Easton's Bible Dictionary (1897)/J-L
- Jaakan He twists, one of the sons of Ezer, the son of Seir the Horite (1 Chr. 1:42).
- Jaala A wild she-goat, one of the Nethinim, whose descendants returned from the Captivity (Neh. 7:58).
- Jaalam Concealer, the second of Esau's three sons by Aholibamah (Gen. 36:5, 14).
- Jaanai Mourner, one of the chief Gadites (1 Chr. 5:12).
- Jaare-oregim Forests of the weavers, a Bethlehemite (2 Sam. 21:19), and the father of Elhanan, who slew Goliath. In 1 Chr. 20:5 called JAIR.
- Jaasau Fabricator, an Israelite who renounced his Gentile wife after the Return (Ezra 10:37).
- Jaasiel Made by God, one of David's body-guard, the son of Abner (1 Chr. 27:21), called Jasiel in 1 Chr. 11:47.
- Jaaz-aniah Heard by Jehovah. (1.) The son of Jeremiah , and one of the chief Rechabites (Jer. 35:3).
(2.) The son of Shaphan (Ezek. 8:11).
(3.) The son of Azur, one of the twenty-five men seen by Ezekiel (11:1) at the east gate of the temple.
- Jaazer He (God) helps, a city of the Amorites on the east of Jordan, and assigned, with neighbouring places in Gilead, to Gad (Num. 32:1, 35; Josh. 13:25). It was allotted to the Merarite Levites (21:39). In David's time it was occupied by the Hebronites, i.e., the descendants of Kohath (1 Chr. 26:31). It is mentioned in the "burdens" proclaimed over Moab (Isa. 16:8, 9; Jer. 48:32). Its site is marked by the modern ruin called Sar or Seir, about 10 miles west of Amman, and 12 from Heshbon. "The vineyards that once covered the hill-sides are gone; and the wild Bedawin from the eastern desert make cultivation of any kind impossible."
- Jaaziah Comforted by Jehovah, a descendant of Merari the Levite (1 Chr. 24:26, 27).
- Jabal A stream, a descendant of Cain, and brother of Jubal; "the father of such as dwell in tents and have cattle" (Gen. 4:20). This description indicates that he led a wandering life.
- Jabbok A pouring out, or a wrestling, one of the streams on the east of Jordan, into which it falls about midway between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, or about 45 miles below the Sea of Galilee. It rises on the eastern side of the mountains of Gilead, and runs a course of about 65 miles in a wild and deep ravine. It was the boundary between the territory of the Ammonites and that of Og, king of Bashan (Josh. 12:1-5; Num. 21:24); also between the tribe of Reuben and the half tribe of Manasseh (21:24; Deut. 3:16). In its course westward across the plains it passes more than once underground. "The scenery along its banks is probably the most picturesque in Palestine; and the ruins of town and village and fortress which stud the surrounding mountain-side render the country as interesting as it is beautiful." This river is now called the Zerka, or blue river.
- Jabesh Dry. (1.) For Jabesh-Gilead (1 Sam. 11:3, 9, 10).
- Jabesh-Gilead A town on the east of Jordan, on the top of one of the green hills of Gilead, within the limits of the half tribe of Manasseh, and in full view of Beth-shan. It is first mentioned in connection with the vengeance taken on its inhabitants because they had refused to come up to Mizpeh to take part with Israel against the tribe of Benjamin (Judg. 21:8-14). After the battles at Gibeah, that tribe was almost extinguished, only six hundred men remaining. An expedition went against Jabesh-Gilead, the whole of whose inhabitants were put to the sword, except four hundred maidens, whom they brought as prisoners and sent to "proclaim peace" to the Benjamites who had fled to the crag Rimmon. These captives were given to them as wives, that the tribe might be saved from extinction (Judg. 21).
This city was afterwards taken by Nahash, king of the Ammonites, but was delivered by Saul, the newly-elected king of Israel. In gratitude for this deliverance, forty years after this, the men of Jabesh-Gilead took down the bodies of Saul and of his three sons from the walls of Beth-shan, and after burning them, buried the bones under a tree near the city (1 Sam. 31:11-13). David thanked them for this act of piety (2 Sam. 2:4-6), and afterwards transferred the remains to the royal sepulchre (21:14). It is identified with the ruins of ed-Deir, about 6 miles south of Pella, on the north of the Wady Yabis.
- Jabez Affiction. (1.) A descendant of Judah, of whom it is recorded that "God granted him that which he requested" (1 Chr. 4:9, 10).
(2.) A place inhabited by several families of the scribes (1 Chr. 2:55).
- Jabin Discerner; the wise. (1.) A king of Hazor, at the time of the entrance of Israel into Canaan (Josh. 11:1-14), whose overthrow and that of the northern chief with whom he had entered into a confederacy against Joshua was the crowning act in the conquest of the land (11:21-23; comp. 14:6-15). This great battle, fought at Lake Merom, was the last of Joshua's battles of which we have any record. Here for the first time the Israelites encountered the iron chariots and horses of the Canaanites.
(2.) Another king of Hazor, called "the king of Canaan," who overpowered the Israelites of the north one hundred and sixty years after Joshua's death, and for twenty years held them in painful subjection. The whole population were paralyzed with fear, and gave way to hopeless despondency (Judg. 5:6-11), till Deborah and Barak aroused the national spirit, and gathering together ten thousand men, gained a great and decisive victory over Jabin in the plain of Esdraelon (Judg. 4:10-16; comp. Ps. 83:9). This was the first great victory Israel had gained since the days of Joshua. They never needed to fight another battle with the Canaanites (Judg. 5:31).
- Jabneel Built by God. (1.) A town in the north boundary of Judah (Josh. 15:11), called afterwards by the Greeks Jamnia, the modern Yebna, 11 miles south of Jaffa. After the fall of Jerusalem (A.D. 70), it became one of the most populous cities of Judea, and the seat of a celebrated school.
(2.) A town on the border of Naphtali (Josh. 19:33). Its later name was Kefr Yemmah, "the village by the sea," on the south shore of Lake Merom.
- Jachan Mourner, one of the chief Gadite "brothers" in Bashan (1 Chr. 5:13).
(2.) The head of one of the courses (the twenty-first) of priests (1 Chr. 24:17).
(3.) One of the priests who returned from the Exile (1 Chr. 9:10).
Jachin Jachin and Boaz
- Jachin and Boaz The names of two brazen columns set up in Solomon's temple (1 Kings 7:15-22). Each was eighteen cubits high and twelve in circumference (Jer. 52:21, 23; 1 Kings 7:17-21). They had doubtless a symbolical import.
- Jacinth Properly a flower of a reddish blue or deep purple (hyacinth), and hence a precious stone of that colour (Rev. 21:20). It has been supposed to designate the same stone as the ligure (Heb. leshem) mentioned in Ex. 28:19 as the first stone of the third row in the high priest's breast-plate. In Rev. 9:17 the word is simply descriptive of colour.
- Jaddua Known. (1.) One of the chiefs who subscribed the covenant (Neh. 10:21).
(2.) The last high priest mentioned in the Old Testament (Neh. 12:11, 22), sons of Jonathan.
- Jael Mountain-goat, the wife of Heber the Kenite (Judg. 4:17-22). When the Canaanites were defeated by Barak, Sisera, the captain of Jabin's army, fled and sought refuge with the friendly tribe of Heber, beneath the oaks of Zaanaim. As he drew near, Jael invited him to enter her tent. He did so, and as he lay wearied on the floor he fell into a deep sleep. She then took in her left hand one of the great wooden pins ("nail") which fastened down the cords of the tent, and in her right hand the mallet, or "hammer," used for driving it into the ground, and stealthily approaching her sleeping guest, with one well-directed blow drove the nail through his temples into the earth (Judg. 5:27). She then led Barak, who was in pursuit, into her tent, and boastfully showed him what she had done. (See SISERA; DEBORAH.)
- Jah A contraction for Jehovah (Ps. 68:4).
- Jahath Union. (1.) A son of Shimei, and grandson of Gershom (1 Chr. 23:10).
(2.) One of the sons of Shelomoth, of the family of Kohath (1 Chr. 24:22).
(3.) A Levite of the family of Merari, one of the overseers of the repairs of the temple under Josiah (2 Chr. 34:12).
- Jahaz Trodden down (called also Jahaza, Josh. 13:18; Jahazah, 21:36; Jahzah, 1 Chr. 6:78), a town where Sihon was defeated, in the borders of Moab and in the land of the Ammonites beyond Jordan, and north of the river Arnon (Num. 21:23; Deut. 2:32). It was situated in the tribe of Reuben, and was assigned to the Merarite Levites (Josh. 13:18; 21:36). Here was fought the decisive battle in which Sihon (q.v.) was completely routed, and his territory (the modern Belka) came into the possession of Israel. This town is mentioned in the denunciations of the prophets against Moab (Isa. 15:4; Jer. 48:34).
(4.) The son of Zechariah, a Levite of the family of Asaph (2 Chr. 20:14-17). He encouraged Jehoshaphat against the Moabites and Ammonites.
- Jahdai Grasper, a descendant of Caleb, of the family of Hezron (1 Chr. 2:47).
- Jahzerah Returner, the son of Meshullam, and father of Adiel (1 Chr. 9:12).
- Jailer (of Philippi), Acts 16:23. The conversion of the Roman jailer, a man belonging to a class "insensible as a rule and hardened by habit, and also disposed to despise the Jews, who were the bearers of the message of the gospel," is one of those cases which illustrate its universality and power.
- Jair Enlightener. (1.) The son of Segub. He was brought up with his mother in Gilead, where he had possessions (1 Chr. 2:22). He distinguished himself in an expedition against Bashan, and settled in the part of Argob on the borders of Gilead. The small towns taken by him there are called Havoth-jair, i.e., "Jair's villages" (Num. 32:41; Deut. 3:14; Josh. 13:30).
(2.) The eighth judge of Israel, which he ruled for twenty-two years. His opulence is described in Judg. 10:3-5. He had thirty sons, each riding on "ass colts." They had possession of thirty of the sixty cities (1 Kings 4:13; 1 Chr. 2:23) which formed the ancient Havoth-jair.
(3.) A Benjamite, the father of Mordecai, Esther's uncle (Esther 2:5).
(4.) The father of Elhanan, who slew Lahmi, the brother of Goliath (1 Chr. 20:5).
- Jairus A ruler of the synagogue at Capernaum, whose only daughter Jesus restored to life (Mark 5:22; Luke 8:41). Entering into the chamber of death, accompanied by Peter and James and John and the father and mother of the maiden, he went forward to the bed whereon the corpse lay, and said, Talitha cumi, i.e., "Maid, arise," and immediately the spirit of the maiden came to her again, and she arose straightway; and "at once to strengthen that life which had come back to her, and to prove that she was indeed no ghost, but had returned to the realities of a mortal existence, he commanded to give her something to eat" (Mark 5:43).
- Jakeh Pious, the father of Agur (Prov. 30:1). Nothing is known of him.
- Jakim Establisher. (1.) Chief of the twelfth priestly order (1 Chr. 24:12).
(2.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:19).
(3.) Margin in Matt. 1:11 means Jehoiakim.
- Janoah Or Jano'hah, rest. (1.) A town on the north-eastern border of Ephraim, in the Jordan valley (Josh. 16:6, 7). Identified with the modern Yanun, 8 miles south-east of Nablus.
- Japheth Wide spreading: "God shall enlarge Japheth" (Heb. Yaphat Elohim le-Yephet, Gen. 9:27. Some, however, derive the name from yaphah, "to be beautiful;" hence white), one of the sons of Noah, mentioned last in order (Gen. 5:32; 6:10; 7:13), perhaps first by birth (10:21; comp. 9:24). He and his wife were two of the eight saved in the ark (1 Pet. 3:20). He was the progenitor of many tribes inhabiting the east of Europe and the north of Asia (Gen. 10:2-5). An act of filial piety (9:20-27) was the occasion of Noah's prophecy of the extension of his posterity.
After the Flood the earth was re-peopled by the descendants of Noah, "the sons of Japheth" (Gen. 10:2), "the sons of Ham" (6), and "the sons of Shem" (22). It is important to notice that modern ethnological science, reasoning from a careful analysis of facts, has arrived at the conclusion that there is a three-fold division of the human family, corresponding in a remarkable way with the great ethnological chapter of the book of Genesis (10). The three great races thus distinguished are called the Semitic, Aryan, and Turanian (Allophylian). "Setting aside the cases where the ethnic names employed are of doubtful application, it cannot reasonably be questioned that the author [of Gen. 10] has in his account of the sons of Japheth classed together the Cymry or Celts (Gomer), the Medes (Madai), and the Ionians or Greeks (Javan), thereby anticipating what has become known in modern times as the `Indo-European Theory,' or the essential unity of the Aryan (Asiatic) race with the principal races of Europe, indicated by the Celts and the Ionians. Nor can it be doubted that he has thrown together under the one head of 'children of Shem' the Assyrians (Asshur), the Syrians (Aram), the Hebrews (Eber), and the Joktanian Arabs (Joktan), four of the principal races which modern ethnology recognizes under the heading of `Semitic.' Again, under the heading of `sons of Ham,' the author has arranged `Cush', i.e., the Ethiopians; `Mizraim,' the people of Egypt; `Sheba and Dedan,' or certain of the Southern Arabs; and `Nimrod,' or the ancient people of Babylon, four races between which the latest linguistic researches have established a close affinity" (Rawlinson's Hist. Illustrations).
- Japhia Splendid. (1.) The king of Lachish, who joined in the confederacy against Joshua (Josh. 10:3), and was defeated and slain. In one of the Amarna tablets he speaks of himself as king of Gezer. Called also Horam (Josh. 10:33).
(3.) A town in the southern boundary of Zebulum (Josh. 19:12); now Yafa, 2 miles south-west of Nazareth.
- Japho Beauty, a sea-port in Dan (Josh. 19:46); called Joppa (q.v.) in 2 Chr. 2:16; Ezra 3:7; Jonah 1:3; and in New Testament.
- Jared Descent. (1.) The fourth antediluvian patriarch in descent from Seth (Gen. 5:15-20; Luke 3:37), the father of Enoch; called Jered in 1 Chr. 1:2.
- Jarib An adversary. (1.) A son of Simeon (1 Chr. 4:24).
(3.) Ezra 10:18.
- Jarmuth Height. (1.) A town in the plain of Judah (Josh. 15:35), originally the residence of one of the Canaanitish kings (10:3, 5, 23). It has been identified with the modern Yarmuk, a village about 7 miles north-east of Beit-Jibrin.
- Jashen Sleeping, called also Hashem (1 Chr. 11:34); a person, several of whose sons were in David's body-guard (2 Sam. 23:32).
- Jasher Upright. "The Book of Jasher," rendered in the LXX. "the Book of the Upright One," by the Vulgate "the Book of Just Ones," was probably a kind of national sacred song-book, a collection of songs in praise of the heroes of Israel, a "book of golden deeds," a national anthology. We have only two specimens from the book, (1) the words of Joshua which he spake to the Lord at the crisis of the battle of Beth-horon (Josh. 10:12, 13); and (2) "the Song of the Bow," that beautiful and touching mournful elegy which David composed on the occasion of the death of Saul and Jonathan (2 Sam. 1:18-27).
- Jashobeam Dweller among the people; or to whom the people turn, the Hachmonite (1 Chr. 11:11), one of David's chief heroes who joined him at Ziklag (12:6). He was the first of the three who broke through the host of the Philistines to fetch water to David from the well of Bethlehem (2 Sam. 23:13-17). He is also called Adino the Eznite (8).
(2.) Ezra 10:29.
- Jason He that will cure, the host of Paul and Silas in Thessalonica. The Jews assaulted his house in order to seize Paul, but failing to find him, they dragged Jason before the ruler of the city (Acts 17:5-9). He was apparently one of the kinsmen of Paul (Rom. 16:21), and accompanied him from Thessalonica to Corinth.
- Jasper (Heb. yashpheh, "glittering"), a gem of various colours, one of the twelve inserted in the high priest's breast-plate (Ex. 28:20). It is named in the building of the New Jerusalem (Rev. 21:18, 19). It was "most precious," "clear as crystal" (21:11). It was emblematic of the glory of God (4:3).
- Javan (1.) The fourth "son" of Japheth (Gen. 10:2), whose descendants settled in Greece, i.e., Ionia, which bears the name of Javan in Hebrew. Alexander the Great is called the "king of Javan" (rendered "Grecia," Dan. 8:21; 10:20; comp. 11:2; Zech. 9:13). This word was universally used by the nations of the East as the generic name of the Greek race.
(2.) A town or district of Arabia Felix, from which the Syrians obtained iron, cassia, and calamus (Ezek. 27:19).
- Javelin (1.) Heb. hanith, a lance, from its flexibility (1 Sam. 18:10, 11; 19:9, 10; 20:33).
(2.) Heb. romah, a lance for heavy-armed troops, so called from its piercing (Num. 25:7). (See ARMS.)
- Jaw-bone Of an ass afforded Samson a weapon for the great slaughter of the Philistines (Judg. 15:15), in which he slew a thousand men. In verse 19 the Authorized Version reads, "God clave a hollow place that was in the jaw, and there came water thereout." This is a mis-translation of the words. The rendering should be as in the Revised Version, "God clave the hollow place that is in Lehi," etc., Lehi (q.v.) being the name of the hill where this conflict was waged, possibly so called because it was in shape like a jaw-bone.
- Jealousy Suspicion of a wife's purity, one of the strongest passions (Num. 5:14; Prov. 6:34; [[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 8:6); also an intense interest for another's honour or prosperity (Ps. 79:5; 1 Cor. 10:22; Zech. 1:14).
Jealousy, Image of
- Jealousy, Image of An idolatrous object, seen in vision by Ezekiel (Ezek. 8:3, 5), which stood in the priests' or inner court of the temple. Probably identical with the statue of Astarte (2 Kings 21:7).
Jealousy Jealousy offering
- Jealousy offering The name of the offering the husband was to bring when he charged his wife with adultery (Num. 5:11-15).
Jealousy, Waters of
- Jealousy, Waters of Water which the suspected wife was required to drink, so that the result might prove her guilt or innocence (Num. 5:12-17, 27). We have no record of this form of trial having been actually resorted to.
- Jebus Trodden hard, or fastness, or "the waterless hill", the name of the Canaanitish city which stood on Mount Zion (Josh. 15:8; 18:16, 28). It is identified with Jerusalem (q.v.) in Judg. 19:10, and with the castle or city of David (1 Chr. 11:4, 5). It was a place of great natural strength, and its capture was one of David's most brilliant achievements (2 Sam. 5:8).
- Jebusites The name of the original inhabitants of Jebus, mentioned frequently among the seven nations doomed to destruction (Gen. 10:16; 15:21; Ex. 3:8, 17; 13:5, etc.). At the time of the arrival of the Israelites in Palestine they were ruled by Adonizedek (Josh. 10:1, 23). They were defeated by Joshua, and their king was slain; but they were not entirely driven out of Jebus till the time of David, who made it the capital of his kingdom instead of Hebron. The site on which the temple was afterwards built belonged to Araunah, a Jebusite, from whom it was purchased by David, who refused to accept it as a free gift (2 Sam. 24:16-25; 1 Chr. 21:24, 25).
- Jecoliah Able through Jehovah, the wife of King Amaziah, and mother of King Uzziah (2 Chr. 26:3).
- Jedaiah (1.) Invoker of Jehovah. The son of Shimri, a chief Simeonite (1 Chr. 4:37).
(3.) Knowing Jehovah. The chief of one of the courses of the priests (1 Chr. 24:7).
- Jediael Known by God. (1.) One of the sons of Benjamin, whose descendants numbered 17,200 warriors (1 Chr. 7:6, 10, 11).
(3.) A Korhite of the family of Ebiasaph, and one of the gate-keepers to the temple (1 Chr. 26:2).
- Jedidiah Beloved by Jehovah, the name which, by the mouth of Nathan, the Lord gave to Solomon at his birth as a token of the divine favour (2 Sam. 12:25).
- Jeduthun Lauder; praising, a Levite of the family of Merari, and one of the three masters of music appointed by David (1 Chr. 16:41, 42; 25:1-6). He is called in 2 Chr. 35:15 "the king's seer." His descendants are mentioned as singers and players on instruments (Neh. 11:17). He was probably the same as Ethan (1 Chr. 15:17, 19). In the superscriptions to Ps. 39, 62, and 77, the words "upon Jeduthun" probably denote a musical instrument; or they may denote the style or tune invented or introduced by Jeduthun, or that the psalm was to be sung by his choir.
- Jegar-sahadutha Pile of testimony, the Aramaic or Syriac name which Laban gave to the pile of stones erected as a memorial of the covenant between him and Jacob (Gen. 31:47), who, however, called it in Hebrew by an equivalent name, Galeed (q.v.).
(2.) A Levite of the family of Merari (2 Chr. 29:12).
- Jehdeiah Rejoicer in Jehovah. (1.) One of the Levitical attendants at the temple, a descendant of Shubael (1 Chr. 24:20).
(5.) The second of Jehoshaphat's six sons (2 Chr. 21:2).
(6.) One of the Levites of the family of Heman who assisted Hezekiah in his work of reformation (2 Chr. 29:14).
(8.) The father of Obadiah (Ezra 8:9).
(9.) One of the "sons" of Elam (Ezra 10:26).
(10.) Ezra 10:21.
- Jehizkiah Jehovah strengthens, one of the chiefs of Ephraim (2 Chr. 28:12).
- Jehoaddan Jehovah his ornament, the wife of King Jehoash, and mother of King Amaziah (2 Kings 14:2).
- Jehoahaz Jehovah his sustainer, or he whom Jehovah holdeth. (1.) The youngest son of Jehoram, king of Judah (2 Chr. 21:17; 22:1, 6, 8, 9); usually Ahaziah (q.v.).
(2.) The son and successor of Jehu, king of Israel (2 Kings 10:35). He reigned seventeen years, and followed the evil ways of the house of Jeroboam. The Syrians, under Hazael and Benhadad, prevailed over him, but were at length driven out of the land by his son Jehoash (13:1-9, 25).
(3.) Josiah's third son, usually called Shallum (1 Chr. 3:15). He succeeded his father on the throne, and reigned over Judah for three months (2 Kings 23:31, 34). He fell into the idolatrous ways of his predecessors (23:32), was deposed by Pharaoh-Necho from the throne, and carried away prisoner into Egypt, where he died in captivity (23:33, 34; Jer. 22:10-12; 2 Chr. 36:1-4).
- Jehohanan Jehovah-granted, Jeroboam II. (1.) A Korhite, the head of one of the divisions of the temple porters (1 Chr. 26:3).
(2.) One of Jehoshaphat's "captains" (2 Chr. 17:15).
(3.) The father of Azariah (2 Chr. 28:12).
(4.) The son of Tobiah, an enemy of the Jews (Neh. 6:18).
(5.) Neh. 12:42.
(6.) Neh. 12:13.
- Jehoiachin Succeeded his father Jehoiakin (B.C. 599) when only eight years of age, and reigned for one hundred days (2 Chr. 36:9). He is also called Jeconiah (Jer. 24:1; 27:20, etc.), and Coniah (22:24; 37:1). He was succeeded by his uncle, Mattaniah = Zedekiah (q.v.). He was the last direct heir to the Jewish crown. He was carried captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, along with the flower of the nobility, all the leading men in Jerusalem, and a great body of the general population, some thirteen thousand in all (2 Kings 24:12-16; Jer. 52:28). After an imprisonment of thirty-seven years (Jer. 52:31, 33), he was liberated by Evil-merodach, and permitted to occupy a place in the king's household and sit at his table, receiving "every day a portion until the day of his death, all the days of his life" (52:32-34).
- Jehoiada Jehovah-known. (1.) The father of Benaiah, who was one of David's chief warriors (2 Sam. 8:18; 20:23).
(2.) The high priest at the time of Athaliah's usurpation of the throne of Judah. He married Jehosheba, or Jehoshabeath, the daughter of king Jehoram (2 Chr. 22:11), and took an active part along with his wife in the preservation and training of Jehoash when Athaliah slew all the royal family of Judah.
The plans he adopted in replacing Jehoash on the throne of his ancestors are described in 2 Kings 11:2; 12:2; 2 Chr. 22:11; 23:24. He was among the foremost of the benefactors of the kingdom, and at his death was buried in the city of David among the kings of Judah (2 Chr. 24:15, 16). He is said to have been one hundred and thirty years old.
- Jehoiarib Jehovah defends, a priest at Jerusalem, head of one of the sacerdotal courses (1 Chr. 9:10; 24:7). His "course" went up from Babylon after the Exile (Ezra 2:36-39; Neh. 7:39-42).
- Jehonadab Jehovah is liberal; or, whom Jehovah impels. (1.) A son of Shimeah, and nephew of David. It was he who gave the fatal wicked advice to Amnon, the heir to the throne (2 Sam. 13:3-6). He was very "subtil," but unprincipled.
(2.) A son of Rechab, the founder of a tribe who bound themselves by a vow to abstain from wine (Jer. 35:6-19). There were different settlements of Rechabites (Judg. 1:16; 4:11; 1 Chr. 2:55). (See RECHABITE.) His interview and alliance with Jehu are mentioned in 2 Kings 10:15-23. He went with Jehu in his chariot to Samaria.
(3.) Neh. 12:18.
- Jehosheba Jehovah-swearing, the daughter of Jehoram, the king of Israel. She is called Jehoshabeath in 2 Chr. 22:11. She was the only princess of the royal house who was married to a high priest, Jehoiada (2 Chr. 22:11).
- Jehovah-nissi Jehovah my banner, the title given by Moses to the altar which he erected on the hill on the top of which he stood with uplifted hands while Israel prevailed over their enemies the Amalekites (Ex. 17:15).
- Jehovah-shalom Jehovah send peace, the name which Gideon gave to the altar he erected on the spot at Ophrah where the angel appeared to him (Judg. 6:24).
- Jehovah-shammah Jehovah is there, the symbolical title given by Ezekiel to Jerusalem, which was seen by him in vision (Ezek. 48:35). It was a type of the gospel Church.
- Jehovah-tsidkenu Jehovah our rightousness, rendered in the Authorized Version, "The LORD our righteousness," a title given to the Messiah (Jer. 23:6, marg.), and also to Jerusalem (33:16, marg.).
- Jehozabad Jehovah-given. (1.) The son of Obed-edom (1 Chr. 26:4), one of the Levite porters.
(3.) 2 Chr. 17:18.
- Jehozadak Jehovah-justified, the son of the high priest Seraiah at the time of the Babylonian exile (1 Chr. 6:14, 15). He was carried into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, and probably died in Babylon. He was the father of Jeshua, or Joshua, who returned with Zerubbabel.
- Jehucal Able, the son of Shelemiah. He is also called Jucal (Jer. 38:1). He was one of the two persons whom Zedekiah sent to request the prophet Jeremiah to pray for the kingdom (Jer. 37:3) during the time of its final siege by Nebuchadnezzar. He was accompanied by Zephaniah (q.v.).
- Jehudi A Jew, son of Nethaniah. He was sent by the princes to invite Baruch to read Jeremiah 's roll to them (Jer. 36:14, 21).
(3.) 2 Chr. 29:13. A Levite of the sons of Asaph.
(4.) 2 Chr. 26:11. A scribe.
(5.) 1 Chr. 5:7. A Reubenite chief.
(6.) One of the chief Levites, who made an offering for the restoration of the Passover by Josiah (2 Chr. 35:9).
(7.) Ezra 8:13.
(8.) Ezra 10:43.
- Jephunneh Nimble, or a beholder. (1.) The father of Caleb, who was Joshua's companion in exploring Canaan (Num. 13:6), a Kenezite (Josh. 14:14). (2.) One of the descendants of Asher (1 Chr. 7:38).
(2.) The son of Kish, a Levite (1 Chr. 24:29).
(3.) Son of Hammelech (Jer. 36:26).
- Jerimoth Heights. (1.) One of the sons of Bela (1 Chr. 7:7).
(2.) 1 Chr. 24:30, a Merarite Levite.
(4.) A Levitical musician under Heman his father (1 Chr. 25:4).
(5.) 1 Chr. 27:19, ruler of Naphtali.
(7.) A Levite, one of the overseers of the temple offerings (2 Chr. 31:13) in the reign of Hezekiah.
- Jeroham Cherished; who finds mercy. (1.) Father of Elkanah, and grandfather of the prophet Samuel (1 Sam. 1:1).
(2.) The father of Azareel, the "captain" of the tribe of Dan (1 Chr. 27:22).
(3.) 1 Chr. 12:7; a Benjamite.
(4.) 2 Chr. 23:1; one whose son assisted in placing Joash on the throne.
(5.) 1 Chr. 9:8; a Benjamite.
- Jerubbaal Contender with Baal; or, let Baal plead, a surname of Gideon; a name given to him because he destroyed the altar of Baal (Judg. 6:32; 7:1; 8:29; 1 Sam. 12:11).
- Jerubbesheth Contender with the shame; i.e., idol, a surname also of Gideon (2 Sam. 11:21).
- Jeruel Founded by God, a "desert" on the ascent from the valley of the Dead Sea towards Jerusalem. It lay beyond the wilderness of Tekoa, in the direction of Engedi (2 Chr. 20:16, 20). It corresponds with the tract of country now called el-Hasasah.
- Jerusha Possession, or possessed; i.e., "by a husband", the wife of Uzziah, and mother of king Jotham (2 Kings 15:33).
- Jeshaiah Deliverance of Jehovah. (1.) A Kohathite Levite, the father of Joram, of the family of Eliezer (1 Chr. 26:25); called also Isshiah (24:21).
(2.) One of the sons of Jeduthum (1 Chr. 25:3, 15).
(3.) One of the three sons of Hananiah (1 Chr. 3:21).
(4.) Son of Athaliah (Ezra 8:7).
(5.) A Levite of the family of Merari (8:19).
- Jesharelah Upright towards God, the head of the seventh division of Levitical musicians (1 Chr. 25:14).
- Jeshebeab Seat of his father, the head of the fourteenth division of priests (1 Chr. 24:13).
- Jesher Uprightness, the first of the three sons of Caleb by Azubah (1 Chr. 2:18).
- Jeshimon The waste, probably some high waste land to the south of the Dead Sea (Num. 21:20; 23:28; 1 Sam. 23:19, 24); or rather not a proper name at all, but simply "the waste" or "wilderness," the district on which the plateau of Ziph (q.v.) looks down.
(2.) A Levite appointed by Hezekiah to distribute offerings in the priestly cities (2 Chr. 31:15).
(6.) A Levite (Ezra 8:33).
(7.) Neh. 3:19.
(8.) A Levite who assisted in the reformation under Nehemiah (8:7; 9:4, 5).
(9.) Son of Kadmiel (Neh. 12:24).
(11.) Neh. 8:17; Joshua, the son of Nun.
- Jeshurun A poetical name for the people of Israel, used in token of affection, meaning, "the dear upright people" (Deut. 32:15; 33:5, 26; Isa. 44:2).
- Jesse Firm, or a gift, a son of Obed, the son of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth 4:17, 22; Matt. 1:5, 6; Luke 3:32). He was the father of eight sons, the youngest of whom was David (1 Sam. 17:12). The phrase "stem of Jesse" is used for the family of David (Isa. 11:1), and "root of Jesse" for the Messiah (Isa. 11:10; Rev. 5:5). Jesse was a man apparently of wealth and position at Bethlehem (1 Sam. 17:17, 18, 20; Ps. 78:71). The last reference to him is of David's procuring for him an asylum with the king of Moab (1 Sam. 22:3).
- Jether Surplus; excellence. (1.) Father-in-law of Moses (Ex. 4:18 marg.), called elsewhere Jethro (q.v.).
(2.) The oldest of Gideon's seventy sons (Judg. 8:20).
(4.) 1 Chr. 7:38.
(6.) 1 Chr. 4:17.
- Jetheth A peg, or a prince, one of the Edomitish kings of Mount Seir (Gen. 36:40).
- Jethlah Suspended; high, a city on the borders of Dan (Josh. 19:42).
- Jethro His excellence, or gain, a prince or priest of Midian, who succeeded his father Reuel. Moses spent forty years after his exile from the Egyptian court as keeper of Jethro's flocks. While the Israelites were encamped at Sinai, and soon after their victory over Amalek, Jethro came to meet Moses, bringing with him Zipporah and her two sons. They met at the "mount of God," and "Moses told him all that the Lord had done unto Pharaoh" (Ex. 18:8). On the following day Jethro, observing the multiplicity of the duties devolving on Moses, advised him to appoint subordinate judges, rulers of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens, to decide smaller matters, leaving only the weightier matters to be referred to Moses, to be laid before the Lord. This advice Moses adopted (Ex. 18). He was also called Hobab (q.v.), which was probably his personal name, while Jethro was an official name. (See MOSES.)
- Jetur An enclosure, one of the twelve sons of Ishmael (Gen. 25:15).
- Jeush Assembler. (1.) The oldest of Esau's three sons by Aholibamah (Gen. 36:5, 14, 18).
(2.) A son of Bilhan, grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr. 7:10).
(3.) A Levite, one of the sons of Shimei (1 Chr. 23:10, 11).
(4.) One of the three sons of Rehoboam (2 Chr. 11:19).
(5.) 1 Chr. 8:39.
- Jewess A woman of Hebrew birth, as Eunice, the mother of Timothy (Acts 16:1; 2 Tim. 1:5), and Drusilla (Acts 24:24), wife of Felix, and daughter of Herod Agrippa I.
- Jeziel Assembled by God, a son of Azmaveth. He was one of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).
- Jezreel God scatters. (1.) A town of Issachar (Josh. 19:18), where the kings of Israel often resided (1 Kings 18:45; 21:1; 2 Kings 9:30). Here Elijah met Ahab, Jehu, and Bidkar; and here Jehu executed his dreadful commission against the house of Ahab (2 Kings 9:14-37; 10:1-11). It has been identified with the modern Zerin, on the most western point of the range of Gilboa, reaching down into the great and fertile valley of Jezreel, to which it gave its name.
(3.) A symbolical name given by Hosea to his oldest son (Hos. 1:4), in token of a great slaughter predicted by him, like that which had formerly taken place in the plain of Esdraelon (comp. Hos. 1:4, 5).
Jezreel, Blood of
- Jezreel, Blood of The murder perpetrated here by Ahab and Jehu (Hos. 1:4; comp. 1 Kings 18:4; 2 Kings 9:6-10).
Jezreel, Day of
- Jezreel, Day of The time predicted for the execution of vengeance for the deeds of blood committed there (Hos. 1:5).
Jezreel, Ditch of
- Jezreel, Ditch of (1 Kings 21:23; comp. 13), the fortification surrounding the city, outside of which Naboth was executed.
Jezreel, Fountain of
- Jezreel, Fountain of Where Saul encamped before the battle of Gilboa (1 Sam. 29:1). In the valley under Zerin there are two considerable springs, one of which, perhaps that here referred to, "flows from under a sort of cavern in the wall of conglomerate rock which here forms the base of Gilboa. The water is excellent; and issuing from crevices in the rocks, it spreads out at once into a fine limpid pool forty or fifty feet in diameter, full of fish" (Robinson). This may be identical with the "well of Harod" (Judg. 7:1; comp. 2 Sam. 23:25), probably the `Ain Jalud, i.e., the "spring of Goliath."
Jezreel, Portion of
- Jezreel, Portion of The field adjoining the city (2 Kings 9:10, 21, 36, 37). Here Naboth was stoned to death (1 Kings 21:13).
Jezreel, Tower of
- Jezreel, Tower of One of the turrets which guarded the entrance to the city (2 Kings 9:17).
Jezreel, Valley of
- Jezreel, Valley of Lying on the northern side of the city, between the ridges of Gilboa and Moreh, an offshoot of Esdraelon, running east to the Jordan (Josh. 17:16; Judg. 6:33; Hos. 1:5). It was the scene of the signal victory gained by the Israelites under Gideon over the Midianites, the Amalekites, and the "children of the east" (Judg. 6:3). Two centuries after this the Israelites were here defeated by the Philistines, and Saul and Jonathan, with the flower of the army of Israel, fell (1 Sam. 31:1-6).
This name was in after ages extended to the whole of the plain of Esdraelon (q.v.). It was only this plain of Jezreel and that north of Lake Huleh that were then accessible to the chariots of the Canaanites (comp. 2 Kings 9:21; 10:15).
- Joah Jehovah his brother; i.e., helper. (1.) One of the sons of Obed-edom (1 Chr. 26:4), a Korhite porter.
(2.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (1 Chr. 6:21), probably the same as Ethan (42).
(3.) The son of Asaph, and "recorder" (q.v.) or chronicler to King Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:18, 26, 37).
(4.) Son of Joahaz, and "recorder" (q.v.) or keeper of the state archives under King Josiah (2 Chr. 34:8).
- Joahaz (2 Chr. 34:8), a contracted form of Jehoahaz (q.v.).
- Joanna Whom Jehovah has graciously given. (1.) The grandson of Zerubbabel, in the lineage of Christ (Luke 3:27); the same as Hananiah (1 Chr. 3:19).
(2.) The wife of Chuza, the steward of Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee (Luke 8:3). She was one of the women who ministered to our Lord, and to whom he appeared after his resurrection (Luke 8:3; 24:10).
- Joash Whom Jehovah bestowed. (1.) A contracted form of Jehoash, the father of Gideon (Judg. 6:11, 29; 8:13, 29, 32).
(3.) One of King Ahab's sons (1 Kings 22:26).
(6.) 1 Chr. 7:8.
- Joezer Jehovah is his help, one of the Korhites who became part of David's body-guard (1 Chr. 12:6).
- Johanan Whom Jehovah graciously bestows. (1.) One of the Gadite heroes who joined David in the desert of Judah (1 Chr. 12:12).
(2.) The oldest of King Josiah's sons (1 Chr. 3:15).
(3.) Son of Careah, one of the Jewish chiefs who rallied round Gedaliah, whom Nebuchadnezzar had made governor in Jerusalem (2 Kings 25:23; Jer. 40:8). He warned Gedaliah of the plans of Ishmael against him, a warning which was unheeded (Jer. 40:13, 16). He afterwards pursued the murderer of the governor, and rescued the captives (41:8, 13, 15, 16). He and his associates subsequently fled to Tahpanhes in Egypt (43:2, 4, 5), taking Jeremiah with them. "The flight of Gedaliah's community to Egypt extinguished the last remaining spark of life in the Jewish state. The work of the ten centuries since Joshua crossed the Jordan had been undone."
- Joiada (whom Jehovah favours) = Jehoiada. (1.) Neh. 3:6. (2.) One of the high priests (12:10, 11, 22).
- Joiakim (whom Jehovah has set up) = Jehoiakim, a high priest, the son and successor of Jeshua (Neh. 12:10, 12, 26).
- Joiarib (whom Jehovah defends) = Jehoiarib. (1.) The founder of one of the courses of the priests (Neh. 11:10).
(3.) Neh. 12:6.
- Jokim Whom Jehovah has set up, one of the descendants of Shelah (1 Chr. 4:22).
- Jokmeam Gathering of the people, a city of Ephraim, which was given with its suburbs to the Levites (1 Chr. 6:68). It lay somewhere in the Jordan valley (1 Kings 4:12, R.V.; but in A.V. incorrectly "Jokneam").
- Jokneam Gathered by the people, (Josh. 19:11; 21:34), a city "of Carmel" (12:22), i.e., on Carmel, allotted with its suburbs to the Merarite Levites. It is the modern Tell Kaimon, about 12 miles south-west of Nazareth, on the south of the river Kishon.
- Joktan Little, the second of the two sons of Eber (Gen. 10:25; 1 Chr. 1:19). There is an Arab tradition that Joktan (Arab. Kahtan) was the progenitor of all the purest tribes of Central and Southern Arabia.
- Joktheel Subdued by God. (1.) A city of Judah near Lachish (Josh. 15, 38). Perhaps the ruin Kutlaneh, south of Gezer.
(2.) Amaziah, king of Judah, undertook a great expedition against Edom (2 Chr. 25:5-10), which was completely successful. He routed the Edomites and slew vast numbers of them. So wonderful did this victory appear to him that he acknowledged that it could have been achieved only by the special help of God, and therefore he called Selah (q.v.), their great fortress city, by the name of Joktheel (2 Kings 14:7).
- Jonadab =Jehon'adab. (1.) The son of Rechab, and founder of the Rechabites (q.v.), 2 Kings 10:15; Jer. 35:6, 10.
- Jonath-elem-rechokim Dove of the dumbness of the distance; i.e., "the silent dove in distant places", title of Ps. 56. This was probably the name of some well known tune or melody to which the psalm was to be sung.
- Jot Or Iota, the smallest letter of the Greek alphabet, used metaphorically or proverbially for the smallest thing (Matt. 5:18); or it may be = yod, which is the smallest of the Hebrew letters.
- Journey (1.) A day's journey in the East is from 16 to 20 miles (Num. 11:31).
(2.) A Sabbath-day's journey is 2,000 paces or yards from the city walls (Acts 1:12). According to Jewish tradition, it was the distance one might travel without violating the law of Ex. 16:29. (See SABBATH.)
- Jozabad Whom Jehovah bestows. (1.) One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:4).
(2.) A chief of the tribe of Manasseh (1 Chr. 12:20).
- Jozachar Jehovah-remembered, one of the two servants who assassinated Jehoash, the king of Judah, in Millo (2 Kings 12:21). He is called also Zabad (2 Chr. 24:26).
- Jubal Jubilee, music, Lamech's second son by Adah, of the line of Cain. He was the inventor of "the harp" (Heb. kinnor, properly "lyre") and "the organ" (Heb. `ugab, properly "mouth-organ" or Pan's pipe), Gen. 4:21.
- Juda (1.) The patriarch Judah, son of Jacob (Luke 3:33; Heb. 7:14). In Luke 1:39; Heb. 7:14; Rev. 5:5; 7:5, the word refers to the tribe of Judah.
(4.) One of the Lord's "brethren" (Mark 6:3).
- Judgment hall Gr. praitorion (John 18:28, 33; 19:9; Matt. 27:27), "common hall." In all these passages the Revised Version renders "palace." In Mark 15:16 the word is rendered "Praetorium" (q.v.), which is a Latin word, meaning literally the residence of the praetor, and then the governor's residence in general, though not a praetor. Throughout the Gospels the word "praitorion" has this meaning (comp. Acts 23:35). Pilate's official residence when he was in Jerusalem was probably a part of the fortress of Antonia.
The trial of our Lord was carried on in a room or office of the palace. The "whole band" spoken of by Mark were gathered together in the palace court.
- Judgment seat (Matt. 27:19), a portable tribunal (Gr. bema) which was placed according as the magistrate might direct, and from which judgment was pronounced. In this case it was placed on a tesselated pavement, probably in front of the procurator's residence. (See GABBATHA.)
- Judgments of God (1.) The secret decisions of God's will (Ps. 110:5; 36:6). (2.) The revelations of his will (Ex. 21:1; Deut. 6:20; Ps. 119:7-175). (3.) The infliction of punishment on the wicked (Ex. 6:6; 12:12; Ezek. 25:11; Rev. 16:7), such as is mentioned in Gen. 7; 19:24, 25; Judg. 1:6, 7; Acts 5:1-10, etc.
Judgments of God
- Judgment, The final The sentence that will be passed on our actions at the last day (Matt. 25; Rom. 14:10, 11; 2 Cor. 5:10; 2 Thess. 1:7-10).
The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator. All judgment is committed to him (Acts 17:31; John 5:22, 27; Rev. 1:7). "It pertains to him as mediator to complete and publicly manifest the salvation of his people and the overthrow of his enemies, together with the glorious righteousness of his work in both respects."
The rule of judgment is the standard of God's law as revealed to men, the heathen by the law as written on their hearts (Luke 12:47, 48; Rom. 2:12-16); the Jew who "sinned in the law shall be judged by the law" (Rom. 2:12); the Christian enjoying the light of revelation, by the will of God as made known to him (Matt. 11:20-24; John 3:19). Then the secrets of all hearts will be brought to light (1 Cor. 4:5; Luke 8:17; 12:2, 3) to vindicate the justice of the sentence pronounced.
As the Scriptures represent the final judgment "as certain [[[../Ecclesiastes|Eccl.]] 11:9], universal [[[../Corinthians, Second Epistle to the|2 Cor.]] 5:10], righteous [[[../Romans, Epistle to the|Rom.]] 2:5], decisive [[[../Corinthians, First Epistle to the|1 Cor.]] 15:52], and eternal as to its consequences [[[../Hebrews, Epistle to the|Heb.]] 6:2], let us be concerned for the welfare of our immortal interests, flee to the refuge set before us, improve our precious time, depend on the merits of the Redeemer, and adhere to the dictates of the divine word, that we may be found of him in peace."
Judgment, The final Judith
- Judith Jewess, the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and one of Esau's wives (Gen. 26:34), elsewhere called Aholibamah (36:2-14).
- Julia A Christian woman at Rome to whom Paul sent his salutations (Rom. 16:15), supposed to be the wife of Philologus.
- Julius The centurion of the Augustan cohort, or the emperor's body-guard, in whose charge Paul was sent prisoner to Rome (Acts 27:1, 3, 43). He entreated Paul "courteously," showing in many ways a friendly regard for him.
- Juniper (Heb. rothem), called by the Arabs retem, and known as Spanish broom; ranked under the genus genista. It is a desert shrub, and abounds in many parts of Palestine. In the account of his journey from Akabah to Jerusalem, Dr. Robinson says: "This is the largest and most conspicuous shrub of these deserts, growing thickly in the water-courses and valleys. Our Arabs always selected the place of encampment, if possible, in a spot where it grew, in order to be sheltered by it at night from the wind; and during the day, when they often went on in advance of the camels, we found them not unfrequently sitting or sleeping under a bush of retem to shelter them from the sun. It was in this very desert, a day's journey from Beersheba, that the prophet Elijah lay down and slept beneath the same shrub" (1 Kings 19:4, 5). It afforded material for fuel, and also in cases of extremity for human food (Ps. 120:4; Job 30:4). One of the encampments in the wilderness of Paran is called Rithmah, i.e., "place of broom" (Num. 33:18).
"The Bedawin of Sinai still burn this very plant into a charcoal which throws out the most intense heat."
- Jupiter The principal deity of the ancient Greeks and Romans. He was worshipped by them under various epithets. Barnabas was identified with this god by the Lycaonians (Acts 14:12), because he was of stately and commanding presence, as they supposed Jupiter to be. There was a temple dedicated to this god outside the gates of Lystra (14:13).
- Justice Is rendering to every one that which is his due. It has been distinguished from equity in this respect, that while justice means merely the doing what positive law demands, equity means the doing of what is fair and right in every separate case.
Justice of God
- Justice of God That perfection of his nature whereby he is infinitely righteous in himself and in all he does, the righteousness of the divine nature exercised in his moral government. At first God imposes righteous laws on his creatures and executes them righteously. Justice is not an optional product of his will, but an unchangeable principle of his very nature. His legislative justice is his requiring of his rational creatures conformity in all respects to the moral law. His rectoral or distributive justice is his dealing with his accountable creatures according to the requirements of the law in rewarding or punishing them (Ps. 89:14). In remunerative justice he distributes rewards (James 1:12; 2 Tim. 4:8); in vindictive or punitive justice he inflicts punishment on account of transgression (2 Thess. 1:6). He cannot, as being infinitely righteous, do otherwise than regard and hate sin as intrinsically hateful and deserving of punishment. "He cannot deny himself" (2 Tim. 2:13). His essential and eternal righteousness immutably determines him to visit every sin as such with merited punishment.
- Justification A forensic term, opposed to condemnation. As regards its nature, it is the judicial act of God, by which he pardons all the sins of those who believe in Christ, and accounts, accepts, and treats them as righteous in the eye of the law, i.e., as conformed to all its demands. In addition to the pardon (q.v.) of sin, justification declares that all the claims of the law are satisfied in respect of the justified. It is the act of a judge and not of a sovereign. The law is not relaxed or set aside, but is declared to be fulfilled in the strictest sense; and so the person justified is declared to be entitled to all the advantages and rewards arising from perfect obedience to the law (Rom. 5:1-10).
It proceeds on the imputing or crediting to the believer by God himself of the perfect righteousness, active and passive, of his Representative and Surety, Jesus Christ (Rom. 10:3-9). Justification is not the forgiveness of a man without righteousness, but a declaration that he possesses a righteousness which perfectly and for ever satisfies the law, namely, Christ's righteousness (2 Cor. 5:21; Rom. 4:6-8).
The sole condition on which this righteousness is imputed or credited to the believer is faith in or on the Lord Jesus Christ. Faith is called a "condition," not because it possesses any merit, but only because it is the instrument, the only instrument by which the soul appropriates or apprehends Christ and his righteousness (Rom. 1:17; 3:25, 26; 4:20, 22; Phil. 3:8-11; Gal. 2:16).
The act of faith which thus secures our justification secures also at the same time our sanctification (q.v.); and thus the doctrine of justification by faith does not lead to licentiousness (Rom. 6:2-7). Good works, while not the ground, are the certain consequence of justification (6:14; 7:6). (See GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO.)
- Justus (1.) Another name for Joseph, surnamed Barsabas. He and Matthias are mentioned only in Acts 1:23. "They must have been among the earliest disciples of Jesus, and must have been faithful to the end; they must have been well known and esteemed among the brethren. What became of them afterwards, and what work they did, are entirely unknown" (Lindsay's Acts of the Apostles).
- Juttah Extended, a Levitical city in the mountains or hill-country of Judah (Josh. 15:55; 21:16). Its modern name is Yutta, a place about 5 1/2 miles south of Hebron. It is supposed to have been the residence of Zacharias and Elisabeth, and the birthplace of John the Baptist, and on this account is annually visited by thousands of pilgrims belonging to the Greek Church (Luke 1:39). (See MARY.)
- Kabzeel Gathering of God, a city in the extreme south of Judah, near to Idumaea (Josh. 15:21), the birthplace of Benaiah, one of David's chief warriors (2 Sam. 23:20; 1 Chr. 11:22). It was called also Jekabzeel (Neh. 11:25), after the Captivity.
- Kadmiel Before God; i.e., his servant, one of the Levites who returned with Zerubbabel from the Captivity (Neh. 9:4; 10:9; 12:8).
- Kadmonites Orientals, the name of a Canaanitish tribe which inhabited the north-eastern part of Palestine in the time of Abraham (Gen. 15:19). Probably they were identical with the "children of the east," who inhabited the country between Palestine and the Euphrates.
- Kanah Reedy; brook of reeds. (1.) A stream forming the boundary between Ephraim and Manasseh, from the Mediterranean eastward to Tappuah (Josh. 16:8). It has been identified with the sedgy streams that constitute the Wady Talaik, which enters the sea between Joppa and Caesarea. Others identify it with the river' Aujeh.
(2.) A town in the north of Asher (Josh. 19:28). It has been identified with `Ain-Kana, a village on the brow of a valley some 7 miles south-east of Tyre. About a mile north of this place are many colossal ruins strown about. And in the side of a neighbouring ravine are figures of men, women, and children cut in the face of the rock. These are supposed to be of Phoenician origin.
- Kareah Bald, the father of Johanan and Jonathan, who for a time were loyal to Gedaliah, the Babylonian governor of Jerusalem (Jer. 40:8, 13, 15, 16).
- Karkaa A floor; bottom, a place between Adar and Azmon, about midway between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea (Josh. 15:3).
- Karkor Foundation, a place in the open desert wastes on the east of Jordan (Judg. 8:10), not far beyond Succoth and Penuel, to the south. Here Gideon overtook and routed a fugitive band of Midianites under Zeba and Zalmunna, whom he took captive.
- Kartah City, a town in the tribe of Zebulun assigned to the Levites of the family of Merari (Josh. 21:34). It is identical with Kattath (19:15), and perhaps also with Kitron (Judg. 1:30).
- Kartan Double city, a town of Naphali, assigned to the Gershonite Levites, and one of the cities of refuge (Josh. 21:32). It was probably near the north-western shore of the Sea of Tiberias, identical with the ruined village el-Katanah.
- Kattath (Josh. 19:15), a town of Asher, has been identified with Kana el Jelil. (See CANA.)
- Kedar Dark-skinned, the second son of Ishmael (Gen. 25:13).
It is the name for the nomadic tribes of Arabs, the Bedouins generally (Isa. 21:16; 42:11; 60:7; Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:21), who dwelt in the north-west of Arabia. They lived in black hair-tents ([[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 1:5). To "dwell in the tents of Kedar" was to be cut off from the worship of the true God (Ps. 120:5). The Kedarites suffered at the hands of Nebuchadnezzar (Jer. 49:28, 29).
- Kedemah Eastward, the last-named of the sons of Ishmael (Gen. 25:15).
- Kedemoth Beginnings; easternmost, a city of Reuben, assigned to the Levites of the family of Merari (Josh. 13:18). It lay not far north-east of Dibon-gad, east of the Dead Sea.
- Kedesh Sanctuary. (1.) A place in the extreme south of Judah (Josh. 15:23). Probably the same as Kadesh-barnea (q.v.).
(2.) A city of Issachar (1 Chr. 6:72). Possibly Tell Abu Kadeis, near Lejjun.
(3.) A "fenced city" of Naphtali, one of the cities of refuge (Josh. 19:37; Judg. 4:6). It was assigned to the Gershonite Levites (Josh. 21:32). It was originally a Canaanite royal city (Josh. 12:22), and was the residence of Barak (Judg. 4:6); and here he and Deborah assembled the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali before the commencement of the conflict with Sisera in the plain of Esdraelon, "for Jehovah among the mighty" (9, 10). In the reign of Pekah it was taken by Tiglath-Pileser (2 Kings 15:29). It was situated near the "plain" (rather "the oak") of Zaanaim, and has been identified with the modern Kedes, on the hills fully four miles north-west of Lake El Huleh.
It has been supposed by some that the Kedesh of the narrative, where Barak assembled his troops, was not the place in Upper Galilee so named, which was 30 miles distant from the plain of Esdraelon, but Kedish, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, 12 miles from Tabor.
- Kedron The valley, now quite narrow, between the Mount of Olives and Mount Moriah. The upper part of it is called the Valley of Jehoshaphat. The LXX., in 1 Kings 15:13, translate "of the cedar." The word means "black," and may refer to the colour of the water or the gloom of the ravine, or the black green of the cedars which grew there. John 18:1, "Cedron," only here in New Testament. (See KIDRON.)
- Kehelathah Assembly, one of the stations of the Israelites in the desert (Num. 33:22, 23).
- Keilah Citadel, a city in the lowlands of Judah (Josh. 15:44). David rescued it from the attack of the Philistines (1 Sam. 23:1-8); but the inhabitants proving unfaithful to him, in that they sought to deliver him up to Saul (13), he and his men "departed from Keilah, and went whithersoever they could go." They fled to the hill Hareth, about 3 miles to the east, and thence through Hebron to Ziph (q.v.). "And David was in the wilderness of Ziph, in a wood" (1 Sam. 23:15). Here Jonathan sought him out, "and strengthened his hand in God." This was the last interview between David and Jonathan (23:16-18). It is the modern Khurbet Kila. Others identify it with Khuweilfeh, between Beit Jibrin (Eleutheropolis) and Beersheba, mentioned in the Amarna tablets.
(2.) Son of Shiphtan, appointed on behalf of the tribe of Ephraim to partition the land of Canaan (Num. 34:24).
(3.) A Levite (1 Chr. 27:17).
- Kenath Possession, a city of Gilead. It was captured by Nobah, who called it by his own name (Num. 32:42). It has been identified with Kunawat, on the slopes of Jebel Hauran (Mount Bashan), 60 miles east from the south end of the Sea of Galilee.
- Kenaz Hunter. (1.) One of the sons of Eliphaz, the son of Esau. He became the chief of an Edomitish tribe (Gen. 36:11, 15, 42).
(2.) Caleb's younger brother, and father of Othniel (Josh. 15:17), whose family was of importance in Israel down to the time of David (1 Chr. 27:15). Some think that Othniel (Judg. 1:13), and not Kenaz, was Caleb's brother.
(3.) Caleb's grandson (1 Chr. 4:15).
- Kenites Smiths, the name of a tribe inhabiting the desert lying between southern Palestine and the mountains of Sinai. Jethro was of this tribe (Judg. 1:16). He is called a "Midianite" (Num. 10:29), and hence it is concluded that the Midianites and the Kenites were the same tribe. They were wandering smiths, "the gipsies and travelling tinkers of the old Oriental world. They formed an important guild in an age when the art of metallurgy was confined to a few" (Sayce's Races, etc.). They showed kindness to Israel in their journey through the wilderness. They accompanied them in their march as far as Jericho (Judg. 1:16), and then returned to their old haunts among the Amalekites, in the desert to the south of Judah. They sustained afterwards friendly relations with the Israelites when settled in Canaan (Judg. 4:11, 17-21; 1 Sam. 27:10; 30:29). The Rechabites belonged to this tribe (1 Chr. 2:55) and in the days of Jeremiah (35:7-10) are referred to as following their nomad habits. Saul bade them depart from the Amalekites (1 Sam. 15:6) when, in obedience to the divine commission, he was about to "smite Amalek." And his reason is, "for ye showed kindness to all the children of Israel when they came up out of Egypt." Thus "God is not unrighteous to forget the kindnesses shown to his people; but they shall be remembered another day, at the farthest in the great day, and recompensed in the resurrection of the just" (M. Henry's Commentary). They are mentioned for the last time in Scripture in 1 Sam. 27:10; comp. 30:20.
- Kenizzite (1.) The name of a tribe referred to in the covenant God made with Abraham (Gen. 15:19). They are not mentioned among the original inhabitants of Canaan (Ex. 3:8; Josh. 3:10), and probably they inhabited some part of Arabia, in the confines of Syria.
(2.) A designation given to Caleb (R.V., Num. 32:12; A.V., Kenezite).
- Kerchief Mentioned only Ezek. 13:18, 21, as an article of apparel or ornament applied to the head of the idolatrous women of Israel. The precise meaning of the word is uncertain. It appears to have been a long loose shawl, such as Oriental women wrap themselves in (Ruth 3:15; Isa. 3:22). Some think that it was a long veil or head-dress, denoting by its form the position of those who wore it.
- Keren-happuch Horn of the face-paint = cosmetic-box, the name of Job’s third daughter (Job. 42:14), born after prosperity had returned to him.
- Kerioth Cities. (1.) A town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:25). Judas the traitor was probably a native of this place, and hence his name Iscariot. It has been identified with the ruins of el-Kureitein, about 10 miles south of Hebron. (See HAZOR ).
- Kesitah (Gen. 33:19, R.V., marg., a Hebrew word, rendered, A.V., pl. "pieces of money," marg., "lambs;" Josh. 24:32, "pieces of silver;" Job 42:11, "piece of money"). The kesitah was probably a piece of money of a particular weight, cast in the form of a lamb. The monuments of Egypt show that such weights were used. (See PIECES.)
- Kettle A large pot for cooking. The same Hebrew word (dud, "boiling") is rendered also "pot" (Ps. 81:6), "caldron" (2 Chr. 35:13), "basket" (Jer. 24:2). It was used for preparing the peace-offerings (1 Sam. 2:13, 14).
- Keturah Incense, the wife of Abraham, whom he married probably after Sarah's death (Gen. 25:1-6), by whom he had six sons, whom he sent away into the east country. Her nationality is unknown. She is styled "Abraham's concubine" (1 Chr. 1:32). Through the offshoots of the Keturah line Abraham became the "father of many nations."
- Key Frequently mentioned in Scripture. It is called in Hebrew maphteah, i.e., the opener (Judg. 3:25); and in the Greek New Testament kleis, from its use in shutting (Matt. 16:19; Luke 11:52; Rev. 1:18, etc.). Figures of ancient Egyptian keys are frequently found on the monuments, also of Assyrian locks and keys of wood, and of a large size (comp. Isa. 22:22).
The word is used figuratively of power or authority or office (Isa. 22:22; Rev. 3:7; Rev. 1:8; comp. 9:1; 20:1; comp. also Matt. 16:19; 18:18). The "key of knowledge" (Luke 11:52; comp. Matt. 23:13) is the means of attaining the knowledge regarding the kingdom of God. The "power of the keys" is a phrase in general use to denote the extent of ecclesiastical authority.
- Kezia Cassia, the name of Job’s second daughter (42:14), born after prosperity had returned to him.
- Keziz Abrupt; cut off, a city of the tribe of Benjamin (Josh. 18:21).
- Kibroth-hattaavah The graves of the longing or of lust, one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness. It was probably in the Wady Murrah, and has been identified with the Erweis el-Ebeirig, where the remains of an ancient encampment have been found, about 30 miles north-east of Sinai, and exactly a day's journey from `Ain Hudherah.
"Here began the troubles of the journey. First, complaints broke out among the people, probably at the heat, the toil, and the privations of the march; and then God at once punished them by lightning, which fell on the hinder part of the camp, and killed many persons, but ceased at the intercession of Moses (Num. 11:1, 2). Then a disgust fell on the multitude at having nothing to eat but the manna day after day, no change, no flesh, no fish, no high-flavoured vegetables, no luscious fruits...The people loathed the `light food,' and cried out to Moses, `Give us flesh, give us flesh, that we may eat.'" In this emergency Moses, in despair, cried unto God. An answer came. God sent "a prodigious flight of quails, on which the people satiated their gluttonous appetite for a full month. Then punishment fell on them: they loathed the food which they had desired; it bred disease in them; the divine anger aggravated the disease into a plague, and a heavy mortality was the consequence. The dead were buried without the camp; and in memory of man's sin and of the divine wrath this name, Kibroth-hattaavah, the Graves of Lust, was given to the place of their sepulchre" (Num. 11:34, 35; 33:16, 17; Deut. 9:22; comp. Ps. 78:30, 31)., Rawlinson's Moses, p. 175. From this encampment they journeyed in a north-eastern direction to Hazeroth.
- Kibzaim Two heaps, a city of Ephraim, assigned to the Kohathite Levites, and appointed as a city of refuge (Josh. 21: 22). It is also called Jokmeam (1 Chr. 6:68).
- Kid The young of the goat. It was much used for food (Gen. 27:9; 38:17; Judg. 6:19; 14:6). The Mosaic law forbade to dress a kid in the milk of its dam, a law which is thrice repeated (Ex. 23:19; 34:26; Deut. 14:21). Among the various reasons assigned for this law, that appears to be the most satisfactory which regards it as "a protest against cruelty and outraging the order of nature." A kid cooked in its mother's milk is "a gross, unwholesome dish, and calculated to kindle animal and ferocious passions, and on this account Moses may have forbidden it. Besides, it is even yet associated with immoderate feasting; and originally, I suspect," says Dr. Thomson (Land and the Book), "was connected with idolatrous sacrifices."
- Kidron = Kedron = Cedron, turbid, the winter torrent which flows through the Valley of Jehoshaphat, on the eastern side of Jerusalem, between the city and the Mount of Olives. This valley is known in Scripture only by the name "the brook Kidron." David crossed this brook bare-foot and weeping, when fleeing from Absalom (2 Sam. 15:23, 30), and it was frequently crossed by our Lord in his journeyings to and fro (John 18:1). Here Asa burned the obscene idols of his mother (1 Kings 15:13), and here Athaliah was executed (2 Kings 11:16). It afterwards became the receptacle for all manner of impurities (2 Chr. 29:16; 30:14); and in the time of Josiah this valley was the common cemetery of the city (2 Kings 23:6; comp. Jer. 26:23).
Through this mountain ravine no water runs, except after heavy rains in the mountains round about Jerusalem. Its length from its head to en-Rogel is 2 3/4 miles. Its precipitous, rocky banks are filled with ancient tombs, especially the left bank opposite the temple area. The greatest desire of the Jews is to be buried there, from the idea that the Kidron is the "valley of Jehoshaphat" mentioned in Joel 3:2.
Below en-Rogel the Kidron has no historical or sacred interest. It runs in a winding course through the wilderness of Judea to the north-western shore of the Dead Sea. Its whole length, in a straight line, is only some 20 miles, but in this space its descent is about 3,912 feet. (See KEDRON.)
Recent excavations have brought to light the fact that the old bed of the Kidron is about 40 feet lower than its present bed, and about 70 feet nearer the sanctuary wall.
- Kinah An elegy, a city in the extreme south of Judah (Josh. 15:22). It was probably not far from the Dead Sea, in the Wady Fikreh.
- Kine (Heb. sing. parah, i.e., "fruitful"), mentioned in Pharaoh's dream (Gen. 41: 18). Here the word denotes "buffaloes," which fed on the reeds and sedge by the river's brink.
- Kinsman Heb. goel, from root meaning to redeem. The goel among the Hebrews was the nearest male blood relation alive. Certain important obligations devolved upon him toward his next of kin. (1.) If any one from poverty was unable to redeem his inheritance, it was the duty of the kinsman to redeem it (Lev. 25:25, 28; Ruth 3:9, 12). He was also required to redeem his relation who had sold himself into slavery (Lev. 25:48, 49).
(2.) The goel also was the avenger (q.v.) of blood (Num. 35:21) in the case of the murder of the next of kin.
- Kir A wall or fortress, a place to which Tiglath-pileser carried the Syrians captive after he had taken the city of Damascus (2 Kings 16:9; Amos 1:5; 9:7). Isaiah (22:6), who also was contemporary with these events, mentions it along with Elam. Some have supposed that Kir is a variant of Cush (Susiana), on the south of Elam.
- Kir-haraseth Built fortress, a city and fortress of Moab, the modern Kerak, a small town on the brow of a steep hill about 6 miles from Rabbath-Moab and 10 miles from the Dead Sea; called also Kir-haresh, Kir-hareseth, Kir-heres (Isa. 16:7, 11; Jer. 48:31, 36). After the death of Ahab, Mesha, king of Moab (see MOABITE STONE), threw off allegiance to the king of Israel, and fought successfully for the independence of his kingdom. After this Jehoram, king of Israel, in seeking to regain his supremacy over Moab, entered into an alliance with Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, and with the king of Edom. The three kings led their armies against Mesha, who was driven back to seek refuge in Kir-haraseth. The Moabites were driven to despair. Mesha then took his eldest son, who would have reigned in his stead, and offered him as a burnt-offering on the wall of the fortress in the sight of the allied armies. "There was great indignation against Israel: and they departed from him, and returned to their own land." The invaders evacuated the land of Moab, and Mesha achieved the independence of his country (2 Kings 3:20-27).
- Kirjath City, a city belonging to Benjamin (Josh. 18:28), the modern Kuriet el-`Enab, i.e., "city of grapes", about 7 1/2 miles west-north-west of Jerusalem.
- Kirjathaim Two cities; a double city. (1.) A city of refuge in Naphtali (1 Chr. 6:76).
(2.) A town on the east of Jordan (Gen. 14:5; Deut. 2:9, 10). It was assigned to the tribe of Reuben (Num. 32:37). In the time of Ezekiel (25:9) it was one of the four cities which formed the "glory of Moab" (comp. Jer. 48:1, 23). It has been identified with el-Kureiyat, 11 miles south-west of Medeba, on the south slope of Jebel Attarus, the ancient Ataroth.
- Kirjath-arba City of Arba, the original name of Hebron (q.v.), so called from the name of its founder, one of the Anakim (Gen. 23:2; 35:27; Josh. 15:13). It was given to Caleb by Joshua as his portion. The Jews interpret the name as meaning "the city of the four", i.e., of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Adam, who were all, as they allege, buried there.
- Kirjath-huzoth City of streets, Num. 22:39, a Moabite city, which some identify with Kirjathaim. Balak here received and entertained Balaam, whom he had invited from Pethor, among the "mountains of the east," beyond the Euphrates, to lay his ban upon the Israelites, whose progress he had no hope otherwise of arresting. It was probably from the summit of Attarus, the high place near the city, that the soothsayer first saw the encampments of Israel.
- Kirjath-jearim City of jaars; i.e., of woods or forests, a Gibeonite town (Josh. 9:17) on the border of Benjamin, to which tribe it was assigned (18:15, 28). The ark was brought to this place (1 Sam. 7:1, 2) from Beth-shemesh and put in charge of Abinadab, a Levite. Here it remained till it was removed by David to Jerusalem (2 Sam. 6:2, 3, 12; 1 Chr. 15:1-29; comp. Ps. 132). It was also called Baalah (Josh. 15:9) and Kirjath-baal (60). It has been usually identified with Kuriet el-`Enab (i.e., "city of grapes"), among the hills, about 8 miles north-east of `Ain Shems (i.e., Beth-shemesh). The opinion, however, that it is to be identified with `Erma, 4 miles east of `Ain Shems, on the edge of the valley of Sorek, seems to be better supported. (See KIRJATH.)
The words of Ps. 132:6, "We found it in the fields of the wood," refer to the sojourn of the ark at Kirjath-jearim. "Wood" is here the rendering of the Hebrew word jaar, which is the singular of jearim.
- Kirjath-sannah City of the sannah; i.e., of the palm(?), Josh. 15:49; the same as Kirjath-sepher (15:16; Judg. 1:11) and Debir (q.v.), a Canaanitish royal city included in Judah (Josh. 10:38; 15:49), and probably the chief seat of learning among the Hittites. It was about 12 miles to the south-west of Hebron.
- Kirjath-sepher City of books, Josh. 15:15; same as Kirjath-sannah (q.v.), now represented by the valley of ed-Dhaberiyeh, south-west of Hebron. The name of this town is an evidence that the Canaanites were acquainted with writing and books. "The town probably contained a noted school, or was the site of an oracle and the residence of some learned priest." The "books" were probably engraved stones or bricks.
Kir of Moab
- Kir of Moab Isa. 15:1. The two strongholds of Moab were Ar and Kir, which latter is probably the Kir-haraseth (16:7) following.
- Kish A bow. (1.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 23:21; 24:29).
(3.) A Levite in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:12).
(4.) The great-grandfather of Mordecai (Esther 2:5).
(5.) A Benjamite, the son of Abiel, and father of king Saul (1 Sam. 9:1, 3; 10:11, 21; 14:51; 2 Sam. 21:14). All that is recorded of him is that he sent his son Saul in search of his asses that had strayed, and that he was buried in Zelah. Called Cis, Acts 13:21 (R.V., Kish).
- Kishion Hardness, a city of Issachar assigned to the Gershonite Levites (Josh. 19:20), the same as Kishon (21:28).
- Kishon Winding, a winter torrent of Central Palestine, which rises about the roots of Tabor and Gilboa, and passing in a northerly direction through the plains of Esdraelon and Acre, falls into the Mediterranean at the north-eastern corner of the bay of Acre, at the foot of Carmel. It is the drain by which the waters of the plain of Esdraelon and of the mountains that surround it find their way to the sea. It bears the modern name of Nahr el-Mokattah, i.e., "the river of slaughter" (comp. 1 Kings 18:40). In the triumphal song of Deborah (Judg. 5:21) it is spoken of as "that ancient river," either (1) because it had flowed on for ages, or (2), according to the Targum, because it was "the torrent in which were shown signs and wonders to Israel of old;" or (3) probably the reference is to the exploits in that region among the ancient Canaanites, for the adjoining plain of Esdraelon was the great battle-field of Palestine.
This was the scene of the defeat of Sisera (Judg. 4:7, 13), and of the destruction of the prophets of Baal by Elijah (1 Kings 18:40). "When the Kishon was at its height, it would be, partly on account of its quicksands, as impassable as the ocean itself to a retreating army." (See DEBORAH.)
- Kiss Of affection (Gen. 27:26, 27; 29:13; Luke 7:38, 45); reconciliation (Gen. 33:4; 2 Sam. 14:33); leave-taking (Gen. 31:28, 55; Ruth 1:14; 2 Sam. 19:39); homage (Ps. 2:12; 1 Sam. 10:1); spoken of as between parents and children (Gen. 27:26; 31:28, 55; 48:10; 50:1; Ex. 18:7; Ruth 1:9, 14); between male relatives (Gen. 29:13; 33:4; 45:15). It accompanied social worship as a symbol of brotherly love (Rom. 16:16; 1 Cor. 16:20; 2 Cor. 13:12; 1 Thess. 5:26; 1 Pet. 5:14). The worship of idols was by kissing the image or the hand toward the image (1 Kings 19:18; Hos. 13:2).
- Kite An unclean and keen-sighted bird of prey (Lev. 11:14; Deut. 14:13). The Hebrew word used, 'ayet, is rendered "vulture" in Job 28:7 in Authorized Version, "falcon" in Revised Version. It is probably the red kite (Milvus regalis), a bird of piercing sight and of soaring habits found all over Palestine.
- Kithlish A man's wall, a town in the plain of Judah (Josh. 15:40). It has been identified with Jelameh.
- Kitron Knotty, a city of Zebulun (Judg. 1:30), called also Kattath (Josh. 19:15); supposed to be "Cana of Galilee."
- Kittim (Gen. 10:4). (See CHITTIM.)
- Kneading-trough The vessel in which the dough, after being mixed and leavened, was left to swell or ferment (Ex. 8:3; 12:34; Deut. 28:5, 7). The dough in the vessels at the time of the Exodus was still unleavened, because the people were compelled to withdraw in haste.
- Knife (1.) Heb. hereb, "the waster," a sharp instrument for circumcision (Josh. 5:2, 3, lit. "knives of flint;" comp. Ex. 4:25); a razor (Ezek. 5:1); a graving tool (Ex. 20:25); an axe (Ezek. 26:9).
(3.) Heb. sakkin, a knife for any purpose, a table knife (Prov. 23:2).
(4.) Heb. mahalaph, a butcher's knife for slaughtering the victims offered in sacrifice (Ezra 1:9).
- Knock "Though Orientals are very jealous of their privacy, they never knock when about to enter your room, but walk in without warning or ceremony. It is nearly impossible to teach an Arab servant to knock at your door. They give warning at the outer gate either by calling or knocking. To stand and call is a very common and respectful mode. Thus Moses commanded the holder of a pledge to stand without and call to the owner to come forth (Deut. 24:10). This was to avoid the violent intrusion of cruel creditors. Peter stood knocking at the outer door (Acts 12:13, 16), and the three men sent to Joppa by Cornelius made inquiry and `stood before the gate' (10:17, 18). The idea is that the guard over your privacy is to be placed at the entrance."
- Knop Some architectural ornament. (1.) Heb. kaphtor (Ex. 25:31-36), occurring in the description of the candlestick. It was an ornamental swell beneath the cups of the candlestick, probably an imitation of the fruit of the almond.
(2.) Heb. peka'im, found only in 1 Kings 6:18 and 7:24, an ornament resembling a small gourd or an egg, on the cedar wainscot in the temple and on the castings on the brim of the brazen sea.
- Koa He-camel, occurs only in Ezek. 23:23, some province or place in the Babylonian empire, used in this passage along with Shoa (q.v.).
- Kohath Assembly, the second son of Levi, and father of Amram (Gen. 46:11). He came down to Egypt with Jacob, and lived to the age of one hundred and thirty-three years (Ex. 6:18).
- Kohathites The descendants of Kohath. They formed the first of the three divisions of the Levites (Ex. 6:16, 18; Num. 3:17). In the journeyings of the Israelites they had the charge of the most holy portion of the vessels of the tabernacle, including the ark (Num. 4). Their place in the marching and encampment was south of the tabernacle (Num. 3:29, 31). Their numbers at different times are specified (3:28; 4:36; 26:57, 62). Samuel was of this division.
(2.) A Levite, the son of Izhar, the brother of Amram, the father of Moses and Aaron (Ex. 6:21). The institution of the Aaronic priesthood and the Levitical service at Sinai was a great religious revolution. The old priesthood of the heads of families passed away. This gave rise to murmurings and discontent, while the Israelites were encamped at Kadesh for the first time, which came to a head in a rebellion against Moses and Aaron, headed by Korah, Dathan, and Abiram. Two hundred and fifty princes, "men of renown" i.e., well-known men from among the other tribes, joined this conspiracy. The whole company demanded of Moses and Aaron that the old state of things should be restored, alleging that "they took too much upon them" (Num. 16:1-3). On the morning after the outbreak, Korah and his associates presented themselves at the door of the tabernacle, and "took every man his censer, and put fire in them, and laid incense thereon." But immediately "fire from the Lord" burst forth and destroyed them all (Num. 16:35). Dathan and Abiram "came out and stood in the door of their tents, and their wives, and their sons, and their little children," and it came to pass "that the ground clave asunder that was under them; and the earth opened her mouth and swallowed them up." A plague thereafter began among the people who sympathized in the rebellion, and was only stayed by Aaron's appearing between the living and the dead, and making "an atonement for the people" (16:47).
The descendants of the sons of Korah who did not participate in the rebellion afterwards rose to eminence in the Levitical service.
- Korahites That portion of the Kohathites that descended from Korah. (1.) They were an important branch of the singers of the Kohathite division (2 Chr. 20:19). There are eleven psalms (42-49; 84; 85; 87; 88) dedicated to the sons of Korah.
(2.) Some of the sons of Korah also were "porters" of the temple (1 Chr. 9:17-19); one of them was over "things that were made in the pans" (31), i.e., the baking in pans for the meat-offering (Lev. 2:5).
- Kore Partridge. (1.) A Levite and temple-warder of the Korahites, the son of Asaph. He was father of Shallum and Meshelemiah, temple-porters (1 Chr. 9:19; 26:1).
(2.) A Levitical porter at the east gate of the temple (2 Chr. 31:14).
(3.) In 1 Chr. 26:19 the word should be "Korahites," as in the Revised Version.
- Laban White. (1.) The son of Bethuel, who was the son of Nahor, Abraham's brother. He lived at Haran in Mesopotamia. His sister Rebekah was Isaac's wife (Gen. 24). Jacob, one of the sons of this marriage, fled to the house of Laban, whose daughters Leah and Rachel (ch. 29) he eventually married. (See JACOB.)
- Laish A lion. (1.) A city of the Sidonians, in the extreme north of Palestine (Judg. 18:7, 14); called also Leshem (Josh. 19:47) and Dan (Judg. 18:7, 29; Jer. 8:16). It lay near the sources of the Jordan, about 4 miles from Paneas. The restless and warlike tribe of Dan (q.v.), looking out for larger possessions, invaded this country and took Laish with its territory. It is identified with the ruin Tell-el-Kady, "the mound of the judge," to the north of the Waters of Merom (Josh. 11:5).
(3.) The father of Phalti (1 Sam. 25:44).
- Lamb (1.) Heb. kebes, a male lamb from the first to the third year. Offered daily at the morning and the evening sacrifice (Ex. 29:38-42), on the Sabbath day (Num. 28:9), at the feast of the New Moon (28:11), of Trumpets (29:2), of Tabernacles (13-40), of Pentecost (Lev. 23:18-20), and of the Passover (Ex. 12:5), and on many other occasions (1 Chr. 29:21; 2 Chr. 29:21; Lev. 9:3; 14:10-25).
- Lamech The strikerdown; the wild man. (1.) The fifth in descent from Cain. He was the first to violate the primeval ordinance of marriage (Gen. 4:18-24). His address to his two wives, Adah and Zillah (4:23, 24), is the only extant example of antediluvian poetry. It has been called "Lamech's sword-song." He was "rude and ruffianly," fearing neither God nor man. With him the curtain falls on the race of Cain. We know nothing of his descendants.
- Lamp (1.) That part of the candle-sticks of the tabernacle and the temple which bore the light (Ex. 25:37; 1 Kings 7:49; 2 Chr. 4:20; 13:11; Zech. 4:2). Their form is not described. Olive oil was generally burned in them (Ex. 27:20).
(2.) A torch carried by the soliders of Gideon (Judg. 7:16, 20). (R.V., "torches.")
(4.) Lamps or torches were used in connection with marriage ceremonies (Matt. 25:1).
- Landmark A boundary line indicated by a stone, stake, etc. (Deut. 19:14; 27:17; Prov. 22:28; 23:10; Job 24:2). Landmarks could not be removed without incurring the severe displeasure of God.
- Laodicea The city of this name mentioned in Scripture lay on the confines of Phrygia and Lydia, about 40 miles east of Ephesus (Rev. 3:14), on the banks of the Lycus. It was originally called Diospolis and then Rhoas, but afterwards Laodicea, from Laodice, the wife of Antiochus II., king of Syria, who rebuilt it. It was one of the most important and flourishing cities of Asia Minor. At a very early period it became one of the chief seats of Christianity (Col. 2:1; 4:15; Rev. 1:11, etc.). It is now a deserted place, called by the Turks Eski-hissar or "old castle."
Laodicea, Epistle from
- Laodicea, Epistle from (Col. 4:16), was probably the Epistle to the Ephesians, as designed for general circulation. It would reach the Colossians by way of Laodicea.
- Lapidoth Torches. Deborah is called "the wife of Lapidoth" (Judg. 4:4). Some have rendered the expression "a woman of a fiery spirit," under the supposition that Lapidoth is not a proper name, a woman of a torch-like spirit.
- Lapping Of water like a dog, i.e., by putting the hand filled with water to the mouth. The dog drinks by shaping the end of his long thin tongue into the form of a spoon, thus rapidly lifting up water, which he throws into his mouth. The three hundred men that went with Gideon thus employed their hands and lapped the water out of their hands (Judg. 7:7).
- Lapwing The name of an unclean bird, mentioned only in Lev. 11:19 and Deut. 14:18. The Hebrew name of this bird, dukiphath, has been generally regarded as denoting the hoope (Upupa epops), an onomatopoetic word derived from the cry of the bird, which resembles the word "hoop;" a bird not uncommon in Palestine. Others identify it with the English peewit.
- Lasaea A city in the island of Crete (Acts 27:8). Its ruins are still found near Cape Leonda, about 5 miles east of "Fair Havens."
- Lasha Fissure, a place apparently east of the Dead Sea (Gen. 10:19). It was afterwards known as Callirhoe, a place famous for its hot springs.
- Latchet A thong (Acts 22:25), cord, or strap fastening the sandal on the foot (Isa. 5:27; Mark 1:7; Luke 3:16).
- Latin The vernacular language of the ancient Romans (John 19:20).
- Lattice (1.) Heb. `eshnabh, a latticed opening through which the cool breeze passes (Judg. 5:28). The flat roofs of the houses were sometimes enclosed with a parapet of lattice-work on wooden frames, to screen the women of the house from the gaze of the neighbourhood.
(2.) Heb. harakim, the network or lattice of a window ([[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 2:9).
(3.) Heb. sebakhah, the latticed balustrade before a window or balcony (2 Kings 1:2). The lattice window is frequently used in Eastern countries.
- Laver (Heb. kiyor), a "basin" for boiling in, a "pan" for cooking (1 Sam. 2:14), a "fire-pan" or hearth (Zech. 12:6), the sacred wash-bowl of the tabernacle and temple (Ex. 30:18, 28; 31:9; 35:16; 38:8; 39:39; 40:7, 11, 30, etc.), a basin for the water used by the priests in their ablutions.
That which was originally used in the tabernacle was of brass (rather copper; Heb. nihsheth), made from the metal mirrors the women brought out of Egypt (Ex. 38:8). It contained water wherewith the priests washed their hands and feet when they entered the tabernacle (40:32). It stood in the court between the altar and the door of the tabernacle (30:19, 21).
In the temple there were ten lavers used for the sacrifices, and the molten sea for the ablutions of the priests (2 Chr. 4:6). The position and uses of these are described 1 Kings 7:23-39; 2 Chr. 4:6. The "molten sea" was made of copper, taken from Tibhath and Chun, cities of Hadarezer, king of Zobah (1 Chr. 18:8; 1 Kings 7:23-26).
No lavers are mentioned in the second temple.
- Lawyer Among the Jews, was one versed in the laws of Moses, which he expounded in the schools and synagogues (Matt. 22:35; Luke 10:25). The functions of the "lawyer" and "scribe" were identical. (See DOCTOR.)
- Lazarus An abbreviation of Eleazar, whom God helps. (1.) The brother of Mary and Martha of Bethany. He was raised from the dead after he had lain four days in the tomb (John 11:1-44). This miracle so excited the wrath of the Jews that they sought to put both Jesus and Lazarus to death.
(2.) A beggar named in the parable recorded Luke 16:19-31.
- Leaf Of a tree. The olive-leaf mentioned Gen. 8:11. The barren fig-tree had nothing but leaves (Matt. 21:19; Mark 11:13). The oak-leaf is mentioned Isa. 1:30; 6:13. There are numerous allusions to leaves, their flourishing, their decay, and their restoration (Lev. 26:36; Isa. 34:4; Jer. 8:13; Dan. 4:12, 14, 21; Mark 11:13; 13:28). The fresh leaf is a symbol of prosperity (Ps. 1:3; Jer. 17:8; Ezek. 47:12); the faded, of decay (Job 13:25; Isa. 1:30; 64:6; Jer. 8:13).
Leaf of a door (1 Kings 6:34), the valve of a folding door.
Leaf of a book (Jer. 36:23), perhaps a fold of a roll.
- League A treaty or confederacy. The Jews were forbidden to enter into an alliance of any kind (1) with the Canaanites (Ex. 23:32, 33; 34:12-16); (2) with the Amalekites (Ex. 17:8, 14; Deut. 25:17-19); (3) with the Moabites and Ammonites (Deut. 2:9, 19). Treaties were permitted to be entered into with all other nations. Thus David maintained friendly intercourse with the kings of Tyre and Hamath, and Solomon with the kings of Tyre and Egypt.
- Leannoth For answering; i.e., in singing, occurs in the title to Ps. 88. The title "Mahalath (q.v.) Leannoth" may be rendered "concerning sickness, to be sung" i.e., perhaps, to be sung in sickness.
- Leasing (Ps. 4:2; 5:6) an Old English word meaning lies, or lying, as the Hebrew word kazabh is generally rendered.
- Leather A girdle of, worn by Elijah (2 Kings 1:8) and John the Baptist (Matt. 3:4). Leather was employed both for clothing (Num. 31:20; Heb. 11:37) and for writing upon. The trade of a tanner is mentioned (Acts 9:43; 10:6, 32). It was probably learned in Egypt.
- Leaven (1.) Heb. seor (Ex. 12:15, 19; 13:7; Lev. 2:11), the remnant of dough from the preceding baking which had fermented and become acid.
(2.) Heb. hamets, properly "ferment." In Num. 6:3, "vinegar of wine" is more correctly "fermented wine." In Ex. 13:7, the proper rendering would be, "Unfermented things [Heb. matstsoth] shall be consumed during the seven days; and there shall not be seen with thee fermented things [hamets], and there shall not be seen with thee leavened mass [seor] in all thy borders." The chemical definition of ferment or yeast is "a substance in a state of putrefaction, the atoms of which are in a continual motion."
The use of leaven was strictly forbidden in all offerings made to the Lord by fire (Lev. 2:11; 7:12; 8:2; Num. 6:15). Its secretly penetrating and diffusive power is referred to in 1 Cor. 5:6. In this respect it is used to illustrate the growth of the kingdom of heaven both in the individual heart and in the world (Matt. 13:33). It is a figure also of corruptness and of perverseness of heart and life (Matt. 16:6, 11; Mark 8:15; 1 Cor. 5:7, 8).
- Lebbaeus Courageous, a surname of Judas (Jude), one of the twelve (Matt. 10:3), called also Thaddaeus, not to be confounded with the Judas who was the brother of our Lord.
- Lebonah Frankincense, a town near Shiloh, on the north side of Bethel (Judg. 21:19). It has been identified with el-Lubban, to the south of Nablus.
- Leek (Heb. hatsir; the Allium porrum), rendered "grass" in 1 Kings 18:5, 2 Kings 19:26, Job 40:15, etc.; "herb" in Job 8:12; "hay" in Prov. 27:25, and Isa. 15:6; "leeks" only in Num. 11:5. This Hebrew word seems to denote in this last passage simply herbs, such as lettuce or savoury herbs cooked as kitchen vegetables, and not necessarily what are now called leeks. The leek was a favourite vegetable in Egypt, and is still largely cultivated there and in Palestine.
- Lees (Heb. shemarim), from a word meaning to keep or preserve. It was applied to "lees" from the custom of allowing wine to stand on the lees that it might thereby be better preserved (Isa. 25:6). "Men settled on their lees" (Zephaniah 1:12) are men "hardened or crusted." The image is derived from the crust formed at the bottom of wines long left undisturbed (Jer. 48:11). The effect of wealthy undisturbed ease on the ungodly is hardening. They become stupidly secure (comp. Ps. 55:19; Amos 6:1). To drink the lees (Ps. 75:8) denotes severe suffering.
- Left hand Among the Hebrews, denoted the north (Job 23:9; Gen. 14:15), the face of the person being supposed to be toward the east.
- Left-handed (Judg. 3:15; 20:16), one unable to use the right hand skilfully, and who therefore uses the left; and also one who uses the left as well as the right, ambidexter. Such a condition of the hands is due to physical causes. This quality was common apparently in the tribe of Benjamin.
- Legion A regiment of the Roman army, the number of men composing which differed at different times. It originally consisted of three thousand men, but in the time of Christ consisted of six thousand, exclusive of horsemen, who were in number a tenth of the foot-men. The word is used (Matt. 26:53; Mark 5:9) to express simply a great multitude.
- Lehi A jawbone, a place in the tribe of Judah where Samson achieved a victory over the Philistines (Judg. 15:9, 14, 16), slaying a thousand of them with the jawbone of an ass. The words in 15:19, "a hollow place that was in the jaw" (A.V.), should be, as in Revised Version, "the hollow place that is in Lehi."
- Lemuel Dedicated to God, a king whom his mother instructed (Prov. 31:1-9). Nothing is certainly known concerning him. The rabbis identified him with Solomon.
- Lentiles (Heb. `adashim), a species of vetch (Gen. 25:34; 2 Sam. 23:11), common in Syria under the name addas. The red pottage made by Jacob was of lentils (Gen. 25:29-34). They were among the provisions brought to David when he fled from Absalom (2 Sam. 17:28). It is the Ervum lens of Linnaeus, a leguminous plant which produces a fruit resembling a bean.
- Leopard (Heb. namer, so called because spotted, [[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 4:8), was that great spotted feline which anciently infested the mountains of Syria, more appropriately called a panther (Felis pardus). Its fierceness (Isa. 11:6), its watching for its prey (Jer. 5:6), its swiftness (Hab. 1:8), and the spots of its skin (Jer. 13:23), are noticed. This word is used symbolically (Dan. 7:6; Rev. 13:2).
- Leprosy (Heb. tsara'ath, a "smiting," a "stroke," because the disease was regarded as a direct providential infliction). This name is from the Greek lepra, by which the Greek physicians designated the disease from its scaliness. We have the description of the disease, as well as the regulations connected with it, in Lev. 13; 14; Num. 12:10-15, etc. There were reckoned six different circumstances under which it might develop itself, (1) without any apparent cause (Lev. 13:2-8); (2) its reappearance (9-17); (3) from an inflammation (18-28); (4) on the head or chin (29-37); (5) in white polished spots (38, 39); (6) at the back or in the front of the head (40-44).
Lepers were required to live outside the camp or city (Num. 5:1-4; 12:10-15, etc.). This disease was regarded as an awful punishment from the Lord (2 Kings 5:7; 2 Chr. 26:20). (See MIRIAM; GEHAZI; UZZIAH.)
This disease "begins with specks on the eyelids and on the palms, gradually spreading over the body, bleaching the hair white wherever they appear, crusting the affected parts with white scales, and causing terrible sores and swellings. From the skin the disease eats inward to the bones, rotting the whole body piecemeal." "In Christ's day no leper could live in a walled town, though he might in an open village. But wherever he was he was required to have his outer garment rent as a sign of deep grief, to go bareheaded, and to cover his beard with his mantle, as if in lamentation at his own virtual death. He had further to warn passers-by to keep away from him, by calling out, `Unclean! unclean!' nor could he speak to any one, or receive or return a salutation, since in the East this involves an embrace."
That the disease was not contagious is evident from the regulations regarding it (Lev. 13:12, 13, 36; 2 Kings 5:1). Leprosy was "the outward and visible sign of the innermost spiritual corruption; a meet emblem in its small beginnings, its gradual spread, its internal disfigurement, its dissolution little by little of the whole body, of that which corrupts, degrades, and defiles man's inner nature, and renders him unmeet to enter the presence of a pure and holy God" (Maclear's Handbook O.T). Our Lord cured lepers (Matt. 8:2, 3; Mark 1:40-42). This divine power so manifested illustrates his gracious dealings with men in curing the leprosy of the soul, the fatal taint of sin.
- Letter In Rom. 2:27, 29 means the outward form. The "oldness of the letter" (7:6) is a phrase which denotes the old way of literal outward obedience to the law as a system of mere external rules of conduct. In 2 Cor. 3:6, "the letter" means the Mosaic law as a written law. (See WRITING.)
- Leummim Peoples; nations, the last mentioned of the three sons of Dedan, and head of an Arabian tribe (Gen. 25:3).
- Levi Adhesion. (1.) The third son of Jacob by Leah. The origin of the name is found in Leah's words (Gen. 29:34), "This time will my husband be joined [Heb. yillaveh] unto me." He is mentioned as taking a prominent part in avenging his sister Dinah (Gen. 34:25-31). He and his three sons went down with Jacob (46:11) into Egypt, where he died at the age of one hundred and thirty-seven years (Ex. 6:16).
(3.) Luke 3:24.
- Leviathan A transliterated Hebrew word (livyathan), meaning "twisted," "coiled." In Job 3:8, Revised Version, and marg. of Authorized Version, it denotes the dragon which, according to Eastern tradition, is an enemy of light; in 41:1 the crocodile is meant; in Ps. 104:26 it "denotes any large animal that moves by writhing or wriggling the body, the whale, the monsters of the deep." This word is also used figuratively for a cruel enemy, as some think "the Egyptian host, crushed by the divine power, and cast on the shores of the Red Sea" (Ps. 74:14). As used in Isa. 27:1, "leviathan the piercing [R.V. `swift'] serpent, even leviathan that crooked [R.V. marg. `winding'] serpent," the word may probably denote the two empires, the Assyrian and the Babylonian.
- Levirate Law From Latin levir, "a husband's brother," the name of an ancient custom ordained by Moses, by which, when an Israelite died without issue, his surviving brother was required to marry the widow, so as to continue his brother's family through the son that might be born of that marriage (Gen. 38:8; Deut. 25:5-10; comp. Ruth 3; 4:10). Its object was "to raise up seed to the departed brother."
- Levy (1 Kings 4:6, R.V.; 5:13), forced service. The service of tributaries was often thus exacted by kings. Solomon raised a "great levy" of 30,000 men, about two per cent. of the population, to work for him by courses on Lebanon. Adoram (12:18) presided over this forced labour service (Ger. Frohndienst; Fr. corvee).
- Lewdness (Acts 18:14), villany or wickedness, not lewdness in the modern sense of the word. The word "lewd" is from the Saxon, and means properly "ignorant," "unlearned," and hence low, vicious (Acts 17:5).
- Libertine Found only Acts 6:9, one who once had been a slave, but who had been set at liberty, or the child of such a person. In this case the name probably denotes those descendants of Jews who had been carried captives to Rome as prisoners of war by Pompey and other Roman generals in the Syrian wars, and had afterwards been liberated. In A.D. 19 these manumitted Jews were banished from Rome. Many of them found their way to Jerusalem, and there established a synagogue.
- Libnah Transparency; whiteness. (1.) One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (Num. 33:20, 21).
(2.) One of the royal cities of the Canaanites taken by Joshua (Josh. 10:29-32; 12:15). It became one of the Levitical towns in the tribe of Judah (21:13), and was strongly fortified. Sennacherib laid siege to it (2 Kings 19:8; Isa. 37:8). It was the native place of Hamutal, the queen of Josiah (2 Kings 23:31). It stood near Lachish, and has been identified with the modern Arak el-Menshiyeh.
- Libni White, one of the two sons of Gershon, the son of Levi (Ex. 6:17; Num. 3:18, 21). (See LAADAN.)
- Libya The country of the Ludim (Gen. 10:13), Northern Africa, a large tract lying along the Mediterranean, to the west of Egypt (Acts 2:10). Cyrene was one of its five cities.
- Lice (Heb. kinnim), the creatures employed in the third plague sent upon Egypt (Ex. 8:16-18). They were miraculously produced from the dust of the land. "The entomologists Kirby and Spence place these minute but disgusting insects in the very front rank of those which inflict injury upon man. A terrible list of examples they have collected of the ravages of this and closely allied parasitic pests." The plague of lice is referred to in Ps. 105:31.
Some have supposed that the word denotes not lice properly, but gnats. Others, with greater probability, take it to mean the "tick" which is much larger than lice.
- Lie An intentional violation of the truth. Lies are emphatically condemned in Scripture (John 8:44; 1 Tim. 1:9, 10; Rev. 21:27; 22:15). Mention is made of the lies told by good men, as by Abraham (Gen. 12:12, 13; 20:2), Isaac (26:7), and Jacob (27:24); also by the Hebrew midwives (Ex. 1:15-19), by Michal (1 Sam. 19:14), and by David (1 Sam. 20:6). (See ANANIAS.)
- Lieutenant (only in A.V. Esther 3:12; 8:9; 9:3; Ezra 8:36), a governor or viceroy of a Persian province having both military and civil power. Correctly rendered in the Revised Version "satrap."
- Life Generally of physical life (Gen. 2:7; Luke 16:25, etc.); also used figuratively (1) for immortality (Heb. 7:16); (2) conduct or manner of life (Rom. 6:4); (3) spiritual life or salvation (John 3:16, 17, 18, 36); (4) eternal life (Matt. 19:16, 17; John 3:15); of God and Christ as the absolute source and cause of all life (John 1:4; 5:26, 39; 11:25; 12:50).
- Light The offspring of the divine command (Gen. 1:3). "All the more joyous emotions of the mind, all the pleasing sensations of the frame, all the happy hours of domestic intercourse were habitually described among the Hebrews under imagery derived from light" (1 Kings 11:36; Isa. 58:8; Esther 8:16; Ps. 97:11). Light came also naturally to typify true religion and the felicity it imparts (Ps. 119:105; Isa. 8:20; Matt. 4:16, etc.), and the glorious inheritance of the redeemed (Col. 1:12; Rev. 21:23-25). God is said to dwell in light inaccessible (1 Tim. 6:16). It frequently signifies instruction (Matt. 5:16; John 5:35). In its highest sense it is applied to Christ as the "Sun of righteousness" (Mal. 4:2; Luke 2:32; John 1:7-9). God is styled "the Father of lights" (James 1:17). It is used of angels (2 Cor. 11:14), and of John the Baptist, who was a "burning and a shining light" (John 5:35), and of all true disciples, who are styled "the light of the world" (Matt. 5:14).
- Lightning Frequently referred to by the sacred writers (Nah. 1:3-6). Thunder and lightning are spoken of as tokens of God's wrath (2 Sam. 22:15; Job 28:26; 37:4; Ps. 135:7; 144:6; Zech. 9:14). They represent God's glorious and awful majesty (Rev. 4:5), or some judgment of God on the world (20:9).
- Lign-aloes (only in pl., Heb. `ahalim), a perfume derived from some Oriental tree (Num. 24:6), probably the agallochum or aloe-wood. (See ALOES).
- Ligure (Heb. leshem) occurs only in Ex. 28:19 and 39:12, as the name of a stone in the third row on the high priest's breastplate. Some have supposed that this stone was the same as the jacinth (q.v.), others that it was the opal. There is now no mineral bearing this name. The "ligurite" is so named from Liguria in Italy, where it was found.
- Lily The Hebrew name shushan or shoshan, i.e., "whiteness", was used as the general name of several plants common to Syria, such as the tulip, iris, anemone, gladiolus, ranunculus, etc. Some interpret it, with much probability, as denoting in the Old Testament the water-lily (Nymphoea lotus of Linn.), or lotus ([[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 2:1, 2; 2:16; 4:5; 5:13; 6:2, 3; 7:2). "Its flowers are large, and they are of a white colour, with streaks of pink. They supplied models for the ornaments of the pillars and the molten sea" (1 Kings 7:19, 22, 26; 2 Chr. 4:5). In the Canticles its beauty and fragrance shadow forth the preciousness of Christ to the Church. Groser, however (Scrip. Nat. Hist.), strongly argues that the word, both in the Old and New Testaments, denotes liliaceous plants in general, or if one genus is to be selected, that it must be the genus Iris, which is "large, vigorous, elegant in form, and gorgeous in colouring."
The lilies (Gr. krinia) spoken of in the New Testament (Matt. 6:28; Luke 12:27) were probably the scarlet martagon (Lilium Chalcedonicum) or "red Turk's-cap lily", which "comes into flower at the season of the year when our Lord's sermon on the mount is supposed to have been delivered. It is abundant in the district of Galilee; and its fine scarlet flowers render it a very conspicous and showy object, which would naturally attract the attention of the hearers" (Balfour's Plants of the Bible).
Of the true "floral glories of Palestine" the pheasant's eye (Adonis Palestina), the ranunuculus (R. Asiaticus), and the anemone (A coronaria), the last named is however, with the greatest probability regarded as the "lily of the field" to which our Lord refers. "Certainly," says Tristram (Nat. Hist. of the Bible), "if, in the wondrous richness of bloom which characterizes the land of Israel in spring, any one plant can claim pre-eminence, it is the anemone, the most natural flower for our Lord to pluck and seize upon as an illustration, whether walking in the fields or sitting on the hill-side." "The white water-lily (Nymphcea alba) and the yellow water-lily (Nuphar lutea) are both abundant in the marshes of the Upper Jordan, but have no connection with the lily of Scripture."
- Lime The Hebrew word so rendered means "boiling" or "effervescing." From Isa. 33:12 it appears that lime was made in a kiln lighted by thorn-bushes. In Amos 2:1 it is recorded that the king of Moab "burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime." The same Hebrew word is used in Deut. 27:2-4, and is there rendered "plaster." Limestone is the chief constituent of the mountains of Syria.
- Linen (1.) Heb., pishet, pishtah, denotes "flax," of which linen is made (Isa. 19:9); wrought flax, i.e., "linen cloth", Lev. 13:47, 48, 52, 59; Deut. 22:11.
Flax was early cultivated in Egypt (Ex. 9:31), and also in Palestine (Josh. 2:6; Hos. 2:9). Various articles were made of it: garments (2 Sam. 6:14), girdles (Jer. 13:1), ropes and thread (Ezek. 40:3), napkins (Luke 24:12; John 20:7), turbans (Ezek. 44:18), and lamp-wicks (Isa. 42:3).
(2.) Heb. buts, "whiteness;" rendered "fine linen" in 1 Chr. 4:21; 15:27; 2 Chr. 2:14; 3:14; Esther 1:6; 8:15, and "white linen" 2 Chr. 5:12. It is not certain whether this word means cotton or linen.
(3.) Heb. bad; rendered "linen" Ex. 28:42; 39:28; Lev. 6:10; 16:4, 23, 32; 1 Sam. 2:18; 2 Sam. 6:14, etc. It is uniformly used of the sacred vestments worn by the priests. The word is from a root signifying "separation."
(4.) Heb. shesh; rendered "fine linen" Ex. 25:4; 26:1, 31, 36, etc. In Prov. 31:22 it is rendered in Authorized Version "silk," and in Revised Version "fine linen." The word denotes Egyptian linen of peculiar whiteness and fineness (byssus). The finest Indian linen, the finest now made, has in an inch one hundred threads of warp and eighty-four of woof; while the Egyptian had sometimes one hundred and forty in the warp and sixty-four in the woof. This was the usual dress of the Egyptian priest. Pharaoh arrayed Joseph in a dress of linen (Gen. 41:42).
(5.) Heb. `etun. Prov. 7:16, "fine linen of Egypt;" in Revised Version, "the yarn of Egypt."
(6.) Heb. sadin. Prov. 31:24, "fine linen;" in Revised Version, "linen garments" (Judg. 14:12, 13; Isa. 3:23). From this Hebrew word is probably derived the Greek word sindon, rendered "linen" in Mark 14:51, 52; 15:46; Matt. 27:59.
- Linen-yarn (See YARN.)
- Lines Were used for measuring and dividing land; and hence the word came to denote a portion or inheritance measured out; a possession (Ps. 16:6).
- Lintel (1.) Heb. mashkoph, a projecting cover (Ex. 12:22, 23; ver. 7, "upper door post," but R.V. "lintel"); the head-piece of a door, which the Israelites were commanded to mark with the blood of the paschal lamb.
- Lions The most powerful of all carnivorous animals. Although not now found in Palestine, they must have been in ancient times very numerous there. They had their lairs in the forests (Jer. 5:6; 12:8; Amos 3:4), in the caves of the mountains ([[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 4:8; Nah. 2:12), and in the canebrakes on the banks of the Jordan (Jer. 49:19; 50:44; Zech. 11:3).
No fewer than at least six different words are used in the Old Testament for the lion. (1.) Gor (i.e., a "suckling"), the lion's whelp (Gen. 49:9; Jer. 51:38, etc.). (2.) Kephir (i.e., "shaggy"), the young lion (Judg. 14:5; Job 4:10; Ps. 91:13; 104:21), a term which is also used figuratively of cruel enemies (Ps. 34:10; 35:17; 58:6; Jer. 2:15). (3.) 'Ari (i.e., the "puller" in pieces), denoting the lion in general, without reference to age or sex (Num. 23:24; 2 Sam. 17:10, etc.). (4.) Shahal (the "roarer"), the mature lion (Job 4:10; Ps. 91:13; Prov. 26:13; Hos. 5:14). (5.) Laish, so called from its strength and bravery (Job 4:11; Prov. 30:30; Isa. 30:6). The capital of Northern Dan received its name from this word. (6.) Labi, from a root meaning "to roar," a grown lion or lioness (Gen. 49:9; Num. 23:24; 24:9; Ezek. 19:2; Nah. 2:11).
The lion of Palestine was properly of the Asiatic variety, distinguished from the African variety, which is larger. Yet it not only attacked flocks in the presence of the shepherd, but also laid waste towns and villages (2 Kings 17:25, 26) and devoured men (1 Kings 13:24, 25). Shepherds sometimes, single-handed, encountered lions and slew them (1 Sam. 17:34, 35; Amos 3:12). Samson seized a young lion with his hands and "rent him as he would have rent a kid" (Judg. 14:5, 6). The strength (Judg. 14:18), courage (2 Sam. 17:10), and ferocity (Gen. 49:9) of the lion were proverbial.
- Lip Besides its literal sense (Isa. 37:29, etc.), is used in the original (saphah) metaphorically for an edge or border, as of a cup (1 Kings 7:26), a garment (Ex. 28:32), a curtain (26:4), the sea (Gen. 22:17), the Jordan (2 Kings 2:13). To "open the lips" is to begin to speak (Job 11:5); to "refrain the lips" is to keep silence (Ps. 40:9; 1 Pet. 3:10). The "fruit of the lips" (Heb. 13:15) is praise, and the "calves of the lips" thank-offerings (Hos. 14:2). To "shoot out the lip" is to manifest scorn and defiance (Ps. 22:7). Many similar forms of expression are found in Scripture.
- Litter (Heb. tsab, as being lightly and gently borne), a sedan or palanquin for the conveyance of persons of rank (Isa. 66:20). In Num. 7:3, the words "covered wagons" are more literally "carts of the litter kind." There they denote large and commodious vehicles drawn by oxen, and fitted for transporting the furniture of the temple.
- Liver (Heb. kabhed, "heavy;" hence the liver, as being the heaviest of the viscera, Ex. 29:13, 22; Lev. 3:4, 1, 10, 15) was burnt upon the altar, and not used as sacrificial food. In Ezek. 21:21 there is allusion, in the statement that the king of Babylon "looked upon the liver," to one of the most ancient of all modes of divination. The first recorded instance of divination (q.v.) is that of the teraphim of Laban. By the teraphim the LXX. and Josephus understood "the liver of goats." By the "caul above the liver," in Lev. 4:9; 7:4, etc., some understand the great lobe of the liver itself.
- Living creatures As represented by Ezekiel (1-10) and John (Rev. 4, etc.), are the cherubim. They are distinguished from angels (Rev. 15:7); they join the elders in the "new song" (5:8, 9); they warn of danger from divine justice (Isa. 6:3-5), and deliver the commission to those who execute it (Ezek. 10:2, 7); they associate with the elders in their sympathy with the hundred and forty-four thousand who sing the new song (Rev. 14:3), and with the Church in the overthrow of her enemies (19:4).
They are supposed to represent mercy, as distinguished from justice, mercy in its various instrumentalities, and especially as connected with the throne of God, the "throne of grace."
- Lizard Only in Lev. 11:30, as rendering of Hebrew letaah, so called from its "hiding." Supposed to be the Lacerta gecko or fan-foot lizard, from the toes of which poison exudes. (See CHAMELEON.)
- Lo-ammi Not my people, a symbolical name given by God's command to Hosea's second son in token of Jehovah's rejection of his people (Hos. 1:9, 10), his treatment of them as a foreign people. This Hebrew word is rendered by "not my people" in ver. 10; 2:23.
- Loan The Mosaic law required that when an Israelite needed to borrow, what he asked was to be freely lent to him, and no interest was to be charged, although interest might be taken of a foreigner (Ex. 22:25; Deut. 23:19, 20; Lev. 25:35-38). At the end of seven years all debts were remitted. Of a foreigner the loan might, however, be exacted. At a later period of the Hebrew commonwealth, when commerce increased, the practice of exacting usury or interest on loans, and of suretiship in the commercial sense, grew up. Yet the exaction of it from a Hebrew was regarded as discreditable (Ps. 15:5; Prov. 6:1, 4; 11:15; 17:18; 20:16; 27:13; Jer. 15:10).
Limitations are prescribed by the law to the taking of a pledge from the borrower. The outer garment in which a man slept at night, if taken in pledge, was to be returned before sunset (Ex. 22:26, 27; Deut. 24:12, 13). A widow's garment (Deut. 24:17) and a millstone (6) could not be taken. A creditor could not enter the house to reclaim a pledge, but must remain outside till the borrower brought it (10, 11). The Hebrew debtor could not be retained in bondage longer than the seventh year, or at farthest the year of jubilee (Ex. 21:2; Lev. 25:39, 42), but foreign sojourners were to be "bondmen for ever" (Lev. 25:44-54).
- Lock The Hebrews usually secured their doors by bars of wood or iron (Isa. 45:2; 1 Kings 4:3). These were the locks originally used, and were opened and shut by large keys applied through an opening in the outside (Judg. 3:24). (See KEY.)
- Lo-debar No pasture, (2 Sam. 17:27), a town in Gilead not far from Mahanaim, north of the Jabbok (9:4, 5). It is probably identical with Debir (Josh. 13:26).
- Lodge A shed for a watchman in a garden (Isa. 1:8). The Hebrew name melunah is rendered "cottage" (q.v.) in Isa. 24:20. It also denotes a hammock or hanging-bed.
- Log The smallest measure for liquids used by the Hebrews (Lev. 14:10, 12, 15, 21, 24), called in the Vulgate sextarius. It is the Hebrew unit of measure of capacity, and is equal to the contents of six ordinary hen's eggs=the twelfth part of a him, or nearly a pint.
- Loop A knotted "eye" of cord, corresponding to the "taches" or knobs in the edges of the curtains of the tabernacle, for joining them into a continuous circuit, fifty to a curtain (Ex. 26:4, 5, 10, 11).
- Lubims The inhabitants of a thirsty or scorched land; the Lybians, an African nation under tribute to Egypt (2 Chr. 12:3; 16:8). Their territory was apparently near Egypt. They were probably the Mizraite Lehabim.
- Lucas A friend and companion of Paul during his imprisonment at Rome; Luke (q.v.), the beloved physician (Philemon 1:24; Col. 4:14).
- Lucius Of Cyrene, a Christian teacher at Antioch (Acts 13:1), and Paul's kinsman (Rom. 16:21). His name is Latin, but his birthplace seems to indicate that he was one of the Jews of Cyrene, in North Africa.
- Lucre From the Lat. lucrum, "gain." 1 Tim. 3:3, "not given to filthy lucre." Some MSS. have not the word so rendered, and the expression has been omitted in the Revised Version.
(2.) One of the Hamitic tribes descended from Mizraim (Gen. 10:13), a people of Africa (Ezek. 27:10; 30:5), on the west of Egypt. The people called Lud were noted archers (Isa. 66:19; comp. Jer. 46:9).
- Ludim Probably the same as Lud (2) (comp. Gen. 10:13; 1 Chr. 1:11). They are associated (Jer. 46:9) with African nations as mercenaries of the king of Egypt.
- Lunatic Probably the same as epileptic, the symptoms of which disease were supposed to be more aggravated as the moon increased. In Matt. 4:24 "lunatics" are distinguished from demoniacs. In 17:15 the name "lunatic" is applied to one who is declared to have been possessed. (See DAEMONIAC.)
- Lust Sinful longing; the inward sin which leads to the falling away from God (Rom. 1:21). "Lust, the origin of sin, has its place in the heart, not of necessity, but because it is the centre of all moral forces and impulses and of spiritual activity." In Mark 4:19 "lusts" are objects of desire.
- Luz A nut-bearing tree, the almond. (1.) The ancient name of a royal Canaanitish city near the site of Bethel (Gen. 28:19; 35:6), on the border of Benjamin (Josh. 18:13). Here Jacob halted, and had a prophetic vision. (See BETHEL.)
(2.) A place in the land of the Hittites, founded (Judg. 1:26) by "a man who came forth out of the city of Luz." It is identified with Luweiziyeh, 4 miles north-west of Banias.
- Lycaonia An inland province of Asia Minor, on the west of Cappadocia and the south of Galatia. It was a Roman province, and its chief towns were Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. The "speech of Lycaonia" (Acts 14:11) was probably the ancient Assyrian language, or perhaps, as others think, a corrupt Greek intermingled with Syriac words. Paul preached in this region, and revisited it (Acts 16:1-6; 18:23; 19:1).
- Lycia A wolf, a province in the south-west of Asia Minor, opposite the island of Rhodes. It forms part of the region now called Tekeh. It was a province of the Roman empire when visited by Paul (Acts 21:1; 27:5). Two of its towns are mentioned, Patara (21:1, 2) and Myra (27:5).
- Lydda A town in the tribe of Ephraim, mentioned only in the New Testament (Acts 9:32, 35, 38) as the scene of Peter's miracle in healing the paralytic AEneas. It lay about 9 miles east of Joppa, on the road from the sea-port to Jerusalem. In the Old Testament (1 Chr. 8:12) it is called Lod. It was burned by the Romans, but was afterwards rebuilt, and was known by the name of Diospolis. Its modern name is Ludd. The so-called patron saint of England, St. George, is said to have been born here.
- Lydia (1.) Ezek. 30:5 (Heb. Lud), a province in the west of Asia Minor, which derived its name from the fourth son of Shem (Gen. 10:22). It was bounded on the east by the greater Phrygia, and on the west by Ionia and the AEgean Sea.
(2.) A woman of Thyatira, a "seller of purple," who dwelt in Philippi (Acts 16:14, 15). She was not a Jewess but a proselyte. The Lord opened her heart as she heard the gospel from the lips of Paul (16:13). She thus became the first in Europe who embraced Christianity. She was a person apparently of considerable wealth, for she could afford to give a home to Paul and his companions. (See THYATIRA.)
- Lysanias Tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1), on the eastern slope of Anti-Lebanon, near the city of Damascus.
- Lysias, Claudius The chief captain (chiliarch) who commanded the Roman troops in Jerusalem, and sent Paul under guard to the procurator Felix at Caesarea (Acts 21:31-38; 22:24-30). His letter to his superior officer is an interesting specimen of Roman military correspondence (23:26-30). He obtained his Roman citizenship by purchase, and was therefore probably a Greek. (See CLAUDIUS.)
- Lystra A town of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor, in a wild district and among a rude population. Here Paul preached the gospel after he had been driven by persecution from Iconium (Acts 14:2-7). Here also he healed a lame man (8), and thus so impressed the ignorant and superstitious people that they took him for Mercury, because he was the "chief speaker," and his companion Barnabas for Jupiter, probably in consequence of his stately, venerable appearance; and were proceeding to offer sacrifices to them (13), when Paul earnestly addressed them and turned their attention to the true source of all blessings. But soon after, through the influence of the Jews from Antioch in Pisidia and Iconium, they stoned Paul and left him for dead (14:19). On recovering, Paul left for Derbe; but soon returned again, through Lystra, encouraging the disciples there to steadfastness. He in all likelihood visited this city again on his third missionary tour (Acts 18:23). Timothy, who was probably born here (2 Tim. 3:10, 11), was no doubt one of those who were on this occasion witnesses of Paul's persecution and his courage in Lystra.