Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period/Giyešu

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GIYEŠU 傑書, 1645–1697, April, the first Prince K'ang (康親王), was a great-grandson of Nurhaci [q. v.] and a grandson of Daišan [q. v.]. His father, Huse 祜塞 (d. 1646, posthumous name 惠順) was the eighth and youngest son of Daišan and held the rank of a prince of the fifth degree. After Huse died his rank was inherited by his second son, Jinggi 精濟 (1644–49, posthumous name 懷愍), who, sometime before 1649, was raised to a prince of the second degree. Jinggi died in July, 1649, and Giyešu, then only five sui, became heir to the second degree princedom to which was appended in 1651 the designation, K'ang.

The hereditary rank of Daišan was first inherited (1648) by Giyešu's uncle, Mandahai [q. v.], and then (1652) by Mandahai's son, Canggadai (see under Mandahai). In 1659 Mandahai was posthumously deprived of his ranks and Canggadai was not allowed to retain them. The hereditary privilege was given to Giyešu who thus became the third inheritor of Daišan's first degree princedom for which the designation K'ang was used until 1778, when Emperor Kao-tsung ordered the restoration of Daišan's original designation, Li (see under Daišan). The princedom remained in Giyešu's branch of the family till the close of the dynasty (see under Chao-lien).

During the San-fan Rebellion (1673–81) Giyešu served for six years in Chekiang, Fukien, and Kwangtung. He was appointed (July 28, 1674) commander-in-chief of the armies against Kêng Ching-chung [q. v.], and was given the title of Fêng-ming Ta Chiang-chün 奉命大將軍. He and the assistant commander, Fulata (1622–1676, see under Tê-p'ei), left Peking late in August and arrived at Chin-hua, Chekiang, early in October. After winning several battles, Giyešu and his men recovered Ch'u-chou early in 1675, while Fulata advanced on Wenchow. Then for about a year the conflict was at a stalemate. On April 16, 1676 Emperor Shêng-tsu issued a strong reprimand to Giyešu, berating him for having been two years at Chin-hua without a victory and urging him to advance at once on Fukien. In September Giyešu proceeded to Ch'ü-chou, Chekiang, and, after gaining several victories, entered Fukien in October. On November 9 he obtained the surrender of Kêng Ching-chung on the assurance that the rebel's life would be spared, a promise which was not kept. By combining with Kêng's forces, Giyešu was in a position to fight against Chêng Ching [q. v.] who had occupied a large area in southern Fukien. In 1677 Giyešu took all the main cities in Fukien and advanced as far as Ch'ao-chou in Kwangtung. But in March 1678 Chêng Ching revived his attacks and laid siege to Hai-ch'êng, near Amoy. Giyešu was ordered hurriedly to rescue that city, but lingered on for four months at Ch'ao-chou on the plea of an insufficient force for such operations. In July he was again reprimanded by the emperor and was repeatedly ordered to the immediate rescue of that city. On July 28, 1678 Hai-ch'êng was taken by Chêng Ching who before long advanced to Ch'üan-chou. After about two years of fighting Giyešu recovered Hai-ch'êng and other places in southern Fukien and forced Chêng Ching to return to Taiwan. In July 1680 Fukien was sufficiently stabilized to warrant the withdrawal of Giyešu and his armies. On December 7 Giyešu arrived at Lu-kou-ch'iao, south of Peking, where he was personally welcomed by the emperor.

Although he had for six and a half years directed the campaigns in South China, Giyešu was not rewarded after the conclusion of the San-fan war. In 1682, when the merits and faults of the commanders were weighed, Giyešu had two counts against him—his delay in attacking Fukien in 1675–76, and his failure to rescue Hai-ch'êng in 1677. Hence he was deprived of all his military merits and was fined the equivalent of a year's stipend.

In 1690 when Galdan [q. v.] was threatening to advance on Peking from Mongolia (see under Fu-ch'üan), Giyešu was dispatched to lead an army through Kalgan and to guard Kweihwa against the possibility of a thrust in that quarter from the Eleuths. Recalled after Galdan was defeated, he died in 1697 and was canonized as Liang 良. The first degree princedom of Daišan was given to Giyešu's sixth son, Ch'un-t'ai 椿泰 (posthumous name 悼, 1673–1709), the second Prince K'ang (1697–1709). After Ch'un-t'ai died, the rank was held for twenty-four years (1709–33) by his eldest son, Ch'ung-an 崇安 (posthumous name 修, 1705–1733), the third Prince K'ang. It seems that Ch'ung-an was not favored by Emperor Shih-tsung, for after his death in 1733 he was given fewer posthumous honors than those normally accorded a man of his rank. By imperial order of 1734 Ch'ung-an's son was given a minor hereditary rank, and Daišan's first degree princedom was awarded to Giyešu's fifth son, Bartu 巴爾圖 (posthumous name 簡, 1674–1753), who became the fourth Prince Wang. Only after Bartu's death did Emperor Kao-tsung restore the rank to Ch'ung-an's son (see under Chao-lien).

[1/222/8a; 2/1/5a; 4/2/1a; P'ing-ting san-ni fang-lüeh (see under Han T'an); Chao-lien [q. v.], Hsiao-t'ing tsa-lu (which refers to Giyešu as Hsien Liang Wang 先良王).]

Fang Chao-ying