Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period/Liu Pao-nan

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LIU Pao-nan 劉寶楠 (T. 楚楨, H. 念樓), Mar. 9, 1791–1855, Nov. 13, scholar and official, was a native of Pao-ying, Kiangsu. His father, Liu Li-hsün 劉履恂 (T. 廸九, H. 雲陔, 1738–1795), a cousin of Liu T'ai-kung [q. v.], was given late in life the rank of archivist of the Imperial Academy. A collection of Liu Li-hsün's notes on the Classics, entitled 秋槎雜記 Ch'iu-ch'a tsa-chi, 1 chüan, was printed in the Huang-ch'ing ching-chieh (see under Juan Yüan). Having lost his father when he was only five (sui), Liu Pao-nan was brought up by his mother and studied diligently under his brother, Liu Pao-shu 劉寶樹 (T. 幼度, H. 鶴汀, chü-jên of 1807, d. 1839), and his second-cousin, Liu T'ai-kung. After becoming a hsiu-ts'ai in 1806 Liu Pao-nan resided for a few years in Yangchow where he studied for a time at the An-ting (安定) Academy. His life-long friendship with Liu Wên-ch'i [q. v.] began at this time. Owing to his mother's death in 1811 Liu Paonan returned to his native place and in 1813 began his teaching career. In 1817 he returned to Yangchow where he tutored during the following years. After living about a year (1822–23) in Peking in the home of Wang Hsi-hsün (see under Wang Chung), he spent the years 1823–26 at I-chêng, Kiangsu. Thereupon he moved to Yangchow where he remained until the winter of 1832, absenting himself only once when he visited (1831–32) Anking to correct examination papers. In 1833 he went to Pao-ting, Chihli, where he served for several months as a private secretary to Prefect Juan Ch'ang-shêng (see under Juan Yüan). Liu obtained his chü-jên degree at Nanking in 1835 and then directed for a while the Kuang-ling (廣陵) Academy at Yangchow. In the year following this he went to Peking where he competed unsuccessfully in the metropolitan examination of 1836. After teaching in Yangchow for the next few years, he obtained (1840) his chin-shih degree and was appointed district-magistrate of Wên-an, Chihli, a post he assumed in the following year. During his term in office he was busily engaged in conservancy work, but the zealous performance of his duties antagonized the local people and their false accusations resulted in his removal late in 1844. On the basis of this experience Liu later compiled a work on conservancy, entitled 文安隄工錄 Wên-an ti-kung lu, 6 chüan, which was printed early in 1848. After 1845, until he died in office aged sixty-five (sui), he served as magistrate in the following districts in Chihli: Pao-ti (1845), Ku-an (1845–46), Yüan-shih (1846–51), and San-ho (1852–55). After his death his fellow-townsmen canonized him privately as Hsiao-hsien hsien-shêng 孝獻先生 and entered his tablet in the local temple.

As the most distinguished follower of Liu T'ai-kung, Liu Pao-nan was celebrated for his exact studies in the Classics. Like his master, he was free from the partisan prejudice that marked either the followers of the School of Han Learning or the adherents of Sung philosophy. His most valuable contribution to scholarship was an authoritative commentary to the Analects, entitled 論語正義 Lun-yü chêng-i, which he began in 1828 but failed to complete before his death. His second son, Liu Kung-mien 劉恭冕 (T. 叔俛, H. 勉齋, 1824–1883), completed his father's work and printed it in 1866 in 24 chüan. Later this work was reprinted three times, once in the Huang-Ch'ing ching-chieh hsü-pien (see under Juan Yüan). Liu Kung-mien left another small work on the Analects, entitled 何休注訓論語述 Ho Hsiu chu-hsün Lun-yü shu, which was also printed in the Huang-Ching ching-chieh hsü-pien. He was on the staff of the Kiangnan Printing Office (see under Tsêng Kuo-fan) and later served as director of the Ching-hsin Shu-yüan 經心書院, an Academy established by Chang Chih-tung [q. v.] at Wuchang in 1869. In the latter capacity he compiled several local gazetteers.

Liu Pao-nan left two historical works: one, entitled 釋穀 Shih ku, 4 chüan, first printed in 1855, a study of the names of grains mentioned in the classics; and another, entitled 勝朝殉揚錄 Shêng-ch'ao hsün Yang lu, 3 chüan, printed in 1871, consisting of biographies of Shih K'o-fa [q. v.] and other Ming loyalists who fought and died in the battle of Yangchow in 1645 against the Ch'ing forces. Liu's study of inscriptions on stone in the Han period, entitled 漢石例 Han-shih li, 6 chüan, was first printed in the Lien-yün i ts'ung-shu (see under Chang Mu). Later the original manuscript came into the possession of K'uang Yüan (see under Ma Kuo-han), and after being collated by him was printed about 1870 by Ting Pao-chên [q. v.]. A collection of Liu Pao-nan's notes on the classics and ancient history was edited by his descendants and was printed by the Kuang-ya Printing Office (see under Chang Chih-tung) in 1895 in 6 chüan under the title 愈愚錄 Yü-yü lu. In addition to the above-mentioned items Liu Pao-nan produced the following works: a collection of records about his ancestors which was completed in 1832 in 10 chüan and was printed a few years later under the title 寶應劉氏清芬集 Pao-ying Liu-shih ch'ing-fên chi; a historical geography of his native district printed in 1883 in 6 chüan under the title, Pao-ying t'u-ching (圖經); and an anthology of prose and verse by authors of Pao-ying, entitled Pao-ying wên-chêng (文徵). The last-mentioned work is reported to have comprised about 100 chüan, but was never printed. Another unpublished work of Liu Pao-nan is a collection of his prose and verse, entitled 念樓集 Nien-lou chi, 8 + 2 chüan.


[1/488/30b; 2/69/62a; 5/73/22b; Liu Wên-hsing 劉文典, Nien-p'u of Liu Pao-nan (劉楚楨先生年譜) with portrait in 輔仁學誌 Fu-jên hsüeh-chih, vol. IV, no. 1 (1933); Fujikawa Kumaichirō 藤川熊一郎, 劉家の論語家學と論語正義 in 斯文 Shibun, vol. XIV, nos. 9–11 (1932).]

Hiromu Momose