Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Anchor

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ANCHOR, in Navigation, from the Greek riyxvpa, \\‘hich s thinks is from riyrn, n crook or llonk, an instrument or utln-r llmvy nreterinl used tor holding ships in uuy situzlLion in xvlticll they nny be required to lie, nnrl '[r1El'liillg[l.Il'l'l from drifting by the uind-r or tidee, by the cul-rents of l'lVCl‘s', or any other cailsu. This is done ly the amber, altar it. is let dawn {mm the ship by means nf the cable, fixing itself into the grmlntl, and there hold- ing the vessel lust. The unchol: is thus obviolnly an im- lllt~uII'll of the firot ilnportanclz in rm-igntien, and one on uhlt t too much ntt.-ntiou mlllult he lnsteu-ed in its rruuut. inoture and pmprr eenstrnetion, seeing; that on it. depends the safety of 'thc vessel in storms. The invention 01' so necessary an instrument is to be n.-tel-ml. as may be sup- _l!ukt'.y; the pot, the bill, or the point is the Greeks, \\hirh, nccultling to Ahlklilnlliflfi Ilhotlius and stenlrrn or Byzantium, uere inrnnd or rtene; null Athenmus slates thnt. they vtlrc sulllutimcs mnde oi u'ood. These sorts «if nllchoro rctuilnxl the vessel merely by their inertia, nnd by the friction along the bottom. Ir-on was nftcrwartls intnxlunud for the construction of nndrots, and nlso the gr-ond ilnprovclnunt of fornlillg thorn uirlr twill nr llukus to install tht-lllxtcl\'L‘a inw the hntlnm ; “hence the words éfifiwxs and «latte: lire frequently taken for uncllol: in the Greek and Lcttin poets. The invention of the teeth is ascribed by Pliny to the Tllxullla; but Pausaluius gives the merit to llidns, king of Pllrygin, Originally there was only one llulro or tootll, whence noehors rrere cnl.lt~<l err,.o'mo,..n; but shortly nlterwnrtlr the second vrns ruldod, nccnrtling to l’l.iuy, by lzrrnulnnrrrs, or, lwcardillg to Strubo, by Anacharsis, the seythinn philosopher. The nnclton with two teeth were culled snot;/loin. er n',r¢r'ur..n..., and from ancient rnonunrents npprnr to have been inurh the some uith tllorsc used in our dnys, except. that the stock is wanting in thorn nil. Every ship had scvcml nrn-here, the lnrgest oi uhiolr, oorrcrponrling to our sllcct-anchor, was never used but in extreme dnnger, nod nos henoe pecllliarly tanned ispli or new ; ulrenoe the proverb srwmm rmrhorlml. sulvcrr, as llying to the last retrrge.

Up to the collllncllccmcllt. of the present ocnhxzy what M-wlern was termed the “old plan long—sllmllno<l” anchor seems to “"“""“’ have been grllcmlly used It use made or xxrought iron, but the amtlilnlccs oi the nnolror ernlth were so crude that little dvpolltleuco could he plneul upon it. All:-ut this time public attention was drawn to the iuuiortnliee oi the illlrhnr by n rlerlr ot Plyrnontlr ynrd nnnred Prring, uho pllblisllctl e book, nnd argued, rronr the number oi brolren nnoliurs which some to the yard for repair, tlrnt there “lll\L~t. he sornetlring wrong in the \vorl;ruanship—\m¢lIlc pmpul'Li0l or the in.-tuner of combining the pnrtst" Mr Periilg altered the scctioinrl iorur, nlmlc the anus curved insteenl of straight, used ilw of better quality, and intm~ tlur-rnl illlprovnnlcllts in the proeesr oi rnauufucture. Since 1320 about 130 patullts have been taken out for nnehms ; and the attention thus given to the suhjeet, uith the intro- -luction of ntcmll hammers nud furnaces, the substitution of the full blast for the old bullous, and the butter know- ledge obtainotl oi the ltngo.uinrr's urt,lrnre rendered the allchor of the present day so far snpnior to that or my year: ngo, that we rnrely hear at one being broken, the gmluld in which it in nutbcxltletl gencnhlly ghillg uny before the nnchor.

no. ‘l.—Commun Ancllor. rro. 2.—Allrulr.1lty's. ‘Fla. 3.~I1orlger'.v.

Fig l lvzprcticllttt the H the stnriglrt putt, oi; the sq1mN,(lt',is tlutt part Of the_ shrink to ullich the stock and the slldcklc luv attachul; ll is the rmwn; (la and ti] the (Il‘mS,‘ yg the lrrrhlza or tl-nine end of the ruin beyond the puhn; the blutlz is the part of the arm at the hrrek or the palm; It is the rltzlrl-to or rin_I] tn which the cable is attaclltxl; k! is the stm'l', pisoerl at right angles cnmxrlon” anchor. The t-nrioushounnon Ilnrts ore linmvn by the fullowing tcrnls:—Tlw s7zrmL' rs nrruor.

to the plane of the arms and shmrlc. The use of the stock is to “ rant" Lhc lmchor. If it falls with the arms on the grountl, the other end resting on the end of the stock, the pull of the cable will turn it over, so that the stack will Lie upon the gmulld, snrl the weight or the cmwn llnd srins than resting upon the sharp point,will cause it to enter

the soil and take fast hold

1. Chaim and Andmr: for Steam Vault rzquirzd by Lloyd’: Register of British and Fareu'gn Shipping (1874). Minimum Weiylxtx of Anchors 9.1:. Stack, Sizes and Length 0/ Chain Cables, and lb: Pranf Strain to which Ihty an to be teat:-d; aIwSize.1 and Length of Ilau/sen and IVarps,—t/1zA1whorrc and tin: Links nf the (llmiyu to be of um:wept1Io11a15lef1n“In and prvportitms.

Ascloll. Shnl-Clmxl cum; 3;“ '":l'::£'1.; Wm, m..,.,.,_ 2 1...“. [orlmu a T2 K van» 1: _ é u_ Blwen.‘ “W n.a...u..,ao.~x. 5 E 11 ” :1 3 5. Admlnlf '31. ‘" T21 11 a 5 E 5 ,: Slnzk. m. ’ “ "“‘ 5|-um WH:c« mm. _.z a cum 1 . cu... cm cm cm . . 1... 75 2 1 1 31 3'1“; 7 1 1 1 .1‘. I5; hf‘ 112 2 1 1 41 011 ad, 11 1 11 3, 6 4 150 2 1 1 :1 7,1, 10 1} 1 1; ,1. 0 4 111 2 1 1 5} a 111 2 1 11 11 61 4 225 2 1 1 61 01.1, 13 21 11 1; 1,1 7 5 262 2 1 1 7: 2,2, 141 21 11 1 11 71 5; 300 9 1 1 3 10,2 2:1 0i 1: in 1, 11. £1 6 275 x 1 2 1 2 2 1* 1 1 01 450 3 1 2 12 1:11.’, 31% 5 21 11 1?: 11 9 7 525 3 1 2 151 1 1, as 0 :1 11 1 11 21 7 4 500 3 1 2 1.0: 161.-, 431 111 31 1} 1,1, 1; 10 8 5 075 s 1 2 10 13 471 7 21 11 1,1. 11 10 3 5 33° *3’ i 3 $3 $11 23’ S 31 2, 1"‘ 3': ii? 3 51 0 . .“1 5 1050 3 1 2 231 2311 07 10 5 21 1,-,, 1 10 01 6 1200 :1 1 2 251 25 1 7-1 101 5 2; 115 1 10 10 3 1350 2 1 2 21} 203% 79 11 5 21 111 1,1. 11 101 51 1500 a 1 2 00 2511 251 12 0 3 111 1,1, 11 11 7 1500 3 1 2 32 00,5, 011 12 61 31 111 1,1, 11 11 7 2100 :1 1 2 34 11.1.1 27 151 61 21 111 1,’, 11 11 71 2400 3 1 2 969 3:1,,-, 104 14 7 23 111 1,2, 12 12 3 2100 3 1 2 38 041.1 1001 141 71 21 2 1,5 12 12 s 3000 9 1 2 40 3511 111 15 7 :11 2,1. 1,9,, 12 12 3 3750 4 1 2 12 17;, 1013 17 11 41 ,, 1;, 12 12 8 4500 4 1 2 45 30.}, 1731 19 91 41 2,4. 1,1, 12 12 9 0° . 5250

— luz7'z1a and AM71o1'.\'f0r Sailing Vesscla rcquirzd by Lloyd’: mmxm of Er-1't[sl1 and Foreign slapping (1171). seu-14:0 (‘s‘o‘?"'.%" ‘““1‘E‘&:? ,;.,,,..,,,. Numhu. Slrvun. {.‘‘J....‘;’‘. 5 no...» 5 _. 11 3 E 12- 1;. 55 1 E g'~ .91 S .7. 1: sum‘ E 5 E ‘s cm 11101:. 1.011 1.1:». 2500 50 2 1 1 3 1 ‘.5 1., 5 3 $200 75 2 1 1 4 . 1?, ,3 5 3 3400 100 2 1 1 2* . 11 ,',, 51 3! 3010 12* 1 . 1% ' 51 3 4140 150' 2 1 1 61 . 1;: 0 2 1510 175 2 1 1 7 . 6 5020 200 3 1 1 31 1.‘. E5 61 4 0070 250 3 1 2 10 12 221 41 21 1 1,1, 11 7 5‘ 0020 200 :1 1 2 12 1315 341 0 2 11 1;, 11 71 51 75110 150 s 1 2 131 15;, 331 6 s 1.} 1:1 1.‘: 71 51 11000 400 :1 1 2 155 151; 431 51 21 1: 1,-,, ,1,-, 2 0 9420 450 3 1 2 101 18 471 7 .11 11 1,3 11 01 01 10.080 500 5 1 2 10 10 511 0 4 2 1,1, 1% 9 7 . S I 1 2. 2:1 22 1 :1 1 *1 1* z ; 12,500 700 1 1 » ‘ .“ 13 10 19,510 300 0 1 2 251 25.} 72 101 51 21 112: 11 10 s 5 11,020 1100 2 1 2 271 261; 79 11 51 29 11.1 1,», 10 9 51 15.000 1000 3 1 2 :10 20.1.2 151 12 0 a 11,; ,-4 10 9 55 17.500 1200 1 1 2 32 30,1, 011 13 61 9 11; 1 10 91 0 3 1 2 :1, :11 .2 :1 3* 2 :11 1, 1° '21 2 21.100 1600 ., 0 1, 11 1 . 22:20 1300 3 1 2 23 2411 10111 141 71 31 2 111, 11 11 7 24,400 2000 s 1 2 40 3511 114 15 71 31 2,1, 7611 270 1,-., 11 11 7 21,300 2500 s 1 2 42 37.1, 1101 17 31 41 2 21,-, 200 1;, 12 12 8 22,100 2000 3 1 2 45 39,“. 1221 19 91 41 2,5, 01,r,I_100 1,1, 12 12 0

1 The nnlu for :11. building and clus1Sr.\t.io1.1 0! iron Ahipa pmvhle um “mix cquipmm 11 10 11. regulated Ly :11: 11I17Merpmdutad by 1114 nun D! an measurements 01' the 11111 muuldzd. breadth of the vessel nmidships, 1;: depth {mm lhe upper 112:1. of keel K0 the map of the upper deck beamx, Ind the gum of hu 11111‘ 11111111111. section In the same hzight, multiplied by um mmrs 1mgv11, my 1 cm, um, ma Lhreu nleckcd vessel. and to: I apardeckcd mam vesscl."

1 we 01 the Down anchors |I\uil1|ut be 1415 mm the wzight am (01111 above; in the than! .2 ml-mziun of 15 per cent. win he allowed.

II0l‘n (‘.1 3 — We4'_v/Itt: afAnc/lwl (mil S1':t:.1 of Cables and Ilfcssnlgera for all clause: of Scnzw Ships and Vt-ssel: of 11. .11. Kory. (Tile «molt: _I/il‘€nfo7' Ant‘/tors is mtnrite tyne Stock.) 1.n.e.ol.h.me Sllln. Yrlsllcl. Curvetlcs. lntinnol vn.nis.: e....l...l. J e-‘ :5: = , e .3 <§ §n '~‘:2 E 3g tin 2.- Eé 5.7 E€§ E5 23 3E 55 45 : :‘=‘ 5 is 5 5 4.41 . 'lxnr'7ris‘r. loo 100 as so 75 as 75 71: an on 45 40 so 25 20 2:. 10 14 B 7 1~:o.o1tle.. 4 4 4 444 44444431313222 an an 25 25 20 25 20 20 is 11 12 lo 9 7 6 7 6 6 5 3 1515151291599575555454322 G 9 1 7 5 7 5 5 4 4 4 a a :1 2 l 2: 2: 21 21 2121 2: 2 1; 1' 1; Ii 11 11 H 1.3 1: 1,, 1113 11 ll 11 ll 1; 1 1 1 1;. 1,1, 1; 111,1, ll 1: 1; 11 11 ll 1; 1 L‘a.bltl#IItmpr7L. llorrer. ,, is 19 la; la 17 174 11 lo; 15; 141 14 1:11 12 .. I .. srrenrn .. 14$ 15; 111 141 lilgltl 15.; 134 1a|12 11 ml .. , .. 1|'rl'ght of.4ne7iors i-lqplizrz hBmh.4§ ‘I'.:4ul1ul1, 120 ha; 32 IL Pinnau.-, 51 lh; an it. cutter, 411 11.; n y onisor uign, 011.

The stock is made of iron ill allcllors of 60 mt. :ll1ll unilcr, and of wood for nnellors above that weight. A nnoden stock (fig. 3) is ninde o£El1-glisli oak in too pieces; they nre scorcnl over the sqllztrc so as to leave a spllcc or about 2 in. elem between them at the shank and to trlurh nt the extremities It is rlsllulc parallel for about it'll of its length at the centre, tapering from thence to the e'xt.remi— ties, the side next the shaclclu being kept straight nntl the remaining three sides tapered. The section nt any port is square, the tlimcnsiolls being ,l,tli oi the length nt the centre mid half of this at the ends. The two pieces are tnstened togctller hy lonr iron holts near the shank, six or cigllt treeuails,aul1 six iron hoops nt the ends. The hoops are (lrivctl on lightly while hot, so that the contmntion oi the iron in ooolillg rnny dl'.\w the ports closely together. .\ pmjet-lion, termed :4 mzl, shown by the dotted liucs at a,rl, in fig. s, is lelt on the square to prevent anylittcrnl motion or the stock. All iron stock is made inol.le1<1l-ging, so as to pnss tllmllgll n hole ll, punched in the square. The stack has :4 Sl]nXlLlOl‘ b, which fits lagaillst the sirle of the‘ shank when it is ill the position for action us in fig. 1, l1n<l it is secnrod bya hey driven lightly on the other siile of the rhnnlr. The ndtnntnge _ , of this is,th.-rt the stock can (E ‘-~ “r70 be ullsllippqxl end loitl along the shank fur convcllicncc ei Fm. 4._1ren sl.o_ck I!5lfil"l‘“‘ for stoirin», as shown in (lg. 11 ‘°"“*E« The weigllt of the stock, whether of wood or iron, is about th the of the nnehor.

The shank and (114111 arm are forged under the stennr lnnnrner in three piceoo, nnrl tire tllcn weldorl together all in null 11, fig. 8. The wt-ldlltg is done by the “IlcrcI1lcs," \\'lIlclI is n hoory iron nnn plneetl aver zul ninil, so thnt it on he inised by steer. power to 11 height ol some 9 or 10 feet, end then let fall, being gllidlztl in its rlesoent by three men, who holtl rodsntt.-iehod to it. It is neorllosto snythnt the welding ninst he eireinlly done, us the n-hole strength or the snehor depends upon it.

To ensure slimy, every anchor should he tested at amurig. public tsmtingllouste to Q1! of its brmlrillg strain. The tlllcllor is hlzhl hy n ehnin sttneliorl to the sllilcl-ilo, and the sh-.1.in is applied to then arm sollzmltcly nt gtl 0! its length lrom the point. The proof of the nnoher is that it innst show no sign or lroetnie, allll thltt if nny llelltetion is roused by the strain, it must return very nearly to its originnl shope 11 good :1ncl1o1-,ititer being tluflccled holt en inch, will retnrn to its lornier shape, leaving 1141 per» lrlzllltsllt sat.

The size of anchors for various ships has been (lute!-Size or rninotl by proeliee, but is hnnell upon the theory thrtt e.snn‘W» the ltnehor is required to withstood the {oree brought upon the ship by the wind and title, which \\'ollltl othernise cmlse her to drift, its stmllgth must he nenrly preportiennl to her l'($lSliJ.'l0C. A result which will ncourtl with sound prnctiee may be obtained by mlclllilting the resistance of it given ship nt :1 speed or twolio knots, mid llllzillg this tor the worltillg loatl of the anchor. The working lotlll should he hnlf the testing strain, and consequently gth of the llronlring slrcngtll,

A large il'o1lcIl:ltl c:.\l'rit-s E eneliors,—2 boner, 2 shter, 1 stream, 1 stern, end 2 kulgu. The bower nnehors (rig. 7) ore stowed at the bow, and are for onlilmry use in n rontlstsnd; if there is Slny diflerence in weight, the l1c:4\'in:l' is S9.()“'C(l on the stztrbozlrrl side, and is termed the host bower. The sheet anchors (fig. 3) no stowed as lnr forwrlrtl he is corlvmient in the insist of the ship, end are somntilncll czlllrll the nnist nnehers; they are only nsed in cases of cmcrgcllcy, or in the eront of oily neeident bcfalling the buwcrs. Thu stlv.-hm anchor is for use in a river or nlieltt-red piste, where a sinnll nnehor is sl1fl‘lcicllt to hold the shilt The stem anchor is tlsctl \\'ll(‘l'l it is rerpiiied to inner nt hoth llciltl null stern, as is the onse when there is not mom tor the ship to swing with the tide. The hedge anchors ere gt-llcrlllly of dilierent siun, one large and one small; they am inert to worn the ship nlong n n.-lrrew ehnnntl, the hedge living tarricll out in 11 boat with the henrpen enhle ntlaeherl to it, llml dropped; the ship r-.111 llmll be hmlletl tn the anchor. Kedge nncllnls are still supplied in the Royal Not;-, hnt nre very rnrely iinea ihe so >A'ur which they nie intciirled being geno-

iniiy'peiini~ineei by me aid of n eienniiiig vessel.

The enhie. mi pp. 4 and 5 give the sizes and niiinhei of iuichors and cables canied hy ships of ihe iieyni_ Navy, and those xequired by Lliiyda niien to be cihmcd In men cliunl ships. The eheei and bower anclims are of the Snlnc size, end are given in the tabla uiidurtlic handing “Bower.”

Public niieniien 'hn\'ing been dircctcd to ihe eiiiiieei ox anchors iiy ihe epeeinienn ii-hieh ii-eie uxliibiloil iii the iznhihiiien ei 1351, n committee was nppeinieii 17y ihe Aiiinixeiicy in ihe succeeding yen» _to wn_siilc1' and new: upon me qiinlifimtionsiif tl.ievu1_'Iui1s inniie_. The com» iniuee aeeeiniineei the qnnimes It wee ilusimblc iei» nn nnaI1nrto[>ossesa,a11d iisixignczl nun1ui'1ca.l_\'i\ls to enen. The following tables giv LL19 rgsulh of their lnbflllfi, show- ing the niiinhnn of nini-ks ohininnd by eneh iimlior under L1-in.l £—

Tnue .i‘lio14'i'7i_q the reliiliu 01'(I€1‘ in ie/nzze me aaverizl iinezim Smml with rtgttrtl In Btu/I. Q/(IL: ))l‘01I€1‘l‘lL'5 lfldcvltlfll ta I1 goml A7u~Imr—t7z£ names aiwzilgcd ulp/mbelwzilly. " . a fine E’ ‘T’ 3554;.-EL: AXCHORS. gg §%% :2 35 H ?=§E:*iE§. E‘ =E3e_ 2 L] E n §~ls £53‘-‘in E 4 5 I 2 I 41 22 2 7 4 1 2 II I 1 2 2 5 2 234214353 1 6 4 5 J 1 4 4 5 l '2 3 2'1 2 3 2 1 3 2 iiiiieiieinii.-, . . ‘.7?’ 1 3 1‘s‘2 3 2 4 4 liLi41;;i:|"A, 5 2 1 1 2 4 2 1 1 2 'hu(i|iAI4\ s 1 a 3 4 1 4 3 5 5

Table showing the tslizluiled mimmlzil values a/ the meml .A7I¢‘hOrJ in reyrlrd to me ])v'i2[I¢rt13£a eenenzereii enieiiiiuz to e _(]ooilA1whor 2 ' g .335 :~ 3‘; 5 2 ‘E .1 §‘§ 2 .wenons5‘‘‘%‘§=E 3-‘ »g_2 : 3 3 :13: Egg‘? 2» j :1 2:3: g.-«D9 E ‘-‘ 3 g “sé in = Es i.— .5 5: ‘rrnlluilliirinlr ‘\'nl14Lsolhc 1-5 in 10 ii i la n n eennnin. niweei in mi an - en 1'59 DH) in iii M £5 -95 ee Mn-iom «ii in t1I-ii «n ‘('2 m n» -.5 -en, inn «ie we no 1- - '81 I14» -0-’: -b1 -52 1m. —Tl.iis Tnhie only rmfvfisél to show Iimimxiniilbe vnlllox. nini hnn ne pmlcusionz to ninuieninninii Lmcumcy in precision.

The ioliowiiig is n eeenpiinieiien ni ihe oniei in which the anchors iiei-e ranked by Ilio i:on11uittce,t4)gcLluT Willi ihen rdutive pumentage of iiIfe1'io1'ily Dr eiipeiiei-iiy in the Aiiiniiniiy nnehei-, «he nine of which, as given in the Ioregoiug table (1817), win; bah-J: in ihe sLi.nd.'.i.'1‘l 01’ uuil:~

Trolmnifén . . . orESpe|'tL1.it. si1]u1'oA'(aAdmim.lly. Rod rs, . . . W26 do. an. do. i1iieienen'n,. . . M20 in. do. no. lAuox's, . . mi: 4117. do. .1... lIonil.i.-ill . . D1‘ 9 114:. do. an. Ayl '3, . . or 1: do. an (in. Ad.u1iInlt3', flit ii-nniinni. inane-e, or 21 pm eeuk. inreiini in iieiiiiniiiy.

The iieeinienn ei iiie colnmitfea have heen mnih qiiestioned, one of H10 objections being um the qualitius ei strength nna holding en, nciL.in1' ai iihieh is ei nny une wizheiii ihe nt}.ici', ii-eie nenigneii such iiiiieieni iniiiee as 15 nnii so; ii has also heen ninceei that the Admimlly 'nnd.iL-1' was iieniea iininiiiy, as one was Likcn prominen- ously out of stow for the II'i:I],I\]1en’1.\s the other cum- pcling iuichuis W Juadu spi:cial]yio1'it,

The xiainiiniiy ennhei (fig. 2) djfiers only iiein the ordi- nnry nndinr in having in Hill, (A, \\'m'kul on the square, no nine in \\'0odL:ll stock may he fitted ieinpeiniay ii the iron stock is ilauingcLl,.'i.\Ii1thnt its proporlimls nnii ienn iinie hnen en-einiiy wmidcI'cd nna definitely fixed. Len ‘s end Ay1cn's \I‘Cl'e iiimlifications of the Ad.i.nir:i.ltyi1ni;hL>1'. .\Iiti:l.icsnu's \\‘flS ei n iiimniii section to forge, nnil consu- qucntly Ixxpcnsirc, and was V\iU141r-'1\\I from iiie (est ei stieliglh. ]si\:Lc’s ‘U15 ei n peculiar cirnetrucfion, and niny be passed D\ er (IS more curious ihnn inerni.

lloilgefs nlxclior, placed mmiid ml iiin list, was one Rodg-1' er Cnpinin Iiiieigeih, B.N., niii» fur UH: ‘JAM. (my years mu-or» inn devoted cunsidcmble pull): to the improvement of nucliom. Amniig lain ein-iiei inventions is an nnehee with n ziez/me e/nini-, to ubtiiiu gre:IlCl' s(rc1igfl.i1\'iLh in given weight of iron ; men an anchor iiiiheni n paliu, which he iennea n “pir/.'a.7m enerier ,~' afterwards e 4~ .rmrill~]>«1mLd '- audio!‘ ; mid by a patent taken in 1863, en “iiidzuird small- palmld am‘Iu41*” (figs. 3 end 7). The ntmzk in ei imn in large 1:: in-ii as small ixiii:hm's, and is nniieiiiiii 1 liiolfisc, in ii ovizr iiie shnnh iiislmil ei iiinniiig llimllgli ii. 11 is seineii-hni heniiei than the stocks in other £llC1l0I'X~; ihe arnls nie shorter tlimi iinini in pmp(i)1.ion to the lenglli ii ihe shank, am] iire cl‘ :1 “edge shape, vzuyi in shnrpiiess iroin lhathmnt to the henii ei the palms; the inch pun. es ihe imns is piuuillcl fimn lirdnl tnpnlm; [lie palin in dmlblfl eennm en Il.1efrv1it, and hen a small bori].ex All the edge fur confining ihe eeii through which it is drugged ,- it iilno him a large inilciilalioii on me inch fol’ ihe eninn piinieee and to sine weight ; ihe shank is redmigulnr iii its junction uitli Um ni1ns,_:u11 sq\ml'L‘ close in the c0l.l:u'f0r ihe slrwk ; ihe cmwu is inniie l(rl)gcI' iinn iinini, {Ind has i. Llxge I:ivIlLcxSulk heie in its eeniie to save weight. 11 is chinied for ihin niche: that ihe iieeiiiini ieini oi the palms and iuius, viiLl.1 u.n Luilc in me cm\\Ii, give ii gieni holding 1m\\’c‘,£u\l ihni itwill bury itxclf in the soil iiniii the Ilppbl‘ palm in beneath die slllfacc, mid eenseqiieiiuy is DOC. iinhie 10 he Ioulul by ihe eniiie.

TI‘hUli1II'SflllC].\IJl' (fie,-.5), which ubtiIi!.cd the highest place inen.ne in ilie coniiiimws CSlIl1\aliDn,\\'aS nu iniiimveii 1-hiniinir (POYLCWS). The stun.-k is of iron, si1i' .41‘ IL: the Admin . mlty Ilnd10l'; ilic slimik in of rack nngulnr scciinu, ninncii-lint hi-go: in we centre U.mI in the endii, and in nnnie ieihehnpeei in one end to lo- cci e ihe 3111124 ; ihe arms are in nine plooé, mid ni-c einniecieii ie ihe shniik by n iinii pane. iug thmilgh their eeniie. The paculiaxity oi the anchor is Lhnl (111: mm: pivot aboutthis ball, so flint “hen it takes hold ihe [)1:Bl’flIlkE in bmnghi in eeninei iiiih iiie shnnk, ihin rellllcixlg iiie height above gwluld, iuinl renduling it uhnust. iiiipossilile for the milile to gel entangled roiuiil it, or, in other imrds, for 1.1.10 nnclmr Lo Lccuiiw full].

oi ihe auitlmla (cal/eil by me winiiiittee, 'i'ieunnn'n, limlger‘s, and the ALhnl'.rnliy Find the must fnvnur at the I), e being a short bult eeeulul lit its lmrer end with it pit-sent time. ’.l'rotinm’s and the Adinimlty have uudcr- hinge to the shins side ; and f it hooked level‘ which holds gone no nlteratioil, hut Cilptain Iiulgers has taken out two it ill its uprigllt1tctsiticn;fhns a socket at its inboard end, patents for inlpmvemcllts in his anchor since the conl~ to which it shifting nl-lll,1troriLlt,-ll with a hntym-:1 like the

luittee imported.

we nmv come to nn anchor or entirely tlitlerent ah.-ipe shackle of the nnellor, nnd the long link plncod over the Iwhrm from the premliiw ]v'.LN¢ullN.‘ by - nFl-ellchnmunninetlllartill. The nnchnr i. prcscllwti in tag 6 in the 1 ml in which it lies on the gronntljnst belore tnking held. The i-ihnnlt is unlde in one lerging, is of rectnngnlnr sea- lion, having in shoulder fax the Fm ¢--M-r'-n'v- stuck to ht against, and is increased both in thleknm Lulli arm at the crown; the nnns with tho pnhns nrc [urged in one piece, and then bent to the mpiiied snipe ; one of the nrms is passed through a hole in the crown ninl is hcpt in poisitiun by it [to]: iorewcd through the no 7 —now«A-whar.nua an-nnerommving. and at the crown, so that its point reaches a little my belt. II,‘ it is than erl over a dent _q, on the side of the into nu indent lnlule for it in the round part at the hack catllenil, and hrcinycil at the hnlhmls C4 The end. of the hi the itruls. 1'util lufy recently this securing hnlt was ilnrnlc painter is [xlsued under the croivn and over the phlcctl in the thinlt in -.t rcitieal position (supposing the shank; its long link is placed liver the belt e, and it is nnchor to be lying with the palnis hm'i1.ont.-ll), so as to cut behlyerl it the boilnrds 131 when it is desired to let go into the hollow pert at the front of the bent nun A very the onchor, the nrm is shipped ntf, nnd the lnnynrtls atf strong shoulder is \\‘0l’i(cv.i on the arms, so as to it in a and d nre mnnned ; then. it the word of ooniilmnd (given, move an (inn side of the shank, in such 2 lmlnner that if the ship is rolling, when she lurches towards the side the anns will revolve through an nngle of 30" either why. on which the anchor is storrtd), the nmn pnu Lhe L-lnyurds, The stack is fitted over the shank is shown, and secured and Il and cam relensell simultaneously, the links of the ily e key, which fixes it lightly clgilinst the shoulder lell: ult—stoppei' But‘ shnnl; painter drop 4211', end the anchor Uh the shzulkl The ntlrentnges of !\[lu1ill’a anchor are is tall: elenr of the 1. In nierehnnt ships it is notnsnal to fulluuix-—It is relfnccttiilg; it ninst tall in the position lit the secuml nhpntopper, b and c,- in this case it is notch- tlicnrn In the figure, nnd the weight of the Mills, together snry, hcrorc letting gn, to -'toels.hill" the :inehor,—thnt with the pull oi the enhie, presses their sharp points inte is, tn ease mruy the shank painter, so thnt the anchorlmnge the soil, to tlint it takes hold inuuedintely; it is impossible by the enthend alone. The next thing is to “\vt:igh" the to foul it; it stairs much more neatly thnn any other nnehar. Itishove up by the tstpstnn, and when it nppnsis zmchor ; its holding power is rery grent, ns both nrnir ore nt the hnn-s, the npcmtions nl U cutting -' anti “fishing -' in the sail zit the mule tinle, mid the stock, which is flat. hnvn to he peifornlcl], A chain ciillell the “ mt pendant" nnd brottd, adds iimmriafly to this qulllity; the strength is is mve o\‘I:r the slleavo It in the eethnncl, and ishnclsled ta aha my gt-one AI: an experiment lnadc at Portslllolflil nshort picce oi at similar nhnin attnclinl to the anchor nt iluckyllxd in Mrlrcli IBG7, twa ol the lmchuxs were sub one end, and stoppercd to the cable at the other; the in- joctcd to at strain of 50 per cent. over the Admiralty proof ; board and of the cal pendant: is taken to 2 iciltiihg hlock the arinsirore deflcctctl hut three-tellths ctr itn ilu:ll by this run the opposite ride or the ship, and n purchnse tackle great strain, llud nlinn it wancenioted tlinyregiincd their ntmched to it, so its to give the nten a run right ntt. renner shnpe. The nnoher is ntntle in three separate when on is rendy, the word is given, anrl the men rim hlrwngs ivithuut ti wullh Uunutstcd turret shim, which any with the [lIIl'('h.8se until the anchor hangs from the 1 \'cnna1i—rmllld hie, an.-, ainiostuithmlt enception,httnt1 cethc-ail instead or the hm\se—}-ipe; it istllcn said tn be with Harlin’: anchor on account of the neutnms with “ ent1ed.” A chain rave through the block in. the hem! of nhich it cnn he stewed, ns the stock oi nny other iulchur, the iish ilarit, and llavillg ti la _ hook at the end, is than if not ullshipped, xmuhl obstruct the fire of the guns The hooked to the inner am hi the anchor, which is then Atlniiialty allow -'1 necluetien of 25 per cent, in wtig tier irlisell and swnng inhourd (the ssh tlntit heing made to l\I.1rtin's anchor, using all 80 cut ~irtin “here 2 90 owl. l'k'\’0i\’C), so til I: the fluke rests upon the hill-beard D, and _lthniralty or Itntlgerln nnehor, weighing with its stoclr the nnchur is fished." The entvsttimwralld shank painter min 10:! tn 112 cnt, nenld be fitted, the weight given are then rave, and nll made ready to let go ngnin it in fur )[ztniu'tl anchor including the wick. molnelltls notice. tonnes. Smitll’sp:1entstocklessnnchrlrlmslxzen highlyspokonol.

The cathcad 5il0\\'I in the iignre is mile or plat/ms inlrl her. It tsain-dilicntion Uf Manilfsnllclior, hutlvithmlttllcstueh. angle irons, nrnl is silllihll‘ in shape tn the nld wooden ent. mpg A bower author is stuwetl ill ll.)I. service as sliown ill lleads; it is fitted with :4 single sheave It, made to swivel Hex ng. 7. 4‘, is the ell!/LMII ,- ]3,Ihc_fi.~ll tlrlvfl; u, lintl E, bnl- sons to give a Llir leml tor the chain nhen the anchor is av. Itnvk, D, the mt.l.xn-4. The anehor is held in plnce by it the hen pipe. cathoads are trerpnntlyinnne ol solid two clhiins, <1 and 1., termed the MI-.!lo])])rr null sIcrnil- lnrgingn, with n hlnck linnging from the head for the cal. ]><li!tlt'I' l'Lpl:cti\'cly, each or nhicli is tith~,tl with a long penthint or t':t1L In ships dcaigllmi tor mnuiling, the cat- link at one end. A bolt I», about 5 or 6 inches long, is 'hc:l<1 is ninth: to revolve like the fish dnxit B, so that it [mid on the side of the mthend, on a hinge at its lmier can he turned inboard, and then: will be no projection on end; it is hchl in the in. v1 t ptlsiliull by mluihcr holt 1', the bow to foil] the snen. rigging.

Fig. 8 shows :4 sheet anc r as atom-ll in ft nlnn<tt1wnr. slowing .t,- (1 is provided with o huh: it the end in n lnnyanl, so The anchor rests upon stout irenr a, n, citlletltnnihleisplm th.it two or three men can pull it. This whole ann _ they nro cannceted tn the ship's side at the lencr ends, ne““"‘°'- nnnt is (l'l'm£‘d n ilIx'p¢(npp<'r, A seniewliat sinnilnr oeni. that they will [all uutimrds. L, b, nre short holts to keep billutiuli All bulls and lever: is fittctl close to the hill-lxlard the anchor in its proper position, with the tiunhleis slightly llmnng nu: Iran. pnssillg round die shank can be secured to them. A stmug holi, fitted uiih zhree lugs, c, (7, and e, is serurod in lhe ship's side by eye-bolts, “hi allow it to revolve. Chains, fund y, iasiened lo ihe ship’ii side at one cm], are pnssmi round the shauh oi the onehor, and held by the lugs c ond e at iho ozher. A siipsmppex, Ii, elasps ihe lug J, and keeps the bolt in the [so ' ion shown; the inner fluke 0! the anchor rests on the bi[l—bo/u-(I 1', the point is huldciumi by a secnrilig L'hil.ilI ruled with u slip ui l, and ihe upper cml of Lhu xi/oak is secured in n siilliliir vlily. \\'hcn it is desired to -A lee gm,” lllcxope lnshiugs on (1, n, imd b, b, are ml, the slips zit lhe point and stock are knocked uuny, und than she stopper It is ihe only thing uliicli holds the unehor. A shifting lever, shown hy doiiod lines, is fitted to nsmkut in Ii; u-hen a drain is bmilghi. upon this, «he hlg d is rolessod from the grip oi the slopper h,nnd the anchor let go, lhe nunb1ers,o, n, unowing ii. elesr oi iho


ii should he obserred rhac whenever a slip-stollpt-I is iiiood, eure nrusc \le_1.a.kE\, hy placing s [will in the baeh oi it, or otherwise, to prevent the anchor being let go by accident.

Stern and scrranr anchors are skewed at the stem of the ship in the way described ior shoot snrhors.

The kedge lmchon are genemily slowed in die rnsin. chains.

Sheet, scream, and sieru anehors being very rarely used, hlwe I/0 he re—slc\\'ed hy ihe uid oi the yordsirrn, \vii.hollt any speoinl appliunees being iiuod.

1[rm1'7r_a one/um are thnse which are pliwed in harbours, &t:,fo1 ihe eonrenienee oi resels irequeniing ihern. A large buoy is iittacheii to the end or ihe mooring oahle,sud the ship is made iusi to u ring—holi fitted on the buoy. Mooring uueluns are not limikwl by oousideraiions oi \vl:igIlt, Aim, as oiher uuohnrs sre, she only requirements being ehai ihey have snllicient holding powcr, and do uoi pmjeci. above are gmmrd, us any prnjcction in ihe shallow waters in whieb they nro usually placed would render ships lishle be injury from gmunding on them, and be dungomus to flshingenuls, iie. Mooring lxllchors may there- ioro be oi stone, as shown in fig. 9; oroi mssiion, as in m-s.—Bu->yr-rm smu . fig. 10. Mimhmom snehors (fig. 11), insi proposed ior ships, ore nuw only used ior nllmrings. An old anchonvhich has one arm dun» aged is frequently used as u mooring anchor, Lhe dauiaged nrmheingbcntdown elose to the shrink; the anchor in sunk win. the beni ann uppermost, nnd more is no pmjueueu zllwve the ground. In llaxbuuni where there is not much room it is usual in phwe luo imchols, connected by a cable, in a line at right imglrs to «he direction of the tide; a swivel is filled at ihe cclltre oi this cable, mid Ihe buoy ehain is made lash to «ho su with ihis ill-l-alignment. the ship does not (sweep such a llnge circle in siiinging.

The hes-i muoring anchor uhieh has yei been devised is shouu in fig, 12. us shank is around bar oi llrroilght iron, (1, about 7 II: .\n length and 6 inches in ' iliillllckur; it is inurellscd zit ll 10 9 inrhcs dinlilmer run about 1 foot oi its length, and renuineieri ai fsiiuilarly to the piaint oi il. giuilct; holes ure nude in die stolltlmrt b, and a icm\v flange oi 3; tool diaineier in ms! nmunil ii; the uloikcll mom! gets into the holes rad makes it. good oonnho on ,~,,,_,2 .,m,i,,g uiih the \Vl'DlI§1!t>iIUll ch k. A su L Aulror, r, in which u Inigo slieehle (I, is attnchtil, is filtcd on as shown, uud secllmd by u zitmng nut; the and oi iho shauh z is uiude square, To nlaeo this mcllox in alnnu s iaihonis oi u-uier, {our iron imis, oaeh about 17 ilei in lvugtll, and provided with n socket or one end and o sqniim head us the other, are used. As the nllchm is lowered the socket. of the filst bar is fitted on at 9, and the socket of the second bar in us iuru fittcd lo the square end of the iirsl, and so on iii! the anchor miichcs the bottom, A dnmillcad, simihu ion L'{Ap.\I1Il, is then mm! on tho lusi.1iar,aiui caps-iuu burs shipped in it; by chose nlczins the mu-llor is iurned round, Luld :50 son.-uud into the _gruumL It must he sunk thmugh the bait mud or sand into the Imriicr soil bcncslll it, imd when this is done the holding llowuxoi‘ ihezmchor is enor- mous Ali anchui af the dinlcnbimis given weighs about 14 en-i., and will hold iar more ihuu u oasi-iron mooring onehor oi 1 tons. The only objections io ii seem to be the dhheuliy oi removing it ii are muurillgs are required to be when up, and that spcrial annlisnees use l-uluimd ior putting it down.

A good anchorage is where ihere are iron. io lo 20 Anrhnng iaehoois of water, and rhe gmlmd is not mcky or loose sand. where ihere are more llmII:1'll0\lt20 iiithmns we cable bours too ooorly poipoudioulur, uud is liable in hip ihe anchor. For anchoring in ordinury uoailioriliuleuglb oi mble veered our is ahoui thxec timis ibe depth oi wallet.

(t. m.)