Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period/Chin Shêng-huan
CHIN Shêng-huan 金聲桓 ( 虎臣), d. Mar. 1, 1649, soldier under both the Ming and Ching dynasties, was a native of Liaotung. He was a brigade-general under the Ming general, Huang Lung 黃龍, when the latter was defeated and killed in 1633 by the Manchus at Lü-shun, Liaotung. His wife and son were taken captive, but he himself managed to escape and join the forces of Tso Liang-yü [q. v.], in Honan. In 1645, as a subordinate of Tso Mêng-kêng (see under Tso Liang-yü), he surrendered to the Ch'ing general, Ajige [q. v.], at Kiukiang, offered his services to the new dynasty, and was appointed general-in-chief of Kiangsi, specially charged with the suppression of Ming loyalists. He subjugated the whole of Kiangsi province without the help of Manchu troops, and these successful operations against the southern Ming were acknowledged with imperial honors. His family was released, but his demand for wide discretionary powers in civil and military affairs was regarded by the Boards at Peking as presumptious. He made an almost regal court of his military headquarters at Nanchang, and entertained Taoist magicians who nursed his growing resentment against the Manchus. His subordinate, Wang Tê-jên 王得仁, nicknamed Wang the Piebald 王雜毛, a former follower of Li Tzŭ-ch'êng [q. v.], encouraged his feeling that his services required a marquisate.
In 1648 Chin rebelled, killed the governor, and declared allegiance to Chu Yu-lang [q. v.] who confirmed on him his self-conferred title, Duke Yü-kuo 豫國公. He utilized the services of Chiang Yüeh-kuang [q. v.] who three years previously had quarreled with Ma Shih-ying [q. v.] and had left the court of Chu Yu-sung [q. v.] at Nanking. Failing in his attempt to take Kan-chou, he was besieged at Nanchang by the Manchu commander, Tantai (see under Yanggûri). This siege Chin withstood for eleven months, but when the city fell (March 1, 1649) he was wounded by an arrow and drowned himself in a pond east of the city wall. The posthumous title, Prince of Nanchang 南昌王, and the name, Chuang-wu 壯武, were conferred by the Ming court. His associate, Wang Tê-jên, was captured and killed.
[M.1/271/16a; M.41/75/4a, 16/3b; M.59/65/5a; 明季南略 Ming-chi nan-lüeh 13/15a; 三藩記事本末 San-fan chi-shih pên-mo 2/8b, 3/5a in 借月山房彙鈔 Chieh-yüeh shan-fang hui-ch'ao ;西南記事 Hsi-nan chi-shih 11/1a in 邵武徐氏叢書 Shao-wu Hsü-shih ts'ung-shu.]