Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Albrecht von Gräfe

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GRÄFE, Albrecht von (1828-1870), German oculist, son of Karl Ferdinand von Grafe, noticed below, was born at Berlin in May 1828. At an early age he manifested a pre ference for the study of mathematics, but this was gradually superseded by an interest in natural science, which led him ultimately to the study of medicine. After obtaining Government licence at Berlin, he prosecuted his studies at Vienna, Prague, and Paris, devoting special attention to ophthalmology. In 1850 he began practice as an oculist in Berlin, where he founded a private institution for the treatment of the eyes, which became the model of many similar ones in Germany and Switzerland. In 1853 he was appointed teacher of ophthalmology in Berlin university, in 1856 extraordinary professor, arid in 1866 ordinary pro fessor. Von Grafe contributed largely to the perfection of the science of ophthalmology, especially by the establish ment in 1855 of his Archiv fur Ophthalmologie, in which lie had Arlt and Donders as collaborateurs. Perhaps his two most important discoveries are his method of treatment for glaucoma, until then deemed incurable, and his new method of operation for the extraction of cataract, by which the danger of the operation became minimized. He was also regarded as an authority in diseases of the nerves and brain. He died at Berlin 20th August 1870. See Alfred Grafe, Ein Wort zur Erinnerung an Albrecht von Grafe, Halle, 1870.