Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period/Man Kuei
MAN Kuei 滿桂, d. 1630, Jan. 29, Ming general, was born a Mongol. He came to China in early life and made his home in Hsüan-hua, Chihli, where he took great delight in the border warfare that went on about him. He was serving as second captain in a garrison along the Great Wall when the defeat of Yang Hao [q. v.] by the Manchus in 1619 awakened China to a realization of the menace from the northeast. Transferred to the Shanhaikuan region, he was rapidly promoted to major and then to lieutenant colonel. In 1622 he attracted the attention of Sun Ch'êng-tsung [q. v.], was promoted to colonel at headquarters, and in the following year was put in charge of defensive operations at Ning-yüan. After driving away certain Mongol tribes who were occupying the region of Ta-ling-ho he was promoted to the rank of brigade general. Together with Sun's successor, Yüan Ch'ung-huan [q. v.], he repulsed, early in 1626, the Manchu attack on Ning-yüan, but was recalled shortly after. Before the end of the year he was stationed at Shanhaikuan. While bringing relief to Ning-yüan in July 1627 he was severely wounded. In 1628, under a new emperor, he was recalled from the front and sent to the defense of Tatung, Shansi, against Mongol raids. Late in 1629 he was summoned to the defense of Peking when the Manchus made their first effective thrust toward the capital. After Yüan Ch'ung-huan was imprisoned and Tsu Ta-shou [q. v.] fled, Man Kuei was left alone to face the enemy. Despite stubborn resistance he was driven back and killed outside the south wall of Peking. He was canonized as Wu-min 武愍.
[M.1/171/7a; M.3/234/6a; M.8/86/10a; M.30/3/31a; Cha Chi-tso [q. v.], Tsui-wei lu, 12下/11a.]
George A. Kennedy