Edwards's Botanical Register/Appendix to the first twenty-three volumes/A sketch of the vegetation of the Swan River Colony/Proteaceae

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No where is the many-faced appearance, from which these plants derive their name, more conspicuous than at the Swan River, where they are extremely numerous, and to a great extent different from those of the rest of the continent. No one would suspect the genus Conospermum to belong to the order at all, until after a minute examination, for while the majority of the species with their long woolly panicled irregular flowers have altogether a peculiar aspect, C. acerosum136 might be mistaken for a Colletia; and C. glumaceum137 has altogether the appearance of some Bupleurum with great membranous bracts. Stirlingia simplex140 resembles a Sanicula, and many of the species with capitate flowers have greatly the character of a Composite inflorescence. As to the Hakeas and Grevilleas, of which there are many, their leaves are so varied and peculiar that a young Botanist might be excused for mistaking them for ferns, or Cycadaceæ.

As this order is so important a part of the vegetation of the Colony, and more likely than any other to find its way into gardens, it is desirable to notice the new species in rather more detail that has generally been done in this little sketch.

Anadenia consists of plants whose leaves are their chief

(136) Conospermum acerosum; foliis acerosis pungentibus glaberrimis, pedunculis axillaribus solitariis tomentosis foliis multò brevioribus, capitulis paucifloris, bracteis cucullatis mucronatis calycibusque glabris.

(137) Conospermum glumaceum; glabrum, caule ramoso, foliis linearibus uninerviis falcatis mucronatis, floribus paniculatis intra capitula glumacea inclusis, bracteis lanceolatis imbricatis nervatis coloratis, rachi villosâ, ovario piloso.

(138) Conospermum sclerophyllum; minutissimè pubescens, caule paniculato, foliis teretibus apice conicis sphacelatis, pedunculis axillaribus foliis duplò longioribus e spicis alternis, rachibus calycibusq. lanatis.

(139) Conospermum incurvum; caule fruticoso dichotomo pubescente, foliis filiformibuspatentibus canaliculatis incurvis glabris, pedunculis apice racemosis et paniculatis terminalibus angulatis distanter squamatis rachibusque glabris, pedicellis calycibusque villosissimis galeâ calva.—C. distielio affinis.

(140) Stirlingia simplex; pedunculis elongatis indivisis, capitulis multifloris, bracteis exterioribus ovato-lanceolatis acutis.

(141) Stirlingia paniculata; scapo paniculato multifloro, capitulis 5-9-floris, foliis ter bipartiis: laciniis lineari-lanceolatis planis apice callosis.

ornament, the flowers being small and inconspicuous. A. flexuosa142 is a singular species, allied to A. pulchella, with most curious zigzag leaves; A. gracilis144 is a pretty graceful plant, near A. trifida; A. Aquifolium145 might be mistaken for a Holly, when not in flower; and A. hakeoides146 has broad toothed reticulated leaves, so much like those of Hakea undulata that it would be mistaken for that plant if it were not for the absence of the hypogenous gland of the order.

To Conospermum, and the strange species called C. acerosum and glumaceum, allusion has already been made; besides these there is C. Hügelii, Endl., a plant with small simple heads of inconspicuous flowers, and several others with calyxes buried in wool, such as C. triplinervium and undulatum,147 brachyphyllum,148 &c.; among which

(142) Anadenia flexuosa; foliis bipinnatifidis glabris rachi flexuosâ alatâ: lobis decurrentibus triangularibus elongatis pungentibus integris, racemis densis pedunculatis multifloris, perianthii glabri apicibus subrotundis, stylo et ovarii pedicello compressis.

(143) Anadenia tenuiflora; villosa, foliis pinnatis: laciniis cuneatis tripartitis trifidisque venis subtus prominentibus sæpius apice tridentatis lobis triangularibus pungentibus, racemis axillaribus foliis bravioribus, perianthii tenuisimè pubescentis apicibus subulatis, stylo pubescente, ovario longè stipitato, stigmate subulato.

(144) Anadenia gracilis; ramis gracilibus angulatis sericeis, foliis marginatis trpartitis pinnatifidque, in petiolum elongatum cuneatum decurrentibus supra glabriusculis subtùs pilosiusculis: laciniis angustè oblongis pungentibus nunc acuminatis integris nunc abruptè tridentatis dente intermedio productiore, racemis foliorum longitudine rachi pubescente, perianthii glabri apicibus subrotundis, stylo elongato stipitique glabro.

(145) Anadenia Aquifolium; ramis angulatis sericeis, foliis oblongis spinoso-dentatis basi cuneatis integerrimis subtus sericeis reticulatis supra planis, racemus foliis brevioribus, rachi perianthiisque glabris, stipite ovarii stylo multò breviore.

(146) Anadenia hakeoides; glaberrima, foliis oblongis spinoso-dentatis utrinque reticulatis basi cuneatis integris, fasciculis axillaribus sessilibus glabris, bracteis villosis, ovario sessili.—Species Hakeæ facie, sed glandulâ hypogynâ nullâ. Stylus conicus elongatus Anadeniæ, sed stipes ferè nulla.

(147) Conospermum undulatum; foliis lanceolatis undulatis basi attenuatis obsoletè triplinerviis sericeis, paniculà longissimè pedunculatâ e spicis alternis, rachibus bracteis calycibusque lanatis.—C. triplonervio aff. sed floribus quadruplò majoribus; amborum coma ovarii pilis longissimis vestitur ferrugineis.

(148) Conospermum brachyphyllum; acaule, foliis erectis fasciculatis teretibus glabris, pedunculos terminali longissimo simplici glabro squamis distantibus appressis acuminatis vestito sursùm minutè sericeo corymboso paniculato, rachibus lanatis, calycibus villosissimis.

C. densiflorum,149 with very closely arranged flowers, seems to have blue bracts.

The Synapheas are in many cases ragged-looking plants, whose leaves seem as if that were intended to be larger, but starved into hard dry lobes. S. decorticans150 is a strange oak-leaved plant, whose bark is thrown off in numerous thin brown layers; S. brachystachya152 seems clothed with a leaves of an Eryngium; and S. pinnata153 has large regularly pinnated leaves, glaucous on the underside.

Lambertia occurs in the form of a most beautiful species, with orange-coloured flowers,154 and is moreover of great Botanical interest from its flower-heads consisting each of either thirteen or nineteen flowers, neither more not less. When Dr. Brown described the genus in his Prodromus, he only knew species with either one or seven flowers in a head; and with his habitual sagacity he ascribed that number to

(149) Conospermum densiflorum; sericeo-pilosum, foliis filiformibus densè imbricatus, pedunculo longissimu apice corymboso, floribus capitatis bracteis lineari-lanceolatis villosissimis (cœruleis?) æqualibus, calycis longè tubulosi laciniis elongatis, ovario pubescente apice comoso, stigmate fornicato.—An Chiluris associandum?, calyx enim tubo gaudet elongato laciniis linearibus solito longioribus, haud tamen caudatis.

(150) Synaphea decorticans; foliis favosis glabris inferioribus obovatis et cuneatis trilobis superioribus cuneatis tropartitis petiolo duplò brevioribus: laciniis oblongis planis obtusis mucronatis lateralibus 2-3-lobis intermediâ tripartitâ lobis bilobis trilobisque, squamis involucrantibus sericeo-villosis, spicis elongatis foliorum longitudine, calycibus glabris, ovario pubescentie, stigmate truncato obsoletè bicorni.

(151) Synaphea gracillima; foliis favosis glabris inferioribus obovato-oblongis trilobisque superioribus tripartitis petiolo tereti gracili triplò brevioribus: laciniis divaricatis lineari-oblongis planis obtusis mucronatis lateralibus intermediâque bi-tripartitis squamis involucrantibus glaberrimis, spicis ramosis gracillimis foliis multo longioribus, calycibus ovarioque glabris, stigmate bicorni.

(152) Synaphea brachystachya; foliis planis subtus sericeis: inferioribus obovatis subsessilibus, intermediis cuneatis in petiolum ipsis longiorem angustatis trolobis laciniis spinoso-tridentatis spinosis, spinis erectis foliis brevioribus, ovario lanato, stigmate truncato.—Variat. foliis angustioribus, subtus glabriusculis.

(153) Synaphea pinnata; foliis pinnatis 2-3-jugis; foliolis oblongo-linearibus reticulatis subtus glaucis petiolo brevioribus: jugo infimo nunc trifoliolato spicis ramosis foliis multò longioribus, floribus distantibus, calycibus glabris, ovario pubescente.

(154) Lambertia multiflora; involucro floribus duplò breviore, foliis linearibus mucronatis basi angustatis utrinque glabris margine planis.

the circumstance of the flower-heads being formed in whorls equal in power to that of the leaves; so that as the latter grew in threes the flower-heads would necessarily consist of one flower or of three and one, or of six and one; the first and the third cases he knew, and he conjectured that the second would one day be discovered. Although the Swan River species is not referable to the second case, yet it confirms the correctness of Dr. Brown's views, for the increased number of flowers found in its heads is constantly some new power of three; in some specimens they are 3 × 4 + 1 = 13, and in others 3 × 6 + 1 = 19; and to this I perceive no exception.

Dryandras abound. In addition to D. floribunda, nervosa, bipinnatifida and the elegant D. Frazeri, whose leave are divided into fine awl-shaped lobes, there are the following new ones: viz. D. favosa,155 a species near D. armata, but the leaves have no hairs in their lacunæ, except when very young, the flower-heads are much smaller, and the stigma is obtuse, not subulate; D. carduacea,156 a charming species, with leaves like those of a Carthamus; D. stuposa,157 a plant near D. formosa, and quite as handsome; D. nobilis,158 a most splendid plant in the way of D. longifolia and tenuifolia, with leaves from a foot to a foot and half long; and finally D. proteoides,159 which has much the look of a Cape Protea.

(155) Dryandra favosa; foliis pinnatifidis nitidis adultis utrinque glaberrimis floralibus tantum basi villosis: lobis triangularibus planis pungentibus subtus altè lacunosis: pilis citissimè deciduis, ramulis tomentosis, calycis apice glabro, stylis basi villosis, stigmate tereti obtuso.

(156) Dryandra carduacea; ramis pubescentibus, foliis lanceolatis subtùs niveo-tomentosis suprà glabris spinoso-dentatis planis versus basin spinoso-pinnatifidis, involucro glabriusculo floribus duplò breviore: foliolis exterioribus angustis triangularibus interioribus elongatis ciliatis, calycibus sericeis, stylo basi glabro, stigmate fusiformi subungulato obtuso.

(157) Dryandra stuposa; ramis villosis, foliis elongato-linearibus semipinnatifidis subtus niveis venosis lobis isiscelo-triangularibus mucronatis margine leviter revolutis, involucro tomentoso patulo floribus multò breviore: foliolis interioribus intùs glabris striatis, calyce lanato apice truncato stuposo ferrugineo, stigmate sulcato obtuso.

(158) Dryandra nobilis; ramis villosis, foliis elongato-linearibus subtus cinereis tomentosis suprà glabris subsessilibus: lobis æquilateri-triangularibus mucronatis decurrentibus margine revolutis subtus 3-5-nerviis, involucro lanato: foliolis exterioribus lineari-lanceolatis serratis foliaceis interioribus inermibus floribus triplò brevioribus, calyce sericeo apice barbato, stylo basi glabro, stigmate tereti obtuso sulcato.

(159) Dryandra proteoides; foliis elongato-linearibus subsessilibus semipinnatifidis subtus niveis venulis nudis reticulatis: lobis rectangulo-triangularibus

Mr. Frazer has reported the existence of a plant he referred to Banksia grandis, with a trunk fifty feet high, and frequently more than two feet and a half in diameter, occupying the barren hills on the banks of the river, at Point Frazer; but as I have seen no specimens of the plant, I do not know whether he determined the species rightly or not. It is however certain that B. Menziesii, a very noble species, is found here, together with B. prionotes,160 allied to B. æmula, and B. Aquifolium,161 a new instance of the Isostylis division, with very much the look of a Dryandra.

Of Isopogon and Petrophila, two genera perhaps better united, there are many interesting species, especially I. sphærocephalus,163 so like P. linearis that the one may be mistaken for the other; P. seminuda,166 a fine plant with

decurrentibus mucronatis margine revolutis, involucro nudo pubescenti: foliolis extimis ovatis intimis e latâ basi linearibus elongatis apice tomentosis floribus duplò longioribus, calycis laciniis filiformibus glabris, stylo basi glabro, stigmate tereti angulato obtuso.—An Hemiclidiæ species?

(160) Banksia prionotes; ramis petiolisque tomentosis, foliis lato-linearibus elongatis truncatis serratis subtus reticulatis secus costam pubescentibus lacunis albo-lanatis: dentibus æquilateri-triangularibus, calycibus lanatis, stylo pone apicem constricto tum in stigma sulcatum subconicum expanso, strobilis sphæroideis.

(161) Banksia (Isostylis) aquifolium; foliis cuneiformibus spinoso-dentatis glabris basi integerrimis subtus obsoletè lacunosis, ramis vollosis, strobilis brevissimis lanatis, calycibus sericeis apice glabris.

(162) Banksia cylindrostachya; ramulis tomentosis, foliis elongato-linearibus truncatis serratis supra lævibus nitidis subtus niveis tomentosis reticulatis basi angistatis integerrimis, amento cylindraceo terminalifoliis obvallato, calycibus glabris, stigmate parvo tereti sphacelato.

(163) Isopogon sphærocephalus; ramis tomentosis villosis, foliis lato-linearibus falcatis utrinque striatis sericeis, stobilis terminalibus sphæricis squamis lanatis apice calvescentibus, calycis tubo basi glabro apice crispato-barbaro, stigmatis articulo superiore glabro subulato apice dilatato excavato: inferiore breviore stuposo.—Petrophilæ lineari simillimus.

(164) Isopogon cornigeris; ramulis tomentosis, foliis sericeis teretibus exsulcis tripartitis laciniis divaricatis mucronatis lateralibus bilobis petiolo brevioribus, capitulo sessili terminali squamis lanatis, calycibus hirsutis, stigmatis articulo superiore subulato apice dilatato inferiore stuposo æquali.

(165) Isopogon scaber; ramulis tomentosis, foliis planis scabris cuneatis in lacinias lineares canaliculatas altè fissis vel biternatis, strobilis sphæricissessilibus axillaribus: squamis ovatis acutis apice reflexis glabris, calycibus glaberrimis, stigmate elongato attenuato articulis æquilibus inferiore stuposo.

(166) Petrophila seminuda; ramis glaberrimis coloratis, foliis teretibus levissime sulcatis biternatis pungentibus, strobilis terminalibus sessilibus: exterioribus parvis ovatis glabris interioribus ovatis lanatis apice calvis, calycibus glaberrimis, stigmatis fusiformis articulo superiore pubescente.

yellow flower-heads; P. biloba, whose branches are sometimes covered for six inches together with feathery flowers; and P. heterophylla,167 a very graceful plant. Another species, P. brevifolia,168 has flowers which, when infused in hot water, give out so brilliant a yellow colour that it is worth examination of a probable source of a dyeing material.

The Persoonias are plants of little beauty; P. Frazeri is the handsomest; P. macrostachya,172 like Petrophila brevifolia, seems to possess dyeing properties that deserve investigation.

Of Hakea the species are numerous, and generally by no means worth cultivation, H. ruscifolia being the only one

(167) Petrophila heterophylla; ramis glabris, foliis elongato-linearibus obtusis apiculatis basi longè angustatis utrinque striatis simplicibus v. 2-3-partitis, strobilis ovalibus axillaribus sessilibus: squamis ovatis obtusis nitidis glabris, calycibus sericeo-tomentosis, stigmatis glabri articulo inferiore angulato superiore subulato multò majore.

(168) Petrophila brevifolia; ramulis glabris, foliis uncialibus teretibus exsulcis apice spinosis, strobilo terminali ovato sessili squamis glabris: exterioribus linearibus acuminatis interioribus obatis acutis, calycibus tomentosis, stigmatis articulo superiore barbato inferiori glabro angulato æquali.

(169) Petrophila juncifolia; ramulis glabris, foliis teretibus longissimis exsulcis apiculatis, strobilis terminalibus ovatis subsessilibus squamis glabris: exterioribus linearibus acuminatis interioribus ovatis acutis, calycibus tomentosis, stigmatis articulo superiore barbato inferiore glabro angulato multò longiore.

(170) Petrophila glanduligera; partibus omnibus junioribus villosis sericeis, foliis sessilibus semiteretibus bipinnatis laciniis pungentibus exsulcis lateralibus minimis 3-4-partitis superiorum lobis 3-partitis, stobilis subglobosis pedunculatis foliis longioribus: squamis basi tomentosis sursùm glabris, calycibus hirsutis sepalis apice glandulam subulatam nudam gerentibus, stigmate fusiformi inarticulato pubescente.

(171) Petrophila intricata; ramulis sericeo-villosis, foliis teretibus levitèr sulcatis bipinnatis petiolo flexuoso laciniis trifidis simplicibusque pingentibus, strobilis terminalibus et axillaribus subglobosis: squamis sericeis cavescentibus,—P. serruriæ affinis.

(172) Persoonia (Sacculigera) macrostachya; ramis pube brevi tomentosis, foliis filiformibus subtus sulcatis floralibus brevissimis, floribus solitariis axillaribus pedunculis tomentosis, calycibus pilosis hinc saccatis, antheris obtusis, ovario glabro stylo nullo.

(173) Persoonia Drummondi; ramulis pubescentibus, foliis falcatis lineari-lanceolatis elongatis aversis basi angustatis glandulosis, floribus solitariis, pedunculis calycibusque tomentosis, antheris linearibus obtusis, ovarii stipite articulate.—P. falcatæ affinis.

(174) Persoonia Laureola; undique glaberrima, foliis latè ovalibus basi angustatis obtusis venosis, calycibus apice muticis minutissimè pubescentibus, ovarii stipite inarticulato, stigmate dilatato.

which is at all beautiful when in flower; the prickly and singularly formed leaves of some of them, especially of H. cristata, glabella, undulata, and triformis175 give them a neat but strange appearance.

Few of the Grevilleas, of which there are many species, are of much beauty; G. Thielemanniana, lately introduced by Baron Hugel, is however a magnificent plant, with large clusters of rich crimson flowers; G. bipinnatifida and quercifolia are striking species; G. brachyantha,180 a plant related to the last-mentioned species, seems to have purple flowers; and G. eriostachya,181 nearly allied to G. concinna, with spikes from five to six inches long, and yellowish linear leaves, is an object of considerable beauty.

Of Adenanthos, whose only beauty is in the leaves, which almost hide the flowers, A. sericea and A. barbigera182 are met with in the Colony. In the latter, and also in A.

(175) Hakea triformis; glaberrima, foliis cordato-amplexicaulibus spinoso-dentatis nunc subrotundis nunc basi dilatatis in laminam oblongam angustatis nunc denique obovatis basi vix dilatatis, stigmate circulati depresso.—H. amplexicauli affinis, sed glaberrima foliis nunquam cuneatis.

(176) Hakea cyclocarpa; ramis coloratis glaberrimis, foliis oblongo-lanceolatis obtusis planis basi angustatis subaveniis integerrimis lobatisque, calycibus sericeis, folliculis cyclicis compressis muticis.

(177) Hakea mixta; ramulis filiformibus rigidis glabris, foliis glabris aliis oblongis obtusis petiolatis concavis aveniis aliis teretibus mucronatis exsulcis, calycibus villosissimis, folliculis angustis ovalibus compressis muticis.

(178) Hakea pilulifera; ramulis sericeis, foliis subtùs tomentosis aveniis inferioribus oblongis margine revolutis superioribus teretibus subtus sulcatis mucrone sphacelato, capitulis numerosissimis axillaribus, calycibus stylisque hirsutis, stigmate glabro capitato hinc truncato medio apiculato.

(179) Hakea tricruris; ramis glaberrimis, foliis teretibus tripartitis: laciniis pungentibus æqualibus leviter sulcatis petiolo longioribus, calycibus villosis, stylo glabro, stigmate depresso subtetragono.

(180) Grevillea brachyantha; glauca, ramulis sericeis, foliis petiolatis coriaceis reticulatis rigidis marginatis oblongis sinuato-angulatis vel pinnatifidis spinosis, racemis terminalibus brevibus cylindricis quaquaversis, bracteis membranaceis cucullatis ciliatis deciduis, calycibus glabris, ovario longè stipitato, stylo clavato, stigmate depresso circulari.

(181) Grevillea (Lissostylis) eriostachya; ramis tomentosis, foliis linearibus longissimis striatis subpubescentibus subtùs bisulcatis, spicis terminalibus elongatis secundis calycibusque apice lanatis, ovario lanato, stylo glabro, stigmate depresso dilatato.

(182) Adenanthos barbigera; ramis villosis, foliis oblongis oblongo-lanceolatisque sessilibus obtusis pilosis triplinerviis venosis, floribus axillaribus solitariis pedunculatis, involucris patulis villosis, calycibus pilosis apice barbatis, anthera unica sterili.

obovata, and possibly cuneata, one of the anthers is abortive, a circumstance which approximates the genus to Conospermum and Synaphea; but in A. sericea, terminalis, and perhaps the other filiform-leaved species, the anthers are all fertile.

It is not a little remarkable that in so diversified an order as this, scarcely any tendency to vary from the small number of types of structure recognised thirty years since by Dr. Brown should be discoverable; there is nothing whatsoever among the numerous undescribed species from Swan River which requires the establishment of a new genus, with the solitary exception of Manglesia. That genus was named by Endlicher in compliment to Captain James Mangles, R.N. and Robert Mangles, Esq. his brother, to whose exertions the country owes the greater part of the plants as yet introduced from this colony into our gardens; and it appears to be well distinguished from Grevillea by the style being thickened in a very remarkable manner a little below the stigma, while the stipes of the ovary is unusually long. Three species only are yet known; all from Swan River, namely M. tridentifera, vestita, and glabrata,183 all small shrubs with three lobed or trident-shaped leaves, and numerous clusters of small flowers seated on filiform stalks; but with regard to the two Grevilleas which Brown calls Conogyne, and which Endlicher is inclined to refer to Manglesia, it does not appear to me certain that either of them belongs to it, and G. triternata certainly does not.

(183) Manglesia glabrata; undique glaberrima, foliis cuneatistriplinerviis apice trifidis lobis triangularibus pungentibus, racemis laxis multifloris foliis longioribus, apicibus calycum sphæricis.