Niclaes's books are ascribed to him. Vitells afterwards lived at Southwark, and is said by John Rogers [q. v.] (ib.) to have recanted his opinions.

It was not until about 1574 that the sect in England attracted public attention, by which time its numbers had become large, chiefly in Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, and Essex. In that year they presented to parliament ‘An Apology for the Service of Love, and the People that own it, commonly called the Family of Love … with another Short Confession of Faith, made by the same People, and finally some Notes and Collections, gathered by a private Hand out of H. N., upon or concerning the eight Beatitudes’ (Cambridge and Lambeth). This was reprinted in London in 1656. They also issued ‘A Brief Rehersall of the Beleef of the Goodwilling in Englande, which are named the Famelie of Loue … set fourth Anno 1575,’ small 16mo (Lambeth); reprinted by Giles Calvert (London, 1656), who published many reprints of Niclaes's works.

On 12 June 1574 five persons of the ‘Family’ stood at ‘Paules Crosse,’ and publicly recanted, confessing that they ‘utterly detested H. N. his errors and heresies’ (Stow, Annals, p. 679). Others of the sect were imprisoned, but they continued to increase. On 3 Oct. 1580 Queen Elizabeth issued ‘A Proclamation against the Sectaries of the Family of Love,’ ordering their books to be burnt and themselves to be imprisoned (A Collection of Articles, Injunctions, Canons, &c., London, 1675, p. 171). An abjuration (see Wilkins, Concilia, iv. 296, 297) was drawn up and tendered, on 10 Oct. 1580, by the privy council to each familist (Fuller, Church Hist. ix. 113). Bills for the suppression of the sect were brought in, and passed on 27 Feb. 1580–1 (Commons' Journals, i. 128, 129, 130).

The familists presented an address to James I soon after his accession, Samuel Rutherford says about 1604 (Survey of the Spirituall Antichrist, London, 1648). It was answered by ‘A Member of Cambridge University’ in ‘A Supplication of the Family of Love … examined and found to be derogatorie … unto the Glorie of God, the Honour of our King,’ &c., Cambridge, 1606. Persecution then appears to have ceased until 1645, when the sect revived under the leadership of one Randall, who preached ‘in a house within the Spittle-yard without Bishopsgate, neare London’ (Etherington, A Brief Discovery, 1645, p. 1). From 1649 to 1656 many of the books were reprinted, but before 1700 familists had become extremely rare in England.

Niclaes wrote a great number of books in a low German dialect, called by his English translators ‘Basse Almayne.’ Most or all of them were translated into English. A complete bibliography has yet to be made, the originals being of extreme rarity; some are only to be traced in the writings of opponents, others are not known except in the translations. The chief of them are to be found in the Mennonite Library, Amsterdam, and the University Library, Leyden. The best collection of English translations is in the University Library, Cambridge, to which Dr. Corrie presented his unique collection in 1884. The Britwell Library contains many of the earlier translations.

The books, especially the epistles, are often found not only separately but in varying combinations. They contain many curious cuts described by J. H. Hessels in the ‘Bookworm,’ 1869, pp. 81, 106, 116, 131, and by Ames in ‘Typographical Antiquities’ (ed. Herbert), iii. 1636–1643. Twelve extant woodcuts, executed by Richard Gaywood [q. v.] in 1656, were prepared and sent abroad for insertion in reprints of earlier editions, and bore the false dates of 1573, 1575, and 1577. Every book by Niclaes has the final motto ‘Charitas extorsit per H. N.’ The long titles are here abbreviated. His chief and rarest work is ‘Den Spegel der Gherecticheit, dorch den Geist der Lieffden vnde den vorgodeden Mensch H. N. vth de Hemmelische Warheit betüget.’ (The title-page is reproduced by Max Rooses, p. 62, as a specimen of Plantin's finest printing, executed at Antwerp about 1560.) Another edition is entitled ‘Speculum Justitiæ. De Spegel der Gerechticheit, dorch den hilligen Geest der Lieften,’ 1580. A fine copy of the first is in the library of the Dutch Church, Austin Friars, now preserved at the Guildhall, and one of each in the University Library, Leyden. No others are known, and the only English translation discovered is a manuscript of six chapters in the Bodleian Library (Rawlinson Coll. C. 554). An ‘Introductio. An Introduction to the Holy understanding of the Glasse of Righteousnes,’ b.l., appeared without place or date; it was reprinted in 1649. ‘Ene Figuer des Warachtigen vnde geistelicke Tabernakels’ was written as a prologue to ‘Den Spegel,’ and to follow the Introduction, but was apparently issued as a second volume. It was translated as ‘A Figvre of the True & Spiritual Tabernacle, according to the inward Temple or House of God in the Spirit. Whereunto is added the eight vertues or Godlynesses,’ London, 1655 (British Museum); another edition, including also Exhortation I., 1656 (No. 3 below), is at Cambridge.

Much better known is his ‘Evangelium Regni. Ein Frolicke Bodeschop vam Rycke. … Dorch H. N. am dach gegeuen vnde vam em vppet nye öuerseen vnde dudelicker vorklaret,’ of which the title of the English translation runs: ‘Evangelium Regni. A Joyfull Message of the Kingdom published by the holie Spirit of the Loue of Jesu Christ and sent-fourth unto all Nations of People which loue the Trueth in Jesu Christ. Set-fourth by H. N. and by him pervsed a-new and more-distinctlie declared. Translated out of Base-almayne,’ n.d.; a later edition was imprinted at London, 1652. There is a Latin translation (Lambeth), n.d., said to be by John Knewstub [q. v.]

Other works are: 1. ‘Van dat Geestlicke Landt der Belofften, van dat hemmelsche Jerusalem vnd des hilligen Volcks,’ 1546 (Amsterdam). A manuscript copy (92 pp.), made at Harlingen in 1562, was in the possession of Dr. Sepp, of Amsterdam, in 1890. 2. ‘Eyn Clare Berichtinge van die Middelwerckinge Jesu Christi,’ 1550 (Amsterdam). 3. ‘Exhortatio. De Eerste Vormaninge H. N. Tot syne kinderen, unde dem Hüsgesinne der Lieften Jesu Christi … anno 1573,’ 4to (Cambridge). In English ‘Exhortatio I. The first exhortation of H. N. to his Children, and to the Famelye of Loue, by Him newlye perused, and more distinctlye declared,’ n.d. Two other copies contain an additional leaf with ‘A shorte Instruction of an Howshold-father in the Communialitie of the Loue of Jesu-Christ’ (Britwell and Cambridge). The first has a woodcut of the teacher and his pupils; reprinted, with ‘Likewise H. N. upon the Beatitudes,’ London, 1656. 4. ‘Exhortatio II. De anderde Vormaninge H. N., to syne kinderen, vnde dem Hüsgesinne der Lieften Jesu Christi’ (British Museum). English translations in manuscript in the Rawlinson Collection (A. 382) in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and at Cambridge. 5. ‘The first Epistle of H. N. A Crying-voyce of the Holye Spirit of Loue, wherwith all People eaven out of meere grace are called and intirelie-bidden, through H.N., to the true Repentaunce for their Synnes,’ n.d. This was reprinted, London, 1648, alone, as well as with Epistles 2, 3 and 4, and also with Epistles 2–8, and with Exhortatio I (Lambeth). 6. ‘Epistola XI. H. N. Correctiō and Exhortation out of heartie Loue to a Pluckinge vnder the Obedience of the Loue and to Repentaunce for their Sinnes vnto all them that are wise in their owne conceites.’ 7. ‘Cantica. Liederen offte Gesangen dorch H. N. am dach gegeuen, vnde vppet Nye överseen vnde vorbereit vnde met mehre Gesangen vermehrt,’ 1573. 8. ‘Prophetie des Geistes der Lieften. … Anno 1573’ (Cambridge). In English ‘The Prophetie of the Spirit of Loue’ (London), 1649. 9. ‘Vorkundinghe van dem Vrede up Erden. … A Publishing of the Peace upon Earth, and of the gratious Tyme and acceptable Yeare of the Lorde, which is now in the last Tyme out of the Peace of Jesu Christ and out of his Holie Spirit of Loue,’ anno 1574. 10. ‘De Lieder edder Gesangen H. N. Tot goede Lere vnde Stichtinge, dem Hüsgesinne der Liefden, vnde en allen die sick daer-thoe wenden,’ 1575, 16mo oblong (thirty-two songs). The English translation is called ‘Cantica. Certen of the Songes of H. N. To a good Instruction and Edifyinge of the Famelie of Loue, and of all those that turne them ther-vnto. Translated out of Base-almayne,’ 8vo, b.l. (Britwell). 11. ‘Institutio Puerorum. Kinder Bericht met vele Goeder Lere, Dorch H. N. vp Ryme vorordent: vnde van em vppet nye öuerseen vnde vorbetert. Anno 1575,’ 4to (Cambridge). 12. ‘Refereinen vnde Rondelen edder rymische Spröken. Dorch H. N. am dach gegeuen, vnde van Em uppet nye överseen unde vorbetert,’ 1575. 13. ‘Dre gründige Refereinen, die H. N. wedder syne Vyenden am dach gegeven heft,’ 1575, 16mo, oblong. In English the title runs, ‘Thre groūdlie Refreines which H. N. hath set-fourth against his Enemies. Translated out of Base-almayne into English,’ oblong 21/8 × 31/4 inches (Lambeth). 14. ‘Comœdia: ein Gedicht Des Spels van Sinnen, anno 1575,’ 4to (British Museum and Amsterdam). An English version, entitled ‘Comœdia. A Worke in Ryme, contayning an Enterlude of Myndes, witnessing the Mans Fall from God and Christ’ (British Museum, Britwell, and Cambridge), with the following: 15. ‘Terra Pacis. Wäre getügenisse van idt geistelick Landtschop des Fredes. Gedruckt to Cölln am Rein dorch Niclas Bohmbargen. Anno mdlxxx.,’ 4to (Cambridge). In English: ‘Terra Pacis. A True Testification of the Spirituall Lande of Peace; which is the Spirituall Lande of Promyse, and the holy Citee of Peace or the heauenly Ierusalem.’ It was reprinted, London, 1649. 16. ‘Epistolæ H. N. De Vornömpste Epistelen H. N. Anno 1577,’ 4to (Cambridge). This contains twenty epistles with different titles, all but one, ‘Eine hertelicke Vormaninge an de yferigeste Goedtwillige Herten,’ &c., given as separate works by Van der Aa in ‘Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden,’ xiii. 181–3. In English: ‘Epistolæ H. N. The Principall Epistles of H. N., which he hath set-foorth through the Holy Spirit of Loue’ (British Museum, Britwell, and Cambridge without a title-page). 17. ‘De Openbaringe Godes, unde syne grote Prophetie,’ 4to (British Museum, without title-page). English version: ‘Revelatio Dei. The Reuelation of God, and his great Propheatie: which God now; in the last Daye; hath shewed unto his Elect;’ a later edition appeared in London in 1649. 18. ‘Proverbia H. N. De Spröken H. N.,’ 4to (British Museum). In English: ‘Proverbia H. N. The Prouerbes of H. N. Which Hee; in the Dayes of his olde-age; hath set-fourth as Similitudes and mysticall Sayinges.’ 19. ‘Dicta H. N. Leerafftige Rede,’ &c., 4to (Cambridge). Another copy, fragments of which are preserved at Cambridge and Utrecht, is dated 1573. In English: ‘Dicta H. N. Documentall Sentences: eaven-as those-same were spoken-fourth by H. N., and written-vp out of the Woordes of his Mouth,’ n.d. 20. ‘Dat uprechte Christen-gelove des Ghemein schoppes der Hilligen des Hüses der Lieften: Där oick de vprechte Christelicke döpe inne betüget vnde beleden wert.’ 21. ‘De Wet, offte de vornömpste Geboden Godes, vnde de twelf vornömpste Höuet-artyckelen des Christen-gheloues: Mith noch ethlicke goede Leringen vnde Gebeden.’ 22. ‘Van den rechtferdigen Gerichte Godes ouer de olde vordorvene Werlt, vnde von ere straffinge vnde vth rodinge’ (Amsterdam). 23. ‘Einen früntlicken Brief, vm hertelicker Liefte an Einen geschreuen vnde gesendt, där he to de Enicheit der Lieften, to de Eindrachticheit ofte Enicheit des herten, vnde to eines-sinnes ende Gehorsamheit der Lieften mede gelieuet wert.’ Of the four last no English version appears.

Other works ascribed to Niclaes (Strype, Annals, ii. i. 563–4; and Rogers) mainly prove portions of the above; but Nippold mentions six more alluded to by opponents which are not otherwise known (Zeitschrift, &c. p. 336). By his elders or followers were written: 1. ‘Mirabilia opera Dei. Etlicke Wunder-Wercken Godes, &c.’ 4to (British Museum), of which the English version is ‘Mirabilia Opera Dei. Certaine wonderfull Works of God which hapned to H. N. even from his youth. … Published by Tobias, a Fellow Elder with H. N. in the Houshold of Love,’ n.d. 4to. 2. ‘Fidelitas. Underscheidentlicke Vorklaringe der Forderinge des Heren. Anno 1576,’ 4to (British Museum). In English: ‘Fidelitas. A Distinct Declaratiō of the Requiring of the Lorde and of the godlie Testimonies of the holie Spirit of the Love of Jesu Christ. Set-fourth by Fidelitas, a Fellowe-Elder with HN. in the Familie of the Loue,’ n.d. 3. ‘Ein Klachreden, die de Geist der Lieften, vnde H. N. mith sampt Abia, Joacin, Daniel, Zacharias, Tobias, Haniel, Rasias, Banaias, Nehemias, Elidad, &c., de vornoempste Olderen vnde Anderenen des hillighen Wordes in dem Hüs der Lieften, ouer de blindtheit der Volckeren klagende … zynt.’ 4. ‘A good and fruitful Exhortation unto the Famelie of Loue … Testified and set-fourth by Elidad, a Fellow-Elder with the Elder H. N.’ 5. ‘A Reproofe spoken and geeuen-fourth by Abia Nazarenus against all false Christians. Translated out of Nether Saxon. Like as Iannes and Iambres withstood Moses, euen so do These namely, the enemies of H. N. and of the Loue of Christ also resist the Trueth, &c. … mdlxxix.’

The principal writers against Niclaes and his doctrines were, in Germany, Caspar Grevinchoven, author of ‘Ontdeckinge van de monstreuse dwalingen des libertynschen vergodeden Vrygheestes Hendrie Nicolaessoon, eerste Vader van het huys der liefden,’ 1604, and Coornhert, who wrote ‘Spieghelken vande ongerechticheydt ofte menschelicheyt des vergodeden H. N.’ Haarlem, 1581. In England, John Rogers [q. v.] published ‘The Displaying of an horrible Secte of grosse and wicked Heretiques, naming themselves the Familie of Loue,’ London, 1578. The following year he republished the book with ‘certeine letters sent from the same Family mainteyning their opinions, which Letters are answered by the same J. R.’ These books contain a confession purporting to be made on 28 May 1561 by two of the Family, ‘before a worthy and worshipful Justice of Peace [Sir William Moore, in Surrey], touching the errors taught amongst them at the assemblies.’ Rogers also published ‘An Answere vnto a wicked & infamous Libel made by Christopher Vitel,’ 1579. Another opponent was John Knewstub, who preached a sermon against Niclaes at ‘Paules Crosse’ on Good Friday, 1576. He published: ‘A Confutation of monstrous and horrible Heresies taught by H. N.,’ London, 1579. ‘A Confutation of Certaine Articles deliuered vnto the Familye of Loue. … By William Wilkinson, Maister of Artes, and Student of Divinitye,’ was published London, 1579. ‘The Description and Confutation of mysticall Antichrist the Familists, who in a mystery, as God, sitteth in the Temple of God, shewing himself that he is God’ (Cambridge), has no date. Niclaes was also attacked by Thomas Rogers in ‘The Faith, Doctrine, and Religion professed and protected in the Realm of England, and Dominions of the same: Expressed in 39 Articles, &c.’ Cambridge, 1607 (reprinted by the Parker Society as ‘The Catholic Doctrine of the Church of England,’ 1854). Henry Ainsworth wrote ‘An Epistle sent vnto Two daughters of [the town of] Warwick, from H. N., the oldest Father of the Familie of Love,’ Amsterdam, 1608. John Etherington published (London, 1645) ‘A Brief Discovery of the Blasphemous Doctrine of Familisme, first conceived and brought forth into the World by one Henry Nicolas of the Low Countries of Germany about an hundred years ago; and now very boldly taught by one Mr. Randall and sundry others.’ Etherington was formerly a leader among the Familists (see The White Wolf, a sermon preached by Stephen Denison at Paul's Cross, London, 1627). ‘A Survey of the Spirituall Antichrist, opening the Secrets of Familisme and Antinomianisme in the Anti-Christian Doctrine of John Saltmarsh and Will. Del, the present Preachers of the Army now in England, and of Robert Town, &c.’ was published by Samuel Rutherford [q. v.], London, 1648.

[The principal sources of information for Niclaes's life are three manuscripts preserved in the library of the Society of Dutch Authors at Leyden. 1. Chronika des Hüsgesinnes der Lieften, &c., printed by Izaäk Enschedé, Haarlem, 1716; portions also translated in Max Rooses's Christophe Plantin, pp. 393–400. 2. Ordo Sacerdotis. De Ordeningen des priesterlicken states in dem Hüsgesinne der Lieften, &c. 3. Acta H. N. De Gescheften H. N. vnde etlicke hemmelsche Werckinge des Heren vnd Godes, &c. These were freely used by Dr. Nippold in his Heinrich Niclaes und das Haus der Liebe, published in the Zeitschrift für die historische Theologie, 1862, pp. 323–94. A careful bibliography of works, then known, was published by J. H. Hessels in Notes and Queries, October and November 1869, pp. 356, 404, 430. To authorities already named may be added: Max Rooses's Christophe Plantin, imprimeur anversois, Antwerp, 1882, pp. 61 et seq; Tiele's Christophe Plantin et le sectaire mystique, Henrik Niclaes, Le Bibliophile Belge, 1868, pp. 121–9; Mosheim's Eccles. Hist., Murdock's translation, ed. Hastings, Boston U.S.A. 1892, bk. iv. cent. XVI. sect. 3, pt. ii. chap. 3, pp. 220–21; Gottfried Arnold's Kirchen und Ketzer Hist. Th. ii. Buch xvi. cap. xxi. 36; De Ræmond's L'Histoire de la Naissance … de l'Hérésie de ce Sièçle, Paris, 1610, p. 217; Cat. van de Bibliot. der Maatsch. Nederl. Letterkunde, Leiden, 1847, i. 26, 216; Jundt's Histoire du Panthéisme Populaire au moyen age, &c. pp. 200–2; Blunt's Dictionary of Sects, pp. 158–60; Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity, i. 28, iii. 9; Index to Publications of the Parker Society, pp. 556, 557; Pagitt's Heresiography, pp. 105–16; Camden's Annals, p. 218; Deering's Nottinghamia, &c. pp. 46, 47; Neal's Hist. of Puritans, i. 273; Wright's Queen Elizabeth and her Times, ii. 153; Bancroft's Survey of the Pretended Holy Discipline, &c. pp. 1, 2; Penn's Preface to Fox's Journal, ed. 1891, pp. xxiii–xxv; Hunt's Religious Thought in England, i. 234 et seq.; Barclay's Inner Life of the Commonwealth, pp. 25–35; Ross's Religions of the World, London, 1696, p. 452 (portrait); Tracts on Liberty of Conscience, &c., 1614–61, Hanserd Knollys Soc. 1846, pp. 385–9; Ecclesiæ Londino-Batavæ Archivum, ed. J. H. Hessels, vols. i. ii. (Cantbr. 1887, 1889). The libraries at Cambridge, Lambeth, Leyden, the Mennonite church of Amsterdam, and that of Mr. W. Christie-Miller at Britwell, all contain unique specimens of Niclaes's works. Information has also been sent by Dr. Franz Nippold of Jena, and Professor S. Cramer of Amsterdam.]

C. F. S.