Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Austria
Plate III. AUSTRIA, or more strictly Austria-Hungary (Ger. Oesterreich and Oesterreich-Ungarn), is an extensive country in the southern portion of Central Europe, lying between long. 9° and 26° E., and lat. 42° and 51° N. It thus extends through 17 degrees of longitude and 9 degrees of latitude, and has an area of about 240,000 English square miles. With the exception of the islands in the Adriatic, and the narrow projecting tract of Dalmatia, it forms a compact region of country, but of an irregular shape. It is surrounded on all sides by other countries, except where it borders upon the Adriatic, which is about one-fifth of the entire extent of its boundaries Of the rest, about one-third on the W. and N. is formed by the German empire (Bavaria, Saxony, and Prussia), a third on the S. and E.
[Sketch Map of Austria.] by the Turkish empire and the Danubian Principalities, and the remaining third by Russia on the N.E. and Switzerland and Italy on the S.W. The boundaries are formed in some parts by river courses, in others by mountain ranges, and sometimes they extend through an open country. As compared with France, Austria has a form nearly as compact, but its frontiers are by no means so well defined or so strongly protected by natural barriers. It ranks third in extent among the countries of Europe (after Russia and Sweden), and fourth in point of population (after Russia, the German empire, and France).
Mountains. Mountains. Austria is, after Switzerland, the most mountainous country of Europe, and about four-fifths of its entire area is more than 600 feet above the level of the sea. The mountains are frequently covered with vegetation to a great elevation. At the base are found vines and maize; on the. lower slopes are green pastures, or wheat, barley, and other kinds of corn; above are often forests of oak, ash, elm, &c.; and still higher the yew and the fir may be seen braving the fury of the tempest. Corn grows to between 3400 and 4500 feet above the level of the sea, the forests extend to 5600 or 6400 feet, and the line of perpetual snow is from 7800 to 8200 feet. In some parts, however, particularly in Tyrol, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola, the mountains appear in wild confusion, with rugged peaks and bare precipitous sides, forcibly reminding the traveller of Switzerland. Tyrol in particular has. like that country, its cascades, its glaciers, its perpetual snows, and its avalanches. The Alps occupy the south-west portion of the country, and form its highest lands. They are distinguished by various names, as the Rhaetian, None, Carnic, Julian, and Dinaric Alps. The Rhastian or Tyrolese Alps enter Tyrol from the Swiss canton of the Grisons, and are the loftiest range in the country, a number of the summits rising to the height of 12,000 feet, and the highest, the Orteler Spitze, attaining a height of 12,814 feet above the level of the sea. They divide into three principal chains, the most southern of which occupies the southern portion of Tyrol, and contains the Orteler Spitze, and others of the loftiest points in the country. The middle or principal chain extends in an easterly direction to the borders of Salzburg and Carinthia, and has many of its peaks covered with perpetual snow. The northern chain is inferior in elevation to the others, and few of its most elevated points reach the snow-line. The None Alps are a continuation of the Rhsetian eastward, passing through Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia north of the Drave, Lower and Upper Austria, to Hungary, where they gradually sink into the plains. They comprise three chains, a main chain and two lesser chains proceeding northward the one the Salzburg, the other the Styria-Austrian Alps. The main chain, the Noric Alps in a stricter sense, traverses Salzburg, Carinthia, and Styria, and has a length of about 170 miles, some of its peaks rising to the height of 12,000 feet. The Carnic or Carinthian Alps are also an offshoot of the Rhaetian Alps eastward, occupying the south-east of Tyrol, Carinthia, and the north of Carniola. They form several branches, and some of the summits are over 9000 feet high. The Julian or Carniolan Alps extend in a south-easterly direction through Carniola and Croatia, They present little of an Alpine character, and with one or two exceptions nowhere rise to the height of 5000 feet. They are for the most part bare and rugged. The Dinaric Alps are a continuation of the preceding, extending through Croatia and Dalmatia, and resemble them in character. The highest point, Mount Dinara, from which they take their name, is 5956 feet above the level of the sea.
After the Alps, the most important mountain system of Austria is the Carpathians, which occupy its eastern and north-eastern portions, and stretch in the form of an arch through. Silesia, Moravia, Galicia, Hungary, and Transyl vania. They have an extent of about 650 miles, and are divided into three principal groups the Hungarian Car pathians, the Carpathian Waldgebirge or Forest Moun tains, aud the Transylvanian Highlands. The Hungarian Carpathians stretch from west to east, through Hungary, Moravia, Silesia, and Galicia for about 200 miles, and comprise various smaller groups, among which are the Beskides, the Little Carpathians, and the Central Car pathians or the Tatra Mountains. This last group consti tutes the highest portion of the Carpathians, having an average elevation of over 6000 feet, and its two principal summits, the Eisthaler Thurm and the Lomnitzer Spitze, having a height of 8378 and 8222 feet respectively. In character it resembles the Alps more than the Carpathians, having rugged precipitous sides, deep chasms, snows, glaciers, cascades, &c. The Waldgebirge, or Forest Moun tains, are a series of moderate elevations, for the most part wooded, and stretching for about 160 miles through Hungary, Galicia, and Buckowina, with an average breadth of about 45 miles. They are in general from 3000 to 6000 feet in elevation, the highest point, Pietrozza, rising to 7086 feet. The Transylvanian Highlands extend over Transylvania, a part of Hungary, and the Military Frontier, into Moldavia and Wallachia. They have a length of about 350 miles, and breadth of from 30 to 90. Several of the summits rise to the height of 8000 feet. The sides of the Carpathian mountains are generally covered with forests to a considerable height. The Hercynian mountain system spreads itself over Bohemia, Silesia, Moravia, and the middle and northern portions of Upper and Lower Austria. It includes the lesser systems of the Bohemian Forest, the Erzgebirge, the Riesengebirge, and the Sudetes. The Bohemian Forest is a series of wooded heights on the confines of Bohemia and Bavaria, and extending south from the Eger to the Danube. Its highest point is 4610 feet above the sea. The Erzge birge, or Ore Mountains, commence on the left bank of the Elbe, run eastward between Bohemia and Saxony, and terminate near the sources of the White Elster. None of the summits rise to the height of 4000 feet. The Riesenge birge or Giant Mountains are on the confines of Bohemia towards Prussian Silesia, and have their highest point, Schneekoppe or Riesenkoppe, 5330 feet above the sea. The Sudetes is a name sometimes given to all the moun tains of Northern Bohemia, but it more properly belongs to that range which runs between Moravia and Prussian Silesia, from the March to the Oder. The highest summit, the Spieglitzer Schneeberg, is 4774 feet high.
Geology. The great central chain of the Alps consists of primitive rocks, principally gneiss, mica slate, and granite. Occa sionally clay-slate, greywacke, and limestone overlie these rocks. Iron ore is very abundant here, and gold and copper are found. The northern and southern ranges of the Alps are composed of limestone. In the southern range the limestone rests upon gneiss, which crops out in some parts. Iron, copper, lead, and zinc ores, and quick silver are found in some parts to a large extent. In the northern range the limestone is in some places covered with clay-slate, greywacke, and transition limestone. In the north the limestone is covered with sandstone, which extends in an almost continuous line from the Lake of Constance to the neighbourhood of Vienna. In this dis trict a number of beds of coal are found. The central range of the Carpathians is formed chiefly of gneiss, granite, clay-slate, greywacke, and transition limestone, frequently covered with extensive patches of Tertiary formations. North and south of this are ranges of sandstone mountains, on which diluvial and alluvial deposits are also found. The northern sandstone range is rich in salt; the central chain abounds in iron and copper ore ; and the gneiss and granitic mountains of Hungary and Transylvania are rich in ores of gold and silver. Numerous beds of coal are also found in the later formations. The Bohemian and Moravian mountain system is composed chiefly of gneiss and granite. Basalt, clinkstone, greenstone, and red sand stone are also common. Silver and lead mines are exten sively worked, also mines of zinc and iron. Coal is abundant here. The plain and hilly parts of the country belong chiefly to the middle or Miocene period of the Tertiary formation, and comprise sand, gravel, clay-marl, &c.
As the highlands of Austria form part of the great water- Rivers, shed of Europe which divides the waters flowing north ward into the North Sea or the Baltic, from those flowing southward or eastward into the Mediterranean or the Black Sea, its rivers flow in three different directions northward, southward, and eastward. With the exception of the small streams belonging to it which fall into the Adriatic, all its rivers have their mouths in other countries, and its principal river, the Danube, has also its source in another country. This, which after the Volga is the largest river of Europe, rises in the grand duchy of Baden, flows through Wurtemberg and Bavaria, and is already navigable when it enters Austria, on the borders of which it receives the Inn, a river which has as large a body of water aa itself. It has a course of about 820 miles within the country, which is about 48 per cent, of its entire length. Where it enters it is 898 feet above the level of the sea, and where it leaves only 132 feet. It has thus a fall within the country of 766 feet, and is at first a very rapid stream, but latterly a very slow one. Its affluents, after the Inn, are at first generally small, the principal being the Traun, the Enns, and the March. In Hungary it receives from the Carpathians the Waag, Neutra, Gran, and Eipelj and from the Alps the Drave, the Mur, and the Save. But the principal affluent of the Danube is the Theiss, which rises in the Carpathians, and drains nearly the whole of the eastern half of Hungary. The country drained by the Danube is formed into several basins by the mountains approaching its banks on either side. The principal of these are the Linz and Krems basins, the Vienna basin, and the little and great Hungarian basins. Between this last and the plains of Wallachia, it passes through the narrow rocky channels of Islach, Kasan, and the Iron Door, where the fall is about 41 feet in less than half a mile. The Dniester, which, like the Danube, flows into the Black Sea, has its source in the Carpathians in Eastern Galicia, and pursues a very winding course towards the south-east. It receives its principal affluents from the Carpathians, and drains in Austria a territory of upwards of 12,000 English square miles. It is navigable for about 300 miles. The Vistula and the Oder both fall into the Baltic. The former rises in Moravia, flows first north through Austrian Silesia, then takes an easterly direction along the borders of Prussian Silesia, and afterwards a north-easterly, separating Galicia from Russian Poland, and leaving Austria not far from Sandomir. Its course in Austria is 240 miles, draining an area of 15,500 square miles. It is navigable for nearly 200 miles, and its prin cipal affluents are the Save and the Bug. The Oder has also its source in Moravia, flows first east, and then north east through Austrian Silesia into Prussia. Its length within the Austrian territory is only about 55 miles, no part of which is navigable. The only river of this country which flows into the North Sea is the Elbe. It has its source in the Riesengebirge, not far from the Schneekoppe, flows first south, then east, and afterwards north-east through Bohemia, and then enters Saxony. Its principal affluents are the Adler, Iser, and Eger, and, most important of all, the Moldau. The last, from the length of its course, and the quantity of water which it brings down, is entitled to be considered the main stream. It has a course of 260 miles, and is navigable for 190. The Elbe itself has a course within the Austrian dominions of 185 miles, for about 65 of which it is navigable. It drains an area of upwards of 21,000 square miles. The Rhine, though scarcely to be reckoned a river of the country, flows for about 25 miles of its course between it and Switzerland. The principal river of Austria which falls into the Adriatic is the Adige. It rises in the mountains of Tyrol, flows south, then east, and afterwards south, into the plains of Lombardy. Its principal affluent is the Eisack. Of the streams which have their course entirely within the country, and which fall into the Adriatic, the principal is the Isonzo, 75 miles in length, but navigable only for a short distance from its mouth.
Lakes. The lakes and marshes of Austria are very numerous, and some of them are of great extent. The lakes lie principally in the valleys among the Alps, and the marshes are frequent along the courses of the rivers. The largest lake of Austria is the Balaton, in Hungary, which is about 46 miles in length by 18 in breadth, and, including the swamps in connection with it, covers an area of 500 square miles. The Neusiedler, also in Hungary, is 18 miles in length, by from 4 to 7 in breadth, and covers an area of 106 square miles. Among the many smaller ones the principal are the Traunsee, Attersee, Worthersee, Mondsee, &c. No other European country equals Austria in the number and value of its mineral springs. No fewer than 1500 of these are reckoned, and they occur princi pally in Bohemia and Hungary. In the former are Karlsbad, Marienbad, Franzensbad, Teplitz, Piillna, and Seidlitz.
Climate. The climate of Austria, in consequence of its great extent, and the great differences in the elevation of its surface, is very various. It is usual to divide it into three distinct zones. The most southern extends to 46° N. lat., and includes Dalmatia and the country along the coast, together with the southern portions of Tyrol and Carinthia, Croatia, Slavonia, and the most southern part of Hungary. Here the seasons are mild and equable, the winters are short (snow seldom falling), and the summers last for .five months. The vine and maize are everywhere cultivated, as well as olives and other southern products. In the south of Dalmatia tropical plants flourish in the open air. The central zone lies between 46° and 49° N. lat., and includes Lower and Upper Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Central and Northern Tyrol, Southern Moravia, a part of Bohemia, the main portion of Hungary, and Transylvania. The seasons are more marked here than in the preceding. The winters are longer and more severe, and the summers are hotter. The vine and maize are cultivated in favourable situations, and wheat and other kinds of grain are generally grown. The northern zone embraces the territory lying north of 49° N. lat., comprising Bohemia, Northern Moravia, Silesia, and Gali- cia. The winters are here long and cold; the vine and maize are no longer cultivated, the principal crops being wheat, barley, oats, rye, hemp, and flax. The mean annual temperature ranges from about 59° in the south to 48° in the north. In some parts of the country, however, it is as low as 46° 40' and even 36°. In Vienna the average annual temperature is 50°, the highest temperature being 94°, the lowest 2° Fahr. In general the eastern part of the country receives less rain than the western. In the south the rains prevail chiefly in spring and autumn, and in the north and central parts during summer. Storms are frequent in the region of the South Alps and along the coast. In some parts in the vicinity of the Alps the rain fall is excessive, sometimes exceeding 60 inches. It is less among the Carpathians, where it usually varies from 30 to 40 inches. In other parts the rainfall usually averages from 20 to 24 inches, but in the plains of Hungary it is as low as 16.
Flora. From the varied character of its climate and soil the Flora, vegetable productions of Austria are very various. It has floras of the plains, the hills, and the mountains; an alpine flora, and an arctic flora; a flora of marshes, and a flora of steppes; floras peculiar to the clay, the chalk, the sand stone, and the slate formations. The number of different species is estimated at 12,000, of which one-third are phanerogamous, or flowering plants, and two-thirds cryptogamous, or flowerless. The crown-land of Lower Austria far surpasses in this respect the other divisions of the country, having about four-ninths of the whole, and not less than 1700 species of flowering plants. Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia, and Galicia are the principal corn-growing regions of the country; and Tyrol, Salzburg, and Upper Styria are the principal pastoral regions.
Animals. The animal kingdom embraces, besides the usual domestic Animals. animals (as horses, cattle, sheep, swine, goats, asses, &c.), wild boars, deer, wild goats, hares, &c.; also bears, wolves, lynxes, foxes, wild cats, jackals, otters, beavers, polecats, martens, weasels, and the like. Eagles and hawks are common, and many kinds of singing birds. The rivers and lakes abound in different kinds of fish, which are also plentiful on the sea-coast. Among insects the bee and the silkworm are the most useful The leech forms an article of trade. In all there are 90 different species of mammals, 248 species of birds, 377 of fishes, and more than 13,000 of insects.
Divisions. Austria comprises five countries, each bearing the name Divisions, of kingdom—viz., Hungary, Bohemia, Galicia, Illyria, and Dalmatia; one archduchy, Austria; one principality, Transylvania; one duchy, Styria; one margraviate, Mora via; and one county, Tyrol. These are now divided into provinces, which are called crown-lands, and of which at present there are 18, 14 being in Austria Proper, and 4 in Hungary. The following table gives the area and civil population of the different crown-lands in 1857 and at 31st December 1869. The first 14 crown-lands constitute Austria Proper, and the remaining 4 form the kingdom of Hungary. Görtz, Istria, and Trieste are also known as the Maritime District.
|Crown-lands.||Areas in English Miles.||Population in 1857.||Population in 1869.|
|Görtz, Istria, & Trieste||3,074||520,978||288,293||293,786||582,079|
|Tyrol and Vorarlberg||11,287||851,016||429,241||449,666||878.907|
|Croatia and Slavonic||21,159||1,926,797||1,051,145||1,050,582||2,101,727|
A more recent report states that the population of Austria Proper had risen from 20,210,000 in 1869 to 20,970,000 in 1873—the male population having increased from 9,810,000 to 10,200,000, and the females from 10,400,000 to 10,770,000. The most thickly populated crown-land is Silesia; the most thinly, Salzburg.
Population. The civil population of Austria in 1818 amounted to 29,769,263, in 1830 it had increased to 34,082,469, in 1842 to 35,295,957, in 1857 to 37,339,012, and in 1869 to 35,634,858. Between the two last dates it had lost its Lombardo-Venetian territories, with more than 5,000,000 inhabitants. In Austria Proper the number of births in 1869 was 812,474, of which 419,374 were males and 393,100 females; 699,047 were legitimate, and 113,427 illegitimate, and 17,114 were still-born. The number of deaths among children up to 5 years of age was 281,643 152,294 being males, and 129,349 females. The number of marriages that took place during that year was 208,787, of which 164,018 were between parties neither of whom had been previously married; 8670 between parties both of whom had been previously married; 23,533 between widowers and unmarried females, and 12,566 between widows and unmarried males The total number of deaths during 1869 was 583,995, ot which 302,104 were males and 281,891 females. Of these the ages of 28 males and 40 females are given as over 100 years. Violent deaths carried off 5988 males and 1939 females, of whom 1110 males and 265 females had committed suicide, 244 males and 82 females were murdered, and 4 males executed. In Austria Proper there were 738 cities and large towns, 1270 market towns, 52,919 villages, and 2,766,314 inhabited and 121,045 uninhabited houses. In Hungary there were 189 cities and large towns, 769 market-towns, 16,373 villages, and 2,450,213 houses. The cities containing more than 100,000 inhabitants in 1869 were Vienna (833,855), Pesth (201,911), and Prague (157,275). Seven cities contained between 5 0,000 and 100,000 inhabitants; 42 between 20,000 and 50,000; and 90 between 10,000 and 20,000.
Races. Races. The population of Austria is made up of a number of distinct races, differing from each other in manners, customs, language, and religion, and united together only by living under the same government. The most numerous race is the German, amounting to 9,000,000, and forming 25 per cent, of the entire population. They are found more or less in all the crown-lands, but are most numerous in Lower and Upper Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, and Northern Tyrol. The different Slavonic races number together 16,540,000, or 46 per cent. The principal Slavonic races are,- in the north, the Czechs and Moravians (4,480,000), who, together with the Slovacks in the Western Carpathians (1,940,000), form 18 per cent, of the entire population, and the Poles (2,370,000) and the Ruthens (3,360,000) occupying Galicia; and in the south, the Slovens (1,220,000), the Croats (1,520,000), and the Serbians (1,651,000). The northern Slavonians are found chiefly in Bohemia, Moravia, Galicia, and the north of Hungary; the southern in Carniola, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, and the Military Frontier. The Magyars or Hungarians occupy chiefly Hungary and Transylvania, and number 5,590,000, or 16 per cent, of the whole population. The Rumani or Wallachians number 2,940,000, or over 8 per cent.; the Jews, 1,105,000, or 3 per cent.; the Italians, 515,000, or 1-4 per cent,; and the gipsies, 140,000. The rest consist of Armenians, Bulgarians, Albanians, Greeks, &c.
Religion. Austria has always remained strongly attached to the Koman Catholic Church. ~ Her sovereigns, however, have in general resisted the temporal pretensions of the popes, and reserved to themselves certain important rights, such as the imposing of taxes on church property, the nomina tion of bishops and archbishops, and the option of restrict ing, or even prohibiting, the circulation of Papal bulls. About two-thirds of the people, or nearly 24,000,000, pro fess the Roman Catholic religion. If, however, we deduct the kingdom of Hungary and Galicia, where less than one- half of the people are Roman Catholics, the proportion in the rest of the country is much increased. In some parts the proportion to the entire population is as high as 90 to 98 per cent. The Greek Catholics number in Austria Proper 2,342,168 (almost all in Galicia), and in Hungary 1,599,628. The Eastern Greek Church numbers 461,511 adherents in Austria, and 2.589,319 in Hungary. Of the Protestant denominations, the Lutherans are more numer ous in the western half of the empire, the Calvinists in the eastern. The numbers are in Austria Proper, Lutherans, 252,327, and Calvinists, 111,935; in Hungary, Lutherans, 1,365,835, Calvinists, 2,143,178. The principal other religions are the Jewish, 1,375,861 (nearly half of them in Galicia); Armenian, 10,133; Unitarian, 55,079 (nearly all in Transylvania). The Catholic Church (includ ing the Greek and Armenian Catholics) has 1 1 archbishops, 24 suffragan bishops, 2 vicariate bishops, and 1 military bishop, in Austria Proper, and 5 archbishops and 23 bishops in Hungary. Altogether there are about 34,000 ecclesiastics, and 950 convents, with 8500 monks and 5700 nuns. The Oriental Greek Church has, in Austria Proper, 3 bishops (1 in Buckowina and 2 in Dalmatia), and in Hungary, the patriarch of Karlowitz, the archbishop of Herrmannstadt, and 8 bishops, with, in all, 4000 priests, and 40 convents, with 300 monks.
Education. Previous to 1848 Austria was very far behind in the Education. matter of education; but since that time great improve ments have been effected, and an entire change has taken place. This subject now receives the greatest attention; schools of all kinds have been established throughout the country, improved systems of teaching have been intro duced, and instruction is open to all without regard to class or creed at a very small cost, or even gratuitously. It still continues, however, to be in great measure under the control of the priests, and many of the teachers are ecclesiastics. The Roman Catholic religion forms an essential part of the instruction in all schools, except those for special subjects. The Oriental Greek and Protestant Churches have, as a rule, their own common schools, and where this is not the case, they have to send their children to the Catholic schools. The Jews also, in places where they have no special schools, are obliged to send their children to Christian schools.
The various educational institutions may be arranged under four classes (1.) The lower or common schools; (2.) The higher or middle schools; (3.) The universities, academies, and technical schools; (4.) The special schools (for particular branches of science or art). All children from 6 to 12 years of age are bound to attend the common schools. This law, however, would appear to bo not very strictly carried out, for of the number of 2,219,917 children who ought to have been attending the common schools in Austria Proper in 1868, the number given as actually at school is only 1,691,349, or about 76 percent. This percentage, moreover, varies greatly in different parts of the country, being in some, as Tyrol, Salzburg, Moravia, and Upper and Lower Austria, as high as 98 or 100, and in Styria and Carinthia from 93 to 96; in others, as in Carniola, only 56, in the Maritime District 47, Dalmatia 28, Galicia 27, Buckowina 20. The proportion for the whole of Hun, gary is 88 per cent., and it is higher in the western than in the eastern half of the kingdom. The number of common schools in Austria in 1868 was 15,054, with 32,137 male and 2814 female, teachers, 12,225 of the former being ecclesiastics, and 1036 of tho latter nuns; in Hungary the number of schools was over 16,000, and of teachers 28,000. In connection with many of these schools there are training institutions for teachers, industrial schools for girls, and trade and agricultural schools for boys. The middle schools are the gymnasia, real-gymnasia, and real-schools. A com plete gymnasium provides for a course of eight years study, divided into two parts of four years each. The lower course not only pre pares for the higher, but is also complete in itself for those who do not wish to advance farther. The branches of study include Latin, Greek, and modern languages, geography, history, religion, mathe matics, natural history, physics, writing, drawing, singing, and gymnastics. In passing from one class to another the scholars undergo a very searching examination. The real-schools, or middle industrial schools, have been established since 1848, and are designed to impart technical knowledge, and afford a suitable training to; those intending to follow industrial pursuits. They are divided i into two course of three years each, a lower and an upper the former serving not only as a preparation for the latter, but forming also an independent course, fitting for the lower kinds of industrial occupations. The branches taught include geography, history, arithmetic, mathematics, writing, book-keeping, exchange, natural history, technology, drawing, &c. The real-gymnasia area class of institutions intermediate between these two, partaking of the character of both. In Austria Proper there were, in 1871, 92 gymnasia, with 1647 teachers (518 being ecclesiastics) and 26,102 scholars; 31 real-gymnasia, with 375 teachers (66 ecclesiastics) and 45,290 scholars; and 33 real-schools, with 777 teachers (91 ecclesiastics) and 15,622 scholars. In Hungary there were 142 gymnasia, 1 real-gymnasium, and 25 real-schools, having in all 33,000 scholars. There are six universities in Austria Proper (Vienna, Grätz, Innsbrück, Prague, Cracow, Lemberg), and one in Hungary (Pesth), with, in all, 707 professors and 10,900 students. Each university (except Lemberg, which has no medical faculty) has faculties for Roman Catholic theology, law and political economy, medicine and surgery, and philosophy. The theological and law courses occupy four years each, the medical five, and the philosophical three. Of the students, 40 per cent, were at the university of Vienna, 18 at Pesth, 16 at Prague, 10 at Lemberg, and 6½ at Grätz. Of the 8532 students attending the six Austrian universities, 1888 were receiving free instruction and 924 were stipendists, and in addition to this, 682 were paying only half fees. The technical high schools or academies have for their object the imparting of a high scientific education. The students generally enter them from the upper real-schools, and the complete technical course extends over live years. There are eight of these institutions in Austria Proper, having in all 284 professors and teachers, and 3179 scholars, of whom 1501 were receiving free instruction, and 231 were stipendists. The principal of these is the Polytechnic institution in Vienna, which has 79 professors and teachers, and 782 scholars. Among the special educational institutions may be mentioned about seventy theological seminaries connected with the Catholic Church, and a number of similar institutions connected with the Eastern Greek and Protestant Churches; a rabbinical school (in Presburg); academies for law, mining, navigation, commerce, agriculture, and the management of forests; normal and military schools; schools for surgery and midwifery; veterinary schools, &c. There are also a number of private schools of various kinds, schools for the deaf and dumb and blind, orphan institutions, &c. In connection with the universities and many of the higher educational institutions are to be found libraries, museums of natural history and antiquities, botanic gardens, observatories, chemical laboratories, &c. There also exist numerous learned and scientific societies. The intellectual progress of Austria is, of late years, particularly manifest in the departments of law, medicine, natural science, history, and Oriental languages.
Industries. The majority of the people of Austria are engaged in agricultural pursuits or in connection with the forests, the proportion varying in different parts from 50 to 80 per cent, of the entire population. The proportion of those engaged in trade or manufacture varies, amounting to 30 per cent, in Lower Austria, 24 in Bohemia, 22 in Moravia and Silesia, 19 in Upper Austria, 14 in Tyrol, 13 in Salz burg, 11 in Carinthia, 9 in Carniola, 5 in Buckowina, and 4 in Galicia and Dalmatia. In Dalmatia about 8 per cent, of the people are employed in navigation and the fisheries.
Agriculture. The productive land of Austria Proper is estimated at 89.6 per cent, of its superficial area, and that of Hungary at 84.4—making 86.9 per cent, of the whole country. Farther, the arable land in Austria forms 31.6 per cent., the vineyards 0.7, gardens and meadows 11.7, pasturage 14.7, and forests 30.9. In like manner, in Hungary the arable land forms 30.6 per cent., vineyards 1.2, gardens and meadows 12.8, pasturage 13.2, and forests 26.6. The principal product of the arable land is grain, of which the annual yield is over 400,000,000 bushels. Of this about one-fifth is wheat, one-fourth rye, one-fourth oats, one-seventh maize, one-seventh barley, and the rest buck-wheat and millet. The principal grain-producing districts are Hungary, Bohemia, Galicia, Moravia, and Lower and Upper Austria. In agriculture Austria is still behind many other countries, but great improvements have of late years taken place. Flax, hemp, and beet are chiefly found in Silesia, Moravia, Bohemia, and Hungary; hops in Bohemia, and tobacco (which is a state monopoly) only in Hungary, Galicia, and Tyrol. Among the other products may be mentioned pease, beans, potatoes, turnips, rape seed, cabbages, &c. Though the vineyards are not very extensive, a considerable quantity of wine is produced, and some of the Hungarian wines, as Tokay, are justly celebrated. The annual yield of wine is about 375,000,000 gallons, of which 72 per cent, is from Hungary and the neighbouring districts, 64 from Lower Austria, 5 from Southern Tyrol, 4½ from Styria, 4 from Dalmatia, 3½ from Moravia, and 2 from the Maritime District. The principal garden products are fruit and kitchen vegetables. The best fruit districts are Moravia, Transylvania, Hungary, Bohemia, Upper Austria, and Styria. Certain districts are distinguished for particular kinds of fruit, as Tyrol for apples, Hungary for melons, Dal matia for figs, pomegranates, olives, &c. In the south of Dalmatia the palm grows in the open air, but bears no fruit. The chestnut, olive, and mulberry trees are common in the south the olive chiefly in Dalmatia, the Maritime District, and Southern Tyrol; the mulberry tree in Southern Tyrol, the south of Hungary, Slavonia, and Styria. The forests occupy nearly one-third of the productive area of the country, and cover 66,600 English square miles. They are much more extensive in the eastern than in the western half of the country, the relative proportions being 62 per cent, in the former, and 38 in the latter. They are found particularly in the region of the Carpathians, and especially in Galicia and Buckowina. The Alpine regions are generally well wooded, as is also the country of the Sudetes. The forests are chiefly of oak, pine, beech, ash, elm, and the like, and are estimated to yield annually over 27,000,000 cords of building wood and firewood.
Horses. Austria is distinguished for the number and superiority of its horses, for the improvement of which numerous studs exist over the country. The breeding of horses is more or less extensively carried on in all the crown-lands, but more especially in Hungary, Transylvania, Buckowina, Galicia, Styria, Bohemia, Moravia, and Upper and Lower Austria. The total number of horses in the country in 1870 was 3,525,842, of which 2,158,819 were in Hungary. All kinds of horses are represented, from the heaviest to the lightest, from the largest to the smallest. The most beautiful horses are found in Transylvania and Buckowina, the largest and strongest in Salzburg. The horses of Styria, Carinthia, Northern Tyrol, and Upper Austria are also famous. In Dalmatia, the Maritime District, and Southern Tyrol, horses are less numerous, and mules and asses in a great measure take their place. Of the 13,891 mules in the country, 45 per cent, were in Dalmatia, and 30 per cent, in the Maritime District and Southern Tyrol; and of the 61,831 asses, 28 per cent, were in the former and 21 in the latter. The Hungarian crown-lands contained 2266 mules and 30,482 asses.
Cattle. Austria cannot be said to be remarkable as a cattle-rearing country. Indeed, except in certain districts, particularly among the Alps, it must be considered to be much behind in this branch of industry. The finest cattle are to be found in the Alpine regions; in other parts the breeds are generally very inferior. The Hungarian crown-lands, however, have of late years been improving in this respect. The country numbered 12,704,405 head of cattle in 1870, of which 5,279,193 were in Hungary, 2,070,572 in Galicia, and 1,602,015 in Bohemia. The cattle of the eastern half of the country considerably outnumbered those of the western; but in quality the latter were far superior to the former. In Hungary and Transylvania there are about 72,000 buffaloes. The rearing of sheep receives a large share of attention, and is carried on to a consider able extent in all the crown-lands, and in some very extensively. Much has been done of late years in the way of improving the breeds, more particularly in Moravia, Silesia, Bohemia, Upper and Lower Austria, and Hungary. The main object has been the improvement of the wool, and with this view the merino and other fine-wooled breeds have been introduced. Some attention, how ever, is also given to the fattening properties. For mutton, the best sheep are those of Lower Carinthia, the Maritime District, Dalmatia, and the Military Frontier. The sheep are frequently driven from one part of the country to another for the sake of pas ture, and even into other countries, as Lombardy, Turkey, and the Danubian Principalities. The number of sheep in the country in 1870 was 20,000,000, of which 15,000,000 were in the kingdom of Hungary. The goat, which has been called the poor man s cow, is also to be found in all parts of the country, but more particularly in the mountainous districts and among the poorer peasantry. The total number in the country in 1870 was 1,552,000, of which 573,000 were in Hungary. Dalmatia, however, is the great country of the goats, where they number 280,656, after which follow Bohemia with 194,273, and Tyrol with 137,698. The number of swine was 6,984,752, of which 4,443,279 were in Hungary. They are naturally most numerous in those crown-lands which contain extensive oak and beech forests, or which have many distilleries. Hence they are mostly found in Hungary, Transylvania, the Military Frontier, Galicia, Styria, and Bohemia. Bees are extensively kept, particularly in the crown-lands of Lower Austria, Hungary, Galicia, and Transvlvania. There, were in 1870 15,300,000 bee-hives in the country, yielding 7,750,000 lb of honey and 340,000 lb of wax. The silk-worm is cultivated in certain parts of the southern districts, particularly in Southern Tyrol, which yields 2,200,000 ft of cocoons, being nearly doublo that of all the rest of the country put together. The rivers and lakes in general abound with fish, which are also plentiful along the coast. In Dalmatia, in particular, fishing constitutes an important branch of industry, affording employment to many of the population. Leeches are common in the swamps, and form a considerable article of export. The average annual value of the produce of the land and forests, including the cattle, and hunting and fishing, is estimated at 212,000,000. The value of the real property, including the cattle and agricultural implements, is given at ₤782,000,000.
Minerals. In the extent and variety of its mineral resources Austria ranks among the first countries of Europe. Besides the noble metals, gold and silver, it abounds in ores of more or less richness of iron, copper, lead, and tin; while in less abundance are found zinc, antimony, arsenic, cobalt, nickel, manganese, bismuth, chromium, uranium, tellurium, sulphur, graphite, asphalt, rock-salt, coal, and petroleum. There are also marble, roofing-slate, gypsum, porcelain
earth, potter s clay, and precious stones. The crown-lands in which mining operations are chiefly carried on are Styria (iron and coal), Carinthia (lead and iron), Carniola (quicksilver), Hungary (gold, silver, copper, iron, and coal), Transylvania (gold and silver), Salzburg (iron), Bohemia (silver, lead, iron, and coal), Moravia (iron and coal), Galicia (salt). The chief places where gold and silver ores are found are—(1.) at Zalathna in Transylvania, on the southern range of the Behar Mountains, where affluents of the Körös and Maros take their rise, in which, as well as in the Theiss and the Danube, gold is also found; (2.) The district of Schemnitz and Kremnitz in Hungary; (3.) Pribram and Joachimsthal in Boliemia. Nearly 3,000,000 cwt. of gold and silver ores is obtained annually, from which 64,298 oz. of gold and 1,476,000 oz. of silver are extracted. Of the gold, 54 per cent, is obtained in Transylvania, and 44 in Hungary; and of the silver ore, 65 per cent, is raised in Hungary, 27 in Bohemia, and 5½ in Transylvania. Iron is found more or less in all the crown-lands except Upper Austria, the Maritime District, and Dalmatia; but it is most plentiful and best in quality in Styria and Carinthia. The amount of raw and cast iron annually obtained from the ore raised in the country is 7,600,000 cwt., of which 28 per cent, is from Styria, 15 from Carinthia, 12½ from Bohemia, 11½ from Moravia, 16 from Upper Hungary, 6½ from other parts of the kingdom of Hungary, and the remainder from the other crown-lands. The principal place where copper is obtained is the neighbourhood of Schmblnitz in Hungary. The quantity for the whole country amounts to 1,500,000 cwt. of ore, from which 65,000 cwt. of pure metal is obtained. Of this, 80 per cent, is from Upper Hungary, 6 from Tyrol, and 4 from Buckowina. Carinthia is particularly rich in lead, and from it more than one-half (52 per cent.) of the entire quantity raised in the country is obtained. Bohemia yields 26 per cent., and Hungary 15. Altogether, 195,000 cwt. of ore, and 114,000 cwt. of pure metal is obtained. Idria in Carniola has, after Almaden in Spain, the richest quicksilver mine in Europe, producing 3900 cwt. of pure metal. Of the rest, Hungary produces 1120 cwt., and Transylvania 450. Tin is found only in Bohemia, which supplies 55,000 cwt. of ore, from which 450 cwt. of tin is obtained. Zinc is found chiefly in the neighbourhood of Cracow, where 146,475 cwt. of ore is raised. Austria is particularly rich in salt. In Galicia there exists a stratum of rock-salt many miles in extent, which is worked at "Vieliczka and other places. Similar layers occur in Hungary (Marmaros) and Transylvania (at Thorda). There also exist salt springs in Galicia, in Marmaros, and in Transylvania, from which salt is largely extracted, as it is also to a considerable extent from sea water on the coast. About 3,900,000 cwt. of rock-salt is annually obtained from the mines (of which 22 per cent, is from Galicia, 24 from Marmaros, 34 from Transylvania), from the various salt springs about 2,800,000 cwt., and from the salt-works on the coast 1,400,000 cwt. Austria is possessed of almost inexhaustible stores of coal, and the amount annually raised exceeds 6,000,000 tons, of which 48 per cent, is in Bohemia, 12 in Hungary, 11 in Silesia, 10 in Styria, 6½ in Moravia, 2½ in Galicia, and 1½ in Carniola. Peat and clay are abundant in certain parts of the country; porcelain earth is found in Bohemia and Moravia; white, red, black, and variously-coloured marbles exist in the Alps, particularly in Tyrol and Salzburg; quartz, felspar, heavy spar, rock-crystal, asbestos, &c., are found in various parts; and among precious stones may be specially mentioned the Hungarian opals and the Bohemian garnets. The number of persons employed in the various mines in Austria Proper in 1870 was 75,451, and in the smelting and casting works, 13,857. In addition to these, 9818 persons were employed in the salt-mines and other salt works. In Hungary 50,143 persons were employed in mining and smelting. The total annual value of the raw materials obtained from the mines is estimated at over £9,000,000, of which nearly one-half is of coal, a fifth of iron, an eighth of gold and silver, and a tenth of rock-salt.
Manufactures. The manufactures of Austria have made great progress during the last twenty years, and now some of them are extensively carried on. They include cotton, flax, hemp, woollen and silk stuffs; gold, silver, iron, lead, copper, tin, and zinc articles; leather, paper, beer, brandy, and sugar; porcelain and earthenware; chemical stuffs; scientific and musical instruments, &c. The manufactures are principally carried on in the western crown-lands, and more particularly in Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, and Lower Austria. In Galicia and the Hungarian crown-lands the manufactures are comparatively neglected. The principal seats of the cotton, woollen, and linen manufactures are in Moravia, Silesia, Bohemia, and Vienna; of iron and steel wares in Styria and Carinthia; iron in Upper Austria; cast-iron goods in Moravia, Styria, Carinthia, and Bohemia; silk in Vienna; glass and porcelain in Bohemia; beet root sugar in Bohemia and Moravia; leather in Bohemia, Moravia, Galicia, and Hungary; beer in Bohemia and Lower Austria; brandy in Galicia, Moravia, and Bohemia; cabinet wares and musical instruments in Vienna and Prague; and scientific and surgical in struments in Vienna.
The cotton manufacture has made very rapid progress, and is now one of the most extensive and flourishing in the country. In 1831 the import of cotton was 101,000 cwt, and the export 175; in 1850 the former had risen to 522,000, and the latter to 1270; and in 1870 the former was 1,100,000, and the latter 36,000 cwt. There are 172 spinning factories, with 1,750,000 spindles, in the country, almost all situated in Lower Austria, Bohemia, and Vorarlberg. There are 46 factories, with 550,000 spindles, in Lower Austria, between the Vienna Forest and the Leitha, and beside them are 7 dyeing and printing works. A principal seat of the cotton manufacture is in Northern Bohemia, from the Eger to Reichenberg, where there are no fewer than 80 spinning factories and 25 printing works. Besides these, there are 7 factories at Prague and 1 in Southern Bohemia. In Vorarlberg there are 21 factories, with 200,000 spindles; and in Upper Austria 7 factories and 6 printing works.
The flax and hemp manufacture is one of the oldest in the country, and was long the most important. In consequence, however, of the rapid advancement of the cotton manufacture it is no longer of the same importance as formerly; yet it still affords employment to a great number of persons, and is very generally extended over the country. It is principally carried on as a domestic branch of industry, and in country districts is frequently engaged in as a secondary pursuit by those employed in agricultural labours. The flax is mostly spun by hand, and the weaving confined to the commoner kinds of linen, being chiefly intended for home use. In Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, and Upper Austria, however, this manufacture is more extensively carried on than in other parts. There are here a number of factories for the spinning of flax, and the finer kinds of linen are manufactured.
The woollen manufacture is also an old established branch of industry, and is actively carried on. It is estimated that about 600,000 cwt. of wool is annually spun; and there are about 230 spinning factories, with upwards of 700,000 spindles. The great seats of the woollen manufacture are in Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, and Upper Austria. In Bohemia its great seat is in and around Reichenberg, where the annual value of the goods produced is about £1,800,000. In Moravia the principal seats are Brünn (for coarse, and also the finest sorts of cloth), Namiescht, and Iglau. In these two crown-lands is made half of the entire quantity of woollen goods produced in the country. The principal of the other seats are the districts Bielitz in Silesia, Vienna in Lower Austria, and Viktring in Carinthia (for fine goods). Vienna is also distinguished for its manufacture of shawls. The coarser kinds of woollen goods are generally manufactured over the country, and principally in the people s houses, and for home use.
The manufacture of silk stuffs is principally carried on in Vienna, and to a small extent in the north of Bohemia and in the Maritime District. The spinning of silk has its principal seat in Southern Tyrol, where about 550,000 lb are spun annually, besides which about 1,700,000 lb are annually brought from other countries. The iron and steel manufactures form one of the most important branches of industry, and afford employment to a great number of persons. They are more or less extensively carried on in all the crown-lands, except the Maritime District, Dalmatia, Croatia, and Slavonia; but their principal seats are in Lower and Upper Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, Styria, and Carinthia. One of the most important of these seats is Steier and its neighbourhood, in Upper Austria, where there are about 700 establishments, producing goods—chiefly cutlery, scythes, sickles, firearms, &c.—to the value of £400,000 annually. In Styria there are large ironworks at Maria-Zell and Neuberg; and in Carinthia, at Prevali, Buchscheiden, and Ferlach. There are also large ironworks in Lower Austria, Carniola, Tyrol, Bohemia, and Moravia. The making of steam engines and other kinds of machinery is largely carried on in and about Vienna, where there are 26 establishments for this purpose. There are similar establishments in other parts of Lower Austria, in Styria, Bohemia, Silesia, and Buckowina. The Lloyds' Company has also large workshops at Trieste. About 1,100,000 cwt. of iron are annually used in the making of machinery, and about 6,600,000 cwts. in the other iron and steel manufactures, among which may be mentioned cutlery, firearms, files, wire, nails, tin-plate, steel pens, needles, &c.
The principal copper-works are at Brixlegg and other places in Tyrol, and in Galicia, Buckowina, and Hungary. The quantity of metal employed is about 40,000 cwt., and the value of the articles annually produced is £250,000. In the lead-works the quantity of metal employed is 65,000 cwt., and the annual value of the goods pro duced, £100,000. Tin is manufactured (principally in Bohemia) to the annual value of £50,000, and zinc to that of £2500. The precious metals, gold and silver, are principally worked in the larger towns, particularly Vienna and Prague, and the value of the articles annually produced is about £1,700,000. In addition to this a considerable amount of gold and silver is annually taken up by the mints. The mixed metals are also made and manufactured to a considerable extent, as brass, bell metal, gun metal, pinchbeck. &c.
The glass manufacture has its greatest development in Bohemia, where there are not only the greatest number of works (35 in Northern and 85 in Southern Bohemia), but the wares are also of very superior quality. Their annual value is about 1,000,000. Except in Styria and Moravia there is little glass made in other parts of the country, and that only of the commoner sorts.- The manufacture of mirrors is also extensively carried on in Bohemia and some other parts. Bohemia and Moravia are likewise distinguished for their earthen and porcelain wares. The preparation of chemical stuff s has been of late years greatly extended, and is now actively carried on. Sulphuric and muriatic acids are largely made in Bohemia, Lower Austria, and Silesia ; pharmaceutical preparations and perfumes are made chiefly in Vienna, and dye-stuffs in Lower Austria and Bohemia. The manufacture of wooden articles is wide spread over the country, and affords employment to a great number of persons. The smaller articles, particularly children s toys, are largely made by the peasantry in the mountainous and rural dis tricts, particularly in Tyrol, Salzburg, Upper Austria, and Bohemia. Furniture, waggons, and carriages are made in Vienna and other large towns. There are also several establishments for the manufacture of railway carriages in Vienna and Prague.
The manufacture of mathematical, optical, and surgical instru ments, and of physical and chemical apparatus, has of late years risen rapidly into importance, particularly in Vienna and Prague, and now these are to be found among the exports to other countries. Austria is also distinguished for the manufacture of musical instru ments, particularly pianos and organs, but also for other stringed and wind instruments. Clock or watch making is not very extensively carried on.
The leather manufacture forms an important branch of industry, the value of the goods annually produced being estimated at not less than jl 0,000, 000 It is principally carried on in Lower Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, Galicia, Transylvania, and Hungary. Vienna and Prague are the great centres of the boot and shoe trade, and the gloves made in these towns are considered little inferior to those of France. Saddlery is also largely carried on in these towns, and in Pesth.
Paper-making lias of late made considerable progress in Austria. There are 70 paper machines and 193 paper mills in operation, 20 of the former and 100 of the latter being in Bohemia, The rest are mostly in Lower Austria, Styria, and Fiume. Painting, lithograph ing, engraving, and map making, are actively carried on in Vienna and some of tlie other large towns. There are 44 printing and 78 lithographic establishments in Vienna alone.
Austria is noted for its beer, particularly that of Vienna and Bohemia. There are about 3200 breweries in the country, of which more than 1000 are in Bohemia. The largest establishments, how ever, are in Lower Austria, in the neighbourhood of Vienna. The annual quantity of beer made is estimated at about 186,000,000 gallons. Brandy is made largely in Hungary, Galicia, and Bucko- vina, and to a less extent in Bohemia, Moravia, and Lower Austria. Kosoglio, maraschino, and other liqueurs, are made in Dalmatia and Moravia.
The manufacture of suyar from beet-root is in a very flourishing state, and is rapidly extending In 1857 there were in Austria Proper 91 sugar-works, consuming 8,300,000 cwt. of beet, which amounts were in 1870 raised to 190 and 24,834,646 respectively. In Bohemia alone there were 126 works, consuming 15,279,000 cwt. of beet. Of the other works, Moravia possessed 45, Silesia 10, Lower Austria 6, Galicia 5. This manufacture is alsc carried on to some extent in Hungary and Transylvania.
The manufacture as well as the growth of tobacco is a govern ment monopoly. There are 22 establishments for the manufacture of tobacco and cigars, employing about 20,000 workpeople. Of these there are 5 in Lower Austria, 3 in Galicia, 2 in Moravia, 2 in Tyrol, and 4 in Hungary. The largest are those of Hamburg in Lower Austria (where about one-sixth of the whole is manufactured), Fiirstenfeld in Styria, and Sedler in Bohemia. About 70,000,000 R> of tobacco are manufactured annually.
The annual value of the industrial products of Austria is esti mated at not less than 130,000,000, of which 33 per cent, falls to the eastern, and 67 per cent, to the western half of the country. Among the crown -lands, 18 per cent, belongs to Bohemia alone, 15 to Lower Austria, 15 to Hungary, 6 to Transylvania and the other Hungarian crown-lands, 11 to Galicia and Buckowina, 10 to Moravia, 6 to Tyrol, 4 to Styria, and 4 to Upper Austria.
Commerce. Commerce. Austria is not favourably situated for commerce on account of its inland position, its small extent of sea-coast, and the mountainous character of much of its surface. Its trade was also formerly very much hampered by high duties, and restrictions of various kinds. These, however, have now been very much modified or removed, and its trade has in consequence rapidly improved. Much has been done, too, in the way of making and improving the roads, opening mountain passes, constructing railways, and establishing lines of steamers. In 1874 there were 9530 miles cf railway in operation, of which 5755 were in Austria and 3775 in Hungary. Besides these there were about 2000 miles in course of construction. There are also 59,770 miles of highways, of which 70 per cent, are in Austria and 30 in Hungary. Bohemia, in particular, is distinguished for the number and excellence of its roads. The river Danube is navigable for steamers for its entire length in the country from Passau to Orsova. Many of its affluents are also navigable for a considerable length, particularly the Theiss, Drave, and Save. The Danube Steam Company possesses 155 steamers, of 13,946 horse power, and 495 towed boats. There are also steamers on a number of the larger lakes. Altogether, Austria possesses 4240 miles of navigable river and canal communication, of which the greater part (60 per cent.) is in Hungary.
The principal seaports of Austria are Trieste and Fiume, at the head of the Adriatic, the former in the Maritime crown-land, the latter in that of Croatia. The number of vessels that entered the port of Trieste in 1870 was sailing vessels, laden, 5332; in ballast, 898; total tonnage, 407,606; value of imports, 4,673,170: steamers, laden, 924; in ballast, 900; total tonnage, 552,497; value of imports, 12,586,950. The number of vessels that left was sailing vessels, laden, 4409 ; in ballast, 1794 ; total tonnage, 441,601 ; value of exports, 3,325,400 : steamers, laden, 920 ; in ballast, 900; total tonnage, 571,175 ; value of exports, 6,716,940. Trieste is the seat of the Austrian Lloyds Company, which trades principally with the eastern ports of the Mediterranean, Galacz, Sinope, Smyrna, Beirout, Alexandria, &c. They own 68 steam vessels. The number of vessels that entered the port of Fiume in 1870 was sailing vessels, laden, 1530 ; in ballast, 270 ; total ton nage, 77,499; value of imports, 519,820: steamers, laden, 229 ; in ballast, 17; total tonnage, 52,671 ; value of imports, 174,720. The number of vessels that left was sailing vessels, laden, 1180 ; in ballast, 622 ; total tonnage, 88,781 ; value of exports, 366,790 : steamers, laden, 245; in ballast, 1 ; total tonnage, 52,671 ; value of exports, 94,340.
The commercial navy of Austria in 1870 comprised 83 steam vessels, of 47,242 tons burden, having 2352 men; 5G6 large sailing vessels, trading with foreign countries, of 255,930 tons burden, having 5939 men ; and 2487 coasting vessels, of 555,318 tons burden, having 7588 men. Besides these, there were 4717 smaller vessels, with 14,475 tons and 12,305 men, employed as lighters, in fishing, <kc. The number of trading vessels that entered and left the various ports in 1870 was entered, sailing vessels, Austrian, laden, 17,564 (tonnage, 486,745); in ballast, 9727 (tonnage, 270,887); foreign, laden, 4360 (tonnage, 263,942) ; in ballast, 2793 (tonnage, 184,760) : steamers, Austrian, laden, 4964 (tonnage, 1,676,095) ; in ballast, 2597 (tonnage, 409,480) ; foreign, laden, 179 (tonnage, 138,032) ; in ballast, 12 (tonnage, 7847). Left sailing vessels, Austrian, laden, 17,204 (tonnage, 468,093) ; in ballast, 10,308 (tonnage, 290,531) ; foreign, laden, 5705 (tonnage, 384,019) ; in ballast, 1976 (tonnage, 103,995) : steamers, Austrian, laden, 4160 (tonnage, 1,403,865) ; in ballast, 3397 (tonnage, 678,512) ; foreign, laden, 160 (tonnage, 143,100); in ballast, 32 (tonnage, 21,790). Total entered Austrian vessels, 34,852 (tonnage, 2,843,207) ; foreign, 7344 (tonnage, 594,581) : left Austrian, 35,069 (tonnage, 2,841,001) ; foreign, 7271 (tonnage, 652,904). The total value of the imports was 16,630,150; of the exports, 13,052,250 7,098,180 of the former, and 3,578,810 of the latter, being in foreign vessels. The principal foreign trade is carried on with Italy, Greece, Turkey, England, Holland, Norway and Sweden, North Germany, Denmark, and North America. The number of vessels belonging to the principal foreign states that entered and left the various ports in 1870, was as follows:—
|Vessels.||Tonnage.||Value of Cargoes.||Vessels.||Tonnage.||Vale of Cargoes|
|Swedish & Norwegian||30||7,471||264,870||23||8,762||71,980|
The principal imports, with their values, were coffee, 505,370; sugar, 218,950 ; tobacco, in leaf, 417,670 ; ditto, manufactured, 457,520; wheat, 311,500; make, 331,060; flour, 431,840; olive oil, 778,890; iron, raw and wrought, 1,210,570; raw cotton, 1,855,210 ; cotton yarn, 303,130 ; cotton goods, 1,375,390; linen goods, 226,470; wool, 266,270; woollen goods, 252,900 ; machines, 216,010. The principal exports were coffee, 336,610 ; sugar, 381,090 ; manufactured tobacco, 370,610; wheat, 244,410; maize, 434,980; flour, 938,730; olive oil, 614,640; spirits of wine, 334,620; barrel staves, 517,520; building stones, 307,040; raw cotton, 293,750; cotton goods, 2,030,060; wool, 109,490; woollen goods, 249,738 ; articles of clothing, 212,540 ; paper, 256,070. As might be expected from its natural position, the overland foreign trade of Austria is more important than its sea traffic. While the latter amounted to 29,682,400, the former was no less than 55,039,034 (imports, 27,890,151; exports, 27,143,853). Of the overland trade about 74 per cent, is with Germir.iy, 14 with Turkey, 6 with Italy, 5J with Russia, and rather more than 4 with Switzerland. It includes colonial goods, agricultural and garden produce, animals and animal produce, the produce _of the mines and manufactures, chemical products, machines, scientific instruments, wine, beer, brand} , &c. Besides these, there is a con siderable transit trade through the country, chiefly from the sea ports and the eastern borders, towards the north and north-west. It is estimated at about 12,000,000.
The internal trade consists chiefly of the exchange of the pro ducts of different parts of the country, more particularly of the agricultural products of the east with the industrial products of t he west. Important markets are held at fixed times in the principal towns for the different kinds of produce. Vienna, as being the capital and the seat of so many different branches of industry, and as having ready means of communication with all parts of the country, is the principal seat both of the home and of the foreign trade, and the great resort of merchants and capitalists.
Austria possesses a number of banks, the principal of which are the National Bank, founded in 1816, and having an active capital of 9,000,000 ; the Austrian Laud-Credit Institute, founded 1864, active capital, 960,000 ; the Austrian Trade and Manufactures Credit Institute, founded 1855, active capital, 4,000,000; the Anglo-Austrian Bank, founded 1863, active capital, 1,704,500 ; the Union Bank, founded 1870, active capital, 1,200,000 ; the Franco-Austrian Bank, founded 1869, active capital, 800,000 ;_tho Lower Austrian Discount Company, founded 1853, active capital, 700,000. The National Bank is the only company authorised to issue notes. There are also a number of savings banks and loan institutions of various kinds, as well as numerous societies formed with the view of furthering in various ways industry and commerce. In 1871 there were 3504 post-offices in Austria, and 1638 in Hun gary ; the number of private letters that passed through the former in that year was 125,614,538, and through the latter, 37,368,139 ; of newspapers through the former, 51,780,909, and through the latter, 22,303,771. There were also throughout the country 1081 tele graph stations, and 22,536 miles of lines transmitting upwards of 5,000,000 messages during that year.
Government. Govern- The head of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy is the ment. emperor and king, who is also the head of the army and of the executive. The succession is hereditary, in the order of primogeniture, in the male line of the house of Hapsburg-Lothringen, or Lorraine ; and failing this, in the female line. The monarchy comprises two distinct states a German or Cisleithan, commonly called Austria, and a Magyar or Transleithan, usually termed Hungary. Each of these has its own parliament, ministers, and government ; while the army and navy and foreign rela tions are common. These are under the direction of a controlling body known as the Delegations, consisting of sixty members for each state, two-thirds being elected by the Lower House, and one-third by the Upper House of each of the parliamentary bodies. They usually sit and vote in two chambers one for Austria, the other for Hungary ; but in the event of disagreement on any ques tion, they meet together, and without further deliberation give their final votes, and the decision thus arrived at is binding on the whole empire. Their resolutions require neither the approval nor the confirmation of the represen tative assemblies by which they are chosen, but only imperial assent. The executive is vested in three depart ments (1), A ministry of foreign affairs ; (2), a ministry of war ; and (3), a ministry of finance. These are respon sible to the Delegations. The Reichsrath, or Parliament of Austria, consists of an Upper and a Lower House. The former, the House of Lords, is composed (1), of princes of the imperial house who are of age (14 in 1874); (2), of the heads of noble houses of high rank, in whom the dignity is hereditary (56) ; (3), of the archbishops (10) and of bishops with the rank of princes (7) ; and (4), of life members nominated by the emperor on account of dis tinguished services (102). The Lower House, or House of Representatives, is composed of 353 members, elected to represent the different crown-lands by all citizens who are of age and possessed of a small property qualification. The emperor annually convokes the Reichsrath, and nomi nates the presidents and vice-presidents of each division out of the members. The business of the Reichsrath embraces all matters of legislation relating to laws, duties, and interests, except such as are specially excluded as belonging to other departments. It also takes up matters connected with trade, commerce, and finance, the post- office, railways, telegraphs, customs, the mint, raising of new loans, imposing of new taxes, budgets, matters relating to military service, &c. The members of either House have the right to propose new laws on matters within their province ; but the consent of both Houses, as well as the sanction of the emperor, is required to render them valid. The executive is vested in the president and ministries of the interior, religion and education, finance, commerce, agriculture, national defence, and justice. The ministers form also the Ministerial Council, which is pre sided over by the emperor or a minister-president.
In addition to the Reichsrath, there are seventeen pro vincial diets established in different districts of the country for the direction and regulation of local matters, taxation, education, religion, public works, charitable institutions, industry, trade, &c. Each diet is composed of the arch bishops and bishops of the Roman Catholic and Greek Catholic Churches, of the rectors of the universities, and of representatives of the great landed estates, of the towns, of chambers of industry and commerce, and of rural com munes. The number of members varies according to the size and importance of the districts from 20 or 30 up to 100 for Moravia, 151 for Galicia, and 241 for Bohemia.
The Hungarian Parliament o^ Reichstag consists of an Upper and a Lower House, L;u former known as the House of Magnates, the latter as the House of Represen tatives. The Upper House, in 1873, consisted of 3 princes of the reigning house, having estates in the kingdom, 31 archbishops and bishops of the Roman Catholic and Greek Churches, and 381 high officials and peers of the king.- dom. The Lower House is composed of representatives elected for three years by citizens of age who pay a certain amount of direct taxes. The number of representatives, in 1873, was 444, of whom 334 represented the counties, rural districts, and towns of Hungary ; 75 represented Transylvania ; and 35 Croatia and Slavonia. The president and vice-president of the House of Magnates are nominated by the king from among the members ; and the president and two vice-presidents of the House of Representatives are elected by the members. The sovereign, though emperor of Austria, is styled "king" in all public documents. The executive is vested in a president and ministries of national defence, the court, finance, interior, religion and education, justice, public works, agriculture, industry and commerce, and for Croatia and Slavonia.
Finances. The revenue and expenditure are presented in three distinct budgets : (1), That of the Delegations for the whole empire; (2), that of the Austrian Reichsrath for Austria; and (3), that of the Hungarian Reichstag for Hungary. By an arrangement of 18C8 Austria pays 70 per cent., and Hungary 30 per cent., towards the common expenditure of the empire. The total expenditure for the whole empire, in 1873, was estimated as follows:
- Ordinary. Extraordinary. Total.
- 1. Ministry of Foreign Affairs 424, 629 11,181 435,810
fw ( Army... 8, 909, 356 989,962 9,899,318
- 2. Ministry of War j Nay ^ g3]>427 182)654 i >0 14,081
- 3. Ministry of Finance..... 192,098 105 192,203
- 4. Board of Control 10,409 ...: 10,409
- 10,367,919 1,183,902 11,551,821
The estimated Revenue for the same period was as follows :
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs 69,750
- " War 510,141
- " Finance 258
- Board of Control 83
- Carry forward, 580,232 Brought forward, 580,232
Customs Duties 1,555,600 Payments by Hungary on account of Military Frontiers 188,319 Share of Expenditure falling to Austria (70 p.c.).. 6,459,368 ,, ,, Hungary (30. p.c.) 2,768,302 11,551,821 The budget of Austria Proper for 1873 was as follows : Receipts. Direct Taxes 9,034,400 Customs Duties 2,314,100 Duties on Articles of Consumption 5,876,230 Salt Monopoly 1,872,000 Tobacco Monopoly 5,812,600 Stamps 1,400,000 Judicial Fees 3,360,000 State Lottery 1,526,000 Octroi 274,300 State Property and Mint 177,748 Domains and Forests 449,800 Mines 477,050 Post-Office and Telegraphs 1,932,200 Miscellaneous 4,861,341 39,367,769 Expenditure. Imperial Household 615,000 Cabinet Chancery 7,221 Reichsrath 56,436 Court of the Empire 2,300 Council of Ministers 59,200 Ministry of the Interior 1,838,061 ,, National Defence 891,300 ,, Religion and Education 1,384,270 Finance 8,023,323 ,, Commerce 3,262,576 Agriculture 1,060,853 ,, Justice 1,529,226 Board of Control 14,820 Pensions, Grants, and Subsidies 2,381,628 Share of Interest on Public Debt 9,320,269 Administration of Public Debt 746,600 Proportion of Public Expenditure 7, 799, 846 38,992,929 The budget for 1874 gives the revenue as 38,329,897, and the expenditure as 39,896,531; and that for 1875, the revenue as 36,942,969, and the expenditure as 38,178,255. The budget of the kingdom of Hungary for 1873 was as follows : Receipts. Direct Taxes 4,481,842 Indirect do 7,166,546 State Domains, Mines, Mint, &c. ) < QQQ QQI Post-Office, &c " Miscellaneous 1,262.652 16,911,071 Expenditure. Royal Household 365,000 Cabinet Chancery 6,139 Reichstag 70,000 Council of Ministers 35,908 Ministry of the Court 36,393 Interior 755,713 War 896,670 Religion and Education 375,217 Justice 1,068,147 Agriculture and Commerce.... 1,189,733 Roads, &c 4,778,958 Finance 6,468,481 Croatia 425,670 Share of Interest on Public Debt 3,272,320 Ordinary Expenses 2,829,321 Miscellaneous 650,264 23,220,939 The budget for 1874 gives the revenue as 22,402,790, and the expenditure as 25,673,382, being a deficit of 3,270,592. Though the Austrian budget for 1873 presents a surplus, there had for many years previously been a large annual deficit, amount ing in some years to 6,000,000 or 7,000,000 ; and the two sub sequent years also show a considerable deficiency. Consequently, the public debt has been rapidly increasing. In 1815 the national debt amounted to 82,500,000, in 1830 to 108,000,000, in 1848 to 125,000,000, in 1857 to 239,000,000, in 1866 to 291,000,000, and in 1874 to 323,800,000, of which 264,000,000 was funded, 22,200,000 redeemable, and 37,600,000 floating debt. By the cession of the Lorn bardo- Venetian provinces in 1866, Austria was relieved of 3,500,000 of debt aii ecting those territories. The kingdom of Hungary had also at the end of 1873 a debt of 48,871,783.
Austria is said to have "during the last few years made greater Army. sacrifices to improve the efficiency of her army and obtained greater results than any other nation in Europe. Her military educational establishments and system of training, both elementary and pro fessional, for officers and men, are of a very high order" (Captain "W". S. Cooke On the Armed Strength of Austria, 1873). A new scheme of army organisation was brought into operation in 1869, by which the military forces of the whole empire are divided into the standing army with its reserve, the Landwehr, the Ersatz- reserve, and the Landsturm. The standing army is maintained for the defence of the empire against a foreign foe, and for the preserva tion of order and security at home. The Landwehr is intended to support the standing army in time of war and for home defence. The Ersatz -reserve is composed of a certain class of conscripts who are destined to fill up the ranks of the standing army in time of war, but in peace remain on permanent furlough. The Landsturm is made up of volunteers who do not belong either to the standing army, the navy, or the Laudwehr. It is called out and organised to the extent required when the country is threatened by a hostile invasion, and is intended to support the standing army and Land wehr. Military service is compulsory on all citizens capable of bearing arms. The term of service lasts for twelve years three in the standing army, seven in the reserve, and two in the Land wehr. The strength of the army in peace is fixed at 252,000 men, to be raised during war to 800,000, of which Austria has to furnish 457,012, and Hungary 342,988. It is composed of 80 regi ments of infantry, 41 regiments of cavalry, 13 regiments of artillery, 2 regiments of engineers, 1 regiment pioneers, and other troops. (See AKMY, vol. ii. p. 604.) The navy was in 1874 composed of 47 steam- Navy, vessels, of 96,700 tons burden and 16,635 horse-power, carrying 395 guns ; 17 sailing vessels, of 11,800 tons; and 6 steam tenders, of!260 tons burden and 366 horse-power. The number of seamen in peace, 5782 ; in war, 11,532. The naval stations are Pola and Trieste. The present empire of Austria took its rise in a margra- History, viate founded by Charlemagne, towards the close of the 8th century, in that fertile tract of country lying along the southern bank of the Danube to the east of the River Enns, and now included in Lower Austria. It was called Ostreich or Oesterreich, the eastern country, from its position relative to the rest of Germany. It continued to be ruled by margraves (Ger. Markgraf, lord of the marches) for several centuries, down to the year 1156, when the territory west of the Enns was added to it, and it was raised to a duchy. It subsequently received further accessions of territory, and in 1453 was made an arch duchy.
The country of the present archduchy of Austria was in early times inhabited by the Taurisci, a Celtic race, who were afterwards better known as the Norici. They were conquered by the Eomans in 14 B.C. ; and thereafter a portion of what is now Lower Austria and Styria, together with the municipal city of Vindobona, now Vienna, and even then a place of considerable importance, was formed into the province of Pannonia ; and the rest of Lower Austria and Styria, together with Carinthia and a part of Carniola, into that of JSToricum. Tyrol was included in Rhtetia, while north of the Danube, and extending to the borders of Bohemia and Moravia, were the territories of the Marcomanni and the Quadi. These were not unfre- quently troublesome to the Romans ; and during the greater part of the reign of Marcus Aurelius, from 169 to 180 A.D., they maintained with varying success a harass ing war against them. In 174 the Roman army was so nearly cut off by the Quadi that its safety was attributed to a miracle. The emperor died at Vindobona when on an expedition against those troublesome neighbours, and his successor, Commodus, was glad to make peace with them. On the decline of the imperial power these Roman pro vinces became a prey to the incursions of barbaric tribes. , During the 5th and 6th centuries the country was suc- cf^sively occupied by the Boii, Vandals, Heruli, Rugii, Joths, Huns, Lombards, and Avari. About 568, after the Lombards had settled in Upper Italy, the River Enns became the boundary between the Bajuvarii, a people of German origin, and the Avari, who had come from the east. In 788 the Avari crossed the Enns and attacked Bavaria, but were subsequently driven back by Charle magne, and forced to retreat as far as the Raab, their country from the Enns to that river being then made a part of Germany. It was taken by the Hungarians in 900, but was again annexed to Germany in 955 by Otho I. In 983 the emperor appointed Leopold I., of Babenberg or Bamberg, margrave of Austria, and his dynasty ruled the country for 263 years. He died in 994, and was succeeded by his son, Henry I., who governed till 1018. In 1156 Austria received an accession of territory west of the Enns, and was raised to a duchy by the Emperor Frederick I. The first duke was Henry Jasomirgott, who took part in the second crusade. He removed the ducal residence to Vienna, and began the building of St Stephen s cathedral. His successor, Leopold V., in 1192, obtained Styria as an addition to his territory, and Frederick II. received posses sion of Carniola. Frederick, in the latter years of his life, contemplated the erection of Austria into a kingdom, but his sudden death in a battle against the Magyars, in 1246, put an end to the project, and with him the line became extinct. The Emperor Frederick II. now declared Austria and Styria to have lapsed to the imperial crown, and appointed a lieutenant to govern them on the part of the empire. But claims to the succession were brought forward by descendants of the female branch of the Babenberg line ; and after various contests Ottocar, son of the king of Bohemia, gained possession about 1252 of the duchies of Austria and Styria. In 1269 he succeeded to Carinthia, a part of Carniola and Friuli; but he lost all by refusing to acknowledge the Emperor Rudolph of Hapsburg, and eventually fell in battle in an attempt to recover them in 1278.
Hapsburg The emperor now took possession of the country, and dynasty. appointed his eldest son governor; but subsequently, in 1282, having obtained the sanction of the electors of the empire to the act, he conferred the duchies of Austria and Styria, with the province of Carinthia, on his sons Albert and Rudolph, and thus introduced the Hapsburg dynasty. The brothers transferred Carinthia to Meinhard, count of Tyrol; and in 1283 Albert became sole possessor of Austria, Styria, and Carniola. He increased his possessions con siderably by wars with his neighbours, but was murdered at Rheinfelden in 1308, when on an expedition against the Swiss, by his nephew, John of Swabia, whom he had deprived of his hereditary possessions. He was succeeded by his f /e sons, Frederick, Leopold, Henry, Albert, and Otto. In 1314 Frederick, the eldest, was set up by a party as emperor in opposition to Louis, duke of Bavaria, but was defeated and taken prisoner by his rival in 1322. In 1315 Duke Leopold was defeated in an attempt to recover the forest towns of Switzerland which had revolted from his father. Leopold died in 1 326, Henry in 1 327, and Frederick in 1330. The two surviving brothers then made peace with the Emperor Louis, and in 1335 they acquired Carinthia by inheritance. On the death of Otto in 1339 Albert became sole ruler. He died in 1358. His son and successor, Rudolph II., finished the church of St Stephen s and founded the university of Vienna, dying childless in 1365. He was succeeded by his two brothers, Albert III. and Leopold III., who in 1379 divided their possessions between them, the former taking the duchy of Austria, the latter Styria and other parts. Leopold fell at Sempach in 1386, but his descendants continued to rule in Styria. Albert acquired Tyrol and some other districts, and died in 1395. He was succeeded by his son, Albert IV., who was poisoned at Znaim in 1404, when on an expedition against Procopius, count of Moravia. Albert V. succeeded his father, and having married the daughter of the Em peror Sigismund, he obtained the thrones of Hungary and Bohemia, and became emperor (Albert II.) in 1438. He died the following year, and was succeeded by his pos thumous son Ladislaus, who died without issue in 1457. The Austrian branch of the family thus became extinct, and was succeeded by that of Styria. The crowns of Hungary and Bohemia passed for a time into other hands. The possession of Austria, which in 1453 had been raised to an archduchy, was for some years a subject of dispute between the Emperor Frederick III. and his brothers, but at length, on the death of Albert in 1463, the emperor obtained sole possession. His son Maximilian, by marrying the daughter of Charles the Bold, acquired the Netherlands in 1477, but on the death of his father in 1493 he succeeded him as emperor, and transferred the government of the Netherlands to his son Philip. He added Tyrol and some parts of Bavaria to his paternal pos sessions, and made some advances towards the recovery of Hungary and Bohemia. His son Philip, by his marriage with Johanna, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, acquired a right to the crown of Spain, but died in 1506. Maxi milian died in 1519, and was succeeded by his grand son Charles (son of Philip), who two years before had obtained the Spanish crown, and was now made em peror under the title of Charles V. By treaties dated 1521 and 1524, Charles resigned all his hereditary posses sions in Germany, except the Netherlands, to his brother Ferdinand. The latter, by his marriage with Anna, sister of the king of Hungary, acquired right to the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia, together with Moravia, Silesia, and Lausatia. His right to Hungary, however, was con tested by John Zapolya, wayvrode of Transylvania, who was elected by a party of the nobles, and was crowned king in 1527. Being unable to cope single-handed with Ferdinand, John sought the aid of the sultan, Soliman II., who in 1529 advanced with a large army to the very gates of Vienna ; but after several ineffectual attempts to take the city he raised the siege and returned to Buda. At length, in 1535 an agreement was come to, in terms of which John was allowed to retain the title of king, to gether with half of Hungary, but his descendants were to be entitled to Transylvania only. John died in 1540, but the people of Lower Hungary were opposed to Fer dinand, and set up the son of their late king against him. In the struggle which ensued the aid of the Turks was again invoked, and the result was that Ferdinand had to agree to pay an annual sum of 30,000 ducats to the sultan for this part of Hungary. Ferdinand was also under the ne cessity of surrendering Wiirtemberg to Duke Ulrich, on condition of its remaining a fief of Austria and reverting to that country on the extinction of the male line. Not withstanding this, the possessions of the German line of the house of Austria at this time are estimated at 114,000 square miles. On the abdication of Charles V. in 1556, Ferdinand succeeded to the imperial throne. He died in 1564, leaving directions for the division of his possessions among his three sons. The eldest, Maximilian II., received the imperial crown, together with Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia ; the second, Ferdinand, obtained Tyrol and Lower Austria ; and the third, Charles, was made master of Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, and Gortz. In 1556 the sultan Soli man again marched at the head of a great army into Hun gary, but met with a very determined resistance at Szigeth, before which town he was suddenly cut off by apoplexy. Peace was concluded with his successor, and in 1572 Maxi milian caused his eldest son Rudolph to be crowned king of Hungary. He was afterwards crowned king of Bohemia, and was also elected king of the Romans. Maximilian died in 1576, and was succeeded by Rudolph on the imperial throne. This monarch was little fitted to rule, and left the manage ment of affairs very much to others. He was entirely under the power of the Jesuits, set at nought the ancient laws of the country, and persecuted the Protestants. The latter, under Bocskay, revolted in 1604, and having se cured the aid of the sultan, gained repeated victories over the imperial troops, compelling Rudolph to give them terms of peace in 1606. During this reign the possessions of the Archduke Ferdinand of Tyrol reverted to the two other lines; while in 1608 Rudolph was compelled to cede Hun gary, and in 1611 Bohemia and Austria, to his brother Matthias, who on the death of Rudolph in 1612 was crowned emperor. His reign was full of promise, but unfortunately it was only of short duration. Being an old man and childless, he chose as his successor his cousin Ferdinand, archduke of Styria, whom he caused to be crowned king of Bohemia in 1616, and of Hungary in 1618. He died the following year, when Ferdinand became emperor.
Before the death of Matthias, the memorable struggle War. between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, known as the Thirty Years War (1618 to 1648), had commenced. It originated in an insurrection of the Protestants of Bohemia, who renounced their allegiance to Ferdinand and chose for their king the elector palatine Frederick V. Frederick was supported by all the Protestant princes except the elector of Saxony, while Ferdinand was assisted by the king of Spain and the other Catholic princes. At first success attended the arms of the insurgents, who repeatedly routed the imperial troops, and even laid siege to Vienna. But the Duke Maximilian of Bavaria, coming to the assist ance of the imperialists at the head of a well-appointed army, totally defeated Frederick at the White Hill near Prague (8th November 1620). The following day Prague opened its gates to the conqueror, and in a short time the whole country was reduced to subjection, and the territories of the elector palatine divided among the allies. The war might have ended here had Ferdinand adopted a concilia tory policy, but impelled by revenge and fanatical zeal he adopted an opposite course, and instituted against the Pro testants a severe persecution. They were thus again com pelled to take up arms, and in 1625 Christian IV., king of Denmark, supported by subsidies from England, put him self at their head. He was subsequently joined by Count Mansfeld and Christian of Brunswick, while opposed to him were Wallenstein and Tilly at the head of two power ful armies. In April 1626 Mansfeld was defeated by Wal lenstein at Dessau, and a few months later Tilly vanquished the Danish king at Lutter. The victorious armies after wards marched into Denmark, and the king was compelled to conclude a humiliating peace at Liibeck in 1629. The Protestants were now awed into submission, and Ferdinand was emboldened to carry out to still greater lengths his policy of suppression. Aiming at the total extirpation of Protestant doctrines throughout his dominions, he revoked all the privileges that had formerly been granted, even such as had previously received his approval. By the so-called Edict of Restitution, dated 6th March 1629, he enjoined the restitution of all ecclesiastical property secularised since the peace of Passau, and ordered the Protestants to relin quish to the Catholics all benefices which they had appro priated contrary to the peace of Passau and the Ecclesiastical Reservation. The Catholic princes themselves were now becoming alarmed at the enormous power which they had contributed to place in the hands of the emperor. They therefore demanded a reduction of the army and the dismissal of Wallenstein, and with these demands the emperor felt him self obliged to comply. But a new champion of the Pro testant cause now appeared in the north, in the person of Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden. This valiant prince, having received promises of aid from France as well as from England and the United Provinces, suddenly landed an army of 15,000 men at Usedom in June 1630. Pomerania and Mecklenburg were soon conquered by him, and a great part of Brandenburg was overrun by his army. He was unable, however, to relieve the town of Magdeburg, which was besieged by Tilly and taken by assault 20th May 1631, when the most barbarous atrocities were perpetrated upon the unfortunate inhabitants. The elector of Brandenburg and afterwards the elector of Saxony joined Gustavus, and the combined army met the imperialists under Tilly at Breitenfeld, near Leipsic, and defeated them with great slaughter (7th September 1631). The victor now rapidly regained all that had been lost. Again Tilly was beaten at the passage of the River Lech on 5th April 1632, and the following day he died of his wounds. Wallenstein was now recalled and placed at the head of the imperial troops. His name inspired fresh ardour among the soldiery, men flocked to his standard, and he speedily found himself at the head of a very large army. He drove the Saxons out of Bohemia, and afterwards marched to Nuremberg, where Gustavus was entrenched in a strong position. The two armies watched each other for eight weeks, when the king directed an attack against the imperialists, but after a fierce struggle was repulsed. A fortnight later Gustavus moved in the direction of Bavaria, but Wallenstein, instead of following him, marched into Saxony, and thus obliged him to suspend his operations in Bavaria and to set out in pursuit of his opponent. The two armies met at Liitzen, where a battle took place on 16th November 1632. The greatest skill and bravery were displayed on both sides, and the issue was long doubtful, but at length victory declared in favour of the Swedes, though dearly purchased with the loss of their brave commander, who fell mortally wounded. The death of Gustavus was an irreparable loss to the Protestants in Germany. Wallenstein, however, made but little use of the advantages he now possessed, and has even been accused of treacherous designs against the em pire. Be this as it may, his enemies at court and in the army were numerous and powerful, and he was at length assassinated by some of his own officers, 25th February 1634. The Protestant cause met with another disaster in the defeat of Bernard of Weimar at Nordlingen on 6th September. On 30th May 1635 Saxony concluded at Prague a treaty of peace with the emperor, in terms of which the Lutherans were freed from the operation of the Edict of Restitution. The other Lutheran princes soon after accepted the like terms ; but the Calvinists, who were disliked by both parties, were left to their fate. Sweden, no longer able to carry on the war as she had done, entered into a treaty with France, resigning the direction of operations to that power, a position of which Richelieu gladly availed himself, as according with his am bitious designs. The war now assumed a new phase, France and Sweden being allied against the empire and the Lutheran states of Germany, aided by Spain. Richelieu s efforts were in great measure directed to humbling the latter power. He sent an army into Spain, and entered into leagues with the dukes of Savoy and Parma and the United Pro vinces for attacking the Spanish power in Italy and the Netherlands. These projects did not meet with success, and the war was for a time carried into the French terri tories. In the meantime the Swedes, under General Baner, gained a brilliant victory over the Saxons and im perialists at Wittstock (4th October 1636). The emperor died on the 15th February 1G37, and was succeeded by his son Ferdinand III. The war was carried on for eleven years longer ; and the success which at first was with the imperialists, after a time came round to their adversaries, till at length the emperor, pressed on all sides and deserted by his allies, was glad to agree to terms of peace. By the peace of Westphalia, signed 24th October 1648, France acquired Alsace ; Sweden got Upper Pomerauia, the Isle of Kugen, and some other territory ; the sovereignty and independence of the different states was recognised ; the Calvinists were placed on the same footing as the Lutherans ; and the independence of the United Provinces and the Swiss Confederation was acknowledged. Ferdinand III. died in 1657, and was succeeded by his son Leopold I. This prince, by his harsh treatment of the Hungarians, drove that people into revolt ; and they, being unable to cope with the power of the empire single- handed, called in the aid of the Turks, who, under Kara Mustapha in 1683, besieged Vienna, which was only saved by an army of Poles and Germans under John Sobieski. The imperial army then reduced the whole of Hungary into subjection, and united to it Transylvania, which had been hitherto governed by its own princes ; and the whole was declared to be a hereditary kingdom. In 1699 Turkey, after being defeated in several sanguinary engagements by the celebrated general Prince Eugene, was compelled by the peace of Carlowitz to cede to Hungary the country lying between the Danube and the Theiss. Previous to his troubles with Hungary and Turkey, Leopold had lent hia aid in 1672 to the Dutch in their struggle against the ambitious designs of France. This was brought to a close by the peace of Nirneguen in 1678; but the conflict broke out afresh the following year, when the English also came forward and contributed largely both in troops and money. The chief scenes of warfare were the Nether lands and the banks of the Rhine. At last in 1697 came the peace of Ryswick, which left the contending parties in nearly the same relative positions as at the beginning of the contest The allies had, however, the satisfaction of having compelled the French king to stop short in his Bchemes of aggrandisement.
War of the The death of Charles II. of Spain in 1700, without leav- Succession. ing issue, led to what is known as the War of the Succes sion. Louis XIV. had married the eldest sister of the late king, but she had by solemn covenant renounced her right to the Spanish crown. The second sister had married the Emperor Leopold, and she had made no such renunciation, but her daughter had, who was married to the elector of Bavaria. Leopold had two sons by a second marriage, and now claimed the crown for the younger of these, on the ground of his mother being an aunt of the deceased king. Intrigues had been carried on by the several parties concerned for some time before the king s death, and he had been induced to make a secret will, in which he named Philip, duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV., as his successor. Leopold, however, was by no means inclined to depart from what he con sidered his rights, and the other states of Europe looked with jealousy on the prospect of a union of France and Spain under a Bourbon dynasty. An alliance was accord ingly formed by Austria with England and Holland against France, with which power on the other hand Bavaria allied herself. The emperor despatched an army into Italy under Prince Eugene, to take possession of the Spanish territories in that country ; while the English and Dutch united their forces under Marlborough. The former ex perienced a good deal of hard fighting, but effected little of consequence, while the latter busied himself in taking one after another of the French strongholds in the Nether lands, At length the two generals combined their forces and met the united army of their enemies at Blenheim. The latter numbered about 56,000 men and occupied a strong position, while the number of the former was about 52,000. The fight commenced by Marlborough leading the right wing against the French, while Eugene with the left wing advanced against the Bavarians. The battle was long and fierce, the assailants being repeatedly driven back by a most terrible fire from the enemy s artillery. At length victory declared for the allied English and Austrian armies (13th August 1704). About 10,000 of the French and Bavarians fell on the field, and nearly 13,000 were made prisoners, among whom was the commander of the French army, Marshal Tallard. The elector of Bavaria was compelled to cross the Rhine with the French, and his territoiy was occupied by the imperialists. The follow ing year the emperor died, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Joseph. The war was continued with vigour, but for a time nothing of importance was anywhere effected. France now directed her chief attentien to the conquest of the Netherlands, and sent into that country a magnificent army under the command of Marshal Villeroi. But this general was no match for Marlborough ; and in the battle of Ramillies (23d May 1706) he was totally defeated with a loss of about 13,000 men. Prince Eugene s efforts in Italy were also this year crowned with much success. After a memorable march of more than 200 miles, he suddenly appeared before Turin, which was then closely besieged by the enemy. Having effected a junction with the duke of Savoy, he attacked the French lines (7th September), and though repeatedly driven back, at length succeeded in totally routing . the enemy. The French general, Count Marsin, was wounded, taken prisoner, and died the following day. The French power in Northern Italy was thus shattered, and soon after both French and Spaniards were driven out of the country. The like suc cess attended the efforts of Marlborough in the Nether lands, where he took possession of every place of note. After Eugene had settled affairs in Italy, he again formed a junction with Marlborough in the Netherlands, and on llth June 1708 they attacked and routed the French under Vendome at Oudenarde. France now made over tures for peace ; but these being rejected, she sent a new army into the field, under the command of Marshal Villars. He was attacked by the two victorious generals in his entrenchments at Malplaquet (llth September 1709) and totally defeated. France again made proposals for peace, but these meeting with no better success, the war was continued. The emperor died on 17th April 1711, and his successor being his brother, the Archduke Charles, who laid claim to the Spanish crown, this event contributed not a little to restore peace. The prospect of the union on one head of the crowns of Austria and Spain did not accord with the views of those who had been hitherto supporting the claims of Austria, and the transfer of Spain to a grandson of Louis XIV. appeared to them the less dangerous alternative of the two. This, joined to the change of ministry in England, and the removal of Marlborough from the command, together with the im patience of the Dutch under so long and so burdensome a war, led to the peace of Utrecht, which was signed llth April 1713. Austria continued the war for some time longer, but the next year agreed to substantially the same terms at Baden. By this treaty France engaged that the crowns of France and Spain should never be united, and that no part of the Spanish Netherlands should ever be transferred to her ; she also ceded to England Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Hudson s Bay, and St Kitt s, and agreed to destroy the fortifications of Dunkirk; Spain gave up her possessions in the Netherlands and in Italy to Austria (who, on her part, renounced her claim to the Spanish succession), and ceded Gibraltar and Minorca to Eng land ; the Dutch received a small accession of territory ; and the duke of Savoy obtained Sicily, with the title of king afterwards (1720) exchanged for the island of Sar dinia. The Austrian monarchy now embraced about 190,000 square miles of territory, Avith nearly 29,000,000 of inhabitants. Its annual revenue was between 13,000,000 and H,000,000 florins, and its army consisted of 130,000 men. Austria next became involved in a war with the Turks, and in 1716 Prince Eugene set out at the head of an army against them. The result was a series of splendid suc cesses, which led to a peace signed at Passarowitz (1718), by which Austria received a considerable accession of ter ritory. Disaffection still continued to subsist between Spain and Austria, which led to repeated negotiations on the part of the other powers to preserve peace. Charles being without heirs-male, was desirous of securing the succession to his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, and with this view he framed the celebrated Pragmatic Sanction, and it became his great object to get the assent of the other powers to this arrangement. England and almost all the other powers, except France, Spain, and Sardinia, acceded to it in 1731. In 1733 the emperor became in volved in a war with France on behalf of Augustus III. of Saxony, who had been elected king of Poland. Franco supported the claims of Stanislaus Leczinski, and received the aid of Spain and Sardinia. The war was carried on principally in Italy, where Austria was driven out of most of her possessions, and was glad to sue for peace. By this treaty Augustus was confirmed on the throne of Poland; but Austria was obliged to cede to Stanislaus the duchies of Lorraine and Bar, to be afterwards trans ferred to France ; Don Carlos was placed on the throne of the Two Sicilies, and the grand duchy of Tuscany was bestowed on the duke of Lorraine, the emperor receiving as compensation Parma and Placentia ; and France, and afterwards Spain and Sardinia, acceded to the Pragmatic Sanction. War again broke out with the Turks, and Prince Eugene being now no more, the Austrians were repeatedly beaten and expelled from one stronghold after another, till, by the peace of Belgrade (1739), the emperor was compelled to yield up almost all that the arms of Eugene had formerly gained for him. The emperor died on the 20th October 1740, and his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, who was married to the duke of Lorraine or Lothringen (afterwards archduke of Tuscany), assumed the government. Immediately counter-claims were ad vanced on all sides. The elector of Bavaria claimed to be rightful heir to the kingdom of Bohemia ; the elector of Saxony and king of Poland, and also the king of Spain, claimed the entire succession ; the king of Sardinia laid claim to the duchy of Milan, and Frederick II. of Prussia to the province of Silesia. France espoused the cause of Bavaria, while England alone came forward to the assist ance of the queen, and the Hungarians, now united and loyal, willingly recruited her armies. Aided by France and Saxony, the elector of Bavaria took possession of Bohemia, and was proclaimed king in 1741, and the fol lowing year he was elected emperor under the title of Charles VII. The king of Prussia marched suddenly into Silesia and took possession of that country. The elector of Bavaria, aided by French troops, next invaded Austria, and even threatened Vienna. The queen fled to Presburg and convoked the Hungarian diet. She appeared in the midst of the assembly with her infant son Joseph in her arms, and appealed to them for protection and help. A burst of enthusiasm followed, and a powerful Hungarian army was speedily at her service. The French and Bavarians were soon driven out of the archduchy. A battle was fought between the Austrians under the prince of Lorraine and the Prussians under Frederick, at Czaslau (17th May 1742), in which the former were defeated, and this was followed by the peace of Breslau (llth June), by ,vhich Prussia acquired possession of Upper and Lower Silesia (excepting the towns of Troppau and Jagerndorf, and the mountains of Silesia) and the county of Glatz. Austria now turned her arms against the French and Bavarians, the former of whom were driven out of the country. In 1744 the king of Prussia, jealous of the success attending the Austrians, again took the field against them in support of the emperor. He marched into Bohemia and took Prague, but subsequently was . forced to retreat; and the death of the emperor Charles on 20th January 1745 changed the aspect of affairs. Maria Theresa s husband was in September elected emperor under the title of Francis I., and after some more fight ing, a peace was concluded with Prussia at Dresden, by which the king was confirmed in the possession of Silesia. The war with France was prosecuted for some time longer in the Netherlands and in Italy with varying success, but ultimately peace was concluded at Aix-la-Chapelle, in October 1748. Austria gave up the duchies of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla to Don Philip, son of the king of Spain, and several districts of Milan to Sardinia ; Prussia was confirmed in the possession of Silesia and Glatz; while Maria Theresa was recognised as rightful monarch of Austria. After having acquired peace, and been thus confirmed in her possessions, her great desire was to recover Silesia from Frederick, whose conduct towards her had sunk deep into her heart. She directed her attention to strengthening and improving her army, and to forming alliances with the other states against the Prussian king, particularly with Russia and Saxony. In 1755 war broke out in North America between France and England, and in view of its becoming more general England solicited the aid of Austria, but without success. This naturally led to a union between England and Prussia, while France allied herself with Austria and Russia.
In July 1756, Frederick despatched a messenger to Seven Vienna to ascertain the meaning of the large forces Years War. assembled in Bohemia and Moravia. Receiving an evasive answer, he at once marched an army of 60,000 men into Saxony, took Dresden, and made himself master of the country, the Saxon army of only about 17,000 men being shut up in a strong position, but ill provisioned, between Pirna and Kouigstein. An Austrian army, under the command of Marshal Browne, advanced from Bohemia to the relief of Saxony, but was met by Frederick. A battle took place at Lowositz (1st October), which, though not decisive, ended in the retreat of the Austrians ; and the famished Saxon army, after an ineffectual attempt to effect a retreat to Bohemia, laid down their arms. This ended the first campaign, and both sides did their utmost to prepare for renewing hostilities the following year. The empress strengthened her forces in Bohemia, and the 1757. imperial diet conceded an army of 60,000 men to assist her. France engaged to send an army of 80,000 or 100,000 men into Germany, and Russia set in motion an army of 100,000 men against Prussia. In all, the allies were esti mated to muster about 500,000 men, while Frederick could scarcely raise 200,000 of his own, his auxiliaries (English, Hanoverians, &c.) probably amounting to about 40.000 more. Frederick renewed the war by marching an army into Bohemia, where, on 6th May, he gained a victory over the Austrians, under Prince Charles of Lorraine, in the neighbourhood of Prague, and then laid siege to that city. General Daun, at the head of an Austrian army, advanced to the relief of the city, and the king set out to meet him. The encounter took place at Ivolin (18th June), and the Prussians, being much inferior in numbers, were beaten with great slaughter. Frederick was compelled at once to raise the siege and to evacuate Bohemia. In honour of this victory the empress instituted the military order of Maria Theresa. It had also the effect of inspiring the allies with fresh courage. The Russians invaded the kingdom of Prussia ; the Swedes entered Pomerauia ; and two French armies crossed the Rhine in order to attack Hesse and Hanover and then march into Prussia. One of these armies, under the command of Prince Soubise, advanced towards Thuringia, in order to form a junction with the imperial forces under the prince of Hiklburghausen, while Marshal d Estrees, who commanded the larger French army, en tered Hanover, and through the incapacity of his opponent, gained, an easy victory over the Anglo-Germanic army, under the duke of Cumberland, near Hastenbeck, on the Weser (2Gth July). The duke afterwards completed his disgrace by agreeing to disband his troops and give up Hanover, Hesse, Brunswick, and the whole country between the Weser and the Rhine, to the French. The other French army effected a union with the imperial troops of Thu ringia, and made preparations for driving the Prussians out of Saxony. Frederick, however, determined to meet them, and after a series of marches and countermarches the two armies came together near Rossbach. The Prus sian army amounted to about 22,000 men, while that of the French and Austrians numbered nearly G0,000. Fre derick s troops were encamped upon a height, and the allies, when they advanced to the attack, ware suddenly met by such a tremendous fire that they were thrown into confusion and unable to recover themselves. In less than half an hour the day was decided (5th November 1757). The allies had 1200 killed and more than 7000 taken prisoners, while the loss of the Prussians scarcely exceeded 500 in killed and wounded. At this time the imperialists had entered Silesia and there gained several advantages over the Prussians, who were at length driven to the walls of Breslau. Here a battle was fought (22d November) in which the Austrians were victorious, and the city itself soon after surrendered to the conquerors. Frederick now made what haste he could to retrieve his fortunes in this quarter, and met the Austrian army, under Prince Charles of Lorraine, in a plain near the village of Leuthen. The Austrians numbered about 80,000 men, while the Prus sians did not exceed 30,000, yet by the skilful disposal of his troops and the celerity of his movements Frederick again gained a complete victory (5th December). The field was covered with slain, and it is estimated that about 20,000 surrendered themselves prisoners. Breslau was speedily retaken, and the Austrians driven out of Silesia.
The English were very indignant at the treaty entered into by the duke of Cumberland, and another army was speedily raised and placed under the command of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick, who commenced the campaign of 1758 by suddenly attacking the French in their winter quarters. In a few weeks he succeeded in driving them out of the country, pursued them across the Rhine, and attacked them furiously at Crefeld, where they were com pletely routed. While Field-Marshal Daun, who had received the com mand of the Austrian army, was waiting the attack of Frederick in Bohemia, the latter, by forced marches, entered Moravia and laid siege to Olmiitz. The town however, defended itself with the greatest bravery, and the Prussians were compelled to raise the siege. By this t ! me . Daun having blocked up Frederick s retreat into Silesia, the Prussian army was marched suddenly north ward into Bohemia, and attacked the Russians who had invaded Brandenburg. After a desperate battle the latter were defeated with great slaughter at Zorndorf (2Gth August), and compelled to retreat into Poland. Frederick now entered Saxony, where his brother Prince Henry was hard pressed by the Austrians. Thereupon Daun retired to a strong position in Lusatia, and Frederick took up a position near him, little thinking that Daun would attack him. Early in the morning of the 1 4th of October, however, the Austrians suddenly fell upon him at the village of Hoch- kirchen, and in the confusion and darkness the slaughter was terrible. Frederick lost several of his best generals, including Prince Francis of Brunswick, Prince Maurice of Dessau, and Field-Marshal Keith, with about 9000 of his soldiers. His camp, baggage, and ammunition also fell into the hands of the Austrians. The victory, however, was productive of little material results ; Frederick retreated into Silesia, while the Austrians, after ineffectual attempts on Leipsic, Torgau, and Dresden, retired to Bohemia for the winter. The Austrian army was again largely reinforced, and every preparation made for renewing hostilities with vigour. The following year (1759) Duke Ferdinand found 1759. himself hard pressed by two French armies under the Duke de Broglie and the Marshal de Contades. He sus tained a defeat at Bergen (12th April), but afterwards gained a signal victory at Miuden (1st August), and com pelled the French to retreat. Daun, waiting the approach of the Russians, did not take the field till the beginning of May, when, on their advance towards the Oder, he moved into Lusatia. In June, Dolma, who was sent to check the advance of the Russians, was forced to retreat, and, on the 23d July, Wedel, who succeeded him in the command, was totally routed near Ziillichau. The Russians then marched on to Frankfort-on-the-Oder, where they were joined by 18,000 Austrians under Marshal London. Frederick hastened with what troops he could collect to give battle to the combined army. The latter took up a strong position on the heights near Kunersdorf, and there they were attacked early on the 12th of August by the king. The Prussians numbered about 50,000, while the Russians and Austrians amounted to 90,000. The battle raged long and furiously, and the issue was long doubtful, but at length the Russians were giving way on all sides, and victory was about to declare for the Prussians, when unexpectedly the Austrians made a furious attack upon them, threw them into confusion, and in a short time drove them from the field. Frederick lost in this action 20,000 of his bravest troops, and the loss on the side of the allies was not less than 24,000 men killed and wounded. In the meantime the Austrians overran Saxony, took Torgau, Wittenberg, and Leipsic, and invested Dresden, which, after a spirited defence, surrendered when an army of relief was close at hand. But Frederick was speedily in the field again at the head of a new army, and, by dint of skilful manoeuvring and cutting off supplies, he succeeded in harassing the two armies, and compelled the Russians again to retire into Poland. An army of 13,000 men, under General Fink, attacked the rear of the Austrian army near Maxen, but after a brief but sanguinary conflict they were defeated and taken prisoners. Daun took up his winter quarters in Saxony, notwithstanding every effort of Frederick to dispossess him.
The imperial troops had been very successful during the last campaign, and were in good condition to renew the fight, while the Prussians had sustained great losses, were dispirited, and could only muster about 80,000 fighting men, and these no longer veterans, but in great measure raw recruits. In the campaign of 1760 Frederick was himself to 1760. conduct the war in Saxony, Prince Henry was to protect the marches against the Russians, and General Fouquet was to defend Silesia against the Austrians under Loudon. On 23d June, 8000 Prussians, under Fouquet, were surrounded and attacked on all sides by 30,000 Austrians at Landshut, aud, after defending themselves long with great bravery, were obliged to yield. The king, after an ineffectual attack upon Dresden, marched into Silesia followed by the Austriaus. At Liegnitz he found himself between three armies, under Generals Daun, Lacy, and Loudon, number ing about 90,000 men, while his own army amounted to only about 30,000. On the night preceding the 15th of August, Frederick took up a position on the neighbouring heights of Pfaffendorf. Scarcely had he done so when the Austrian army, under Loudon, made its appearance, it having also intended to occupy the same position, and then fall upon the Prussians. The Austrians were greatly astonished to find the enemy before them ; nevertheless, they fought for three hours with great bravery, return ing again and again to the attack, but were at length compelled to retreat with a loss of 4000 killed and 6000 wounded. Daun afterwards came up and made an attack upon the Prussians, but, learning what had happened to Loudon, he withdrew. Frederick now directed his march on Breslau ; and meanwhile the Russians effected a junc tion with the Austrians, and marched on Berlin, which surrendered to them (3d October). A week later, hearing that the king was advancing against them, they left the city and retired into Saxony. Daun had likewise arrived in Saxony, and taken up a very strong position near Torgau. Here the Prussians attacked him with great fury on 3d November. The battle lasted till night without being decisive, and the carnage on both sides was fearful. The Prussians prepared to renew the attack next day, but the Austrians retreated during the night. They lost about 12,000 men killed and wounded, and 8000 prisoners. By this battle Frederick reconquered the greater part of Saxony, and accordingly he fixed his winter quarters there, establishing his headquarters at Leipsic. In 1761 Frederick employed every stratagem to prevent the junction of the Russian army under Buturlin with the Austrian under Loudon. The two armies, however, at length came to gether in the environs of Strigau (12th August), the com bined force amounting to 130,000 men, while the Prussians numbered only about 50,000. The leaders, however, could not agree to a common course of proceeding, and the two armies separated without effecting anything of consequence. The Austrians surprised and took Schweid- nitz (1st October), and the Prussians, after a four months siege, took possession of Colberg (13th December). In Saxony Prince Henry had to retreat before Daun ; but the latter gained no great advantages, and Frederick settled in Breslau for the winter. It seemed as if Prussia must at last yield to her assailants, but this was as far as ever from the king s mind. To add to his difficulties, the subsidies from England w T ere stopped by the earl of Bute after the death of George II. But by the death of the Czarina Elizabeth (5th January 1762) he was freed from one of the most powerful of his enemies ; and her successor, Peter III., not only recalled the army, but delivered up all the Prussian prisoners, and even entered into an alliance with the king. Sweden also retired from the contest, and entered into terms of peace. Frederick was therefore in a better condition to carry on the war vigorously against Austria, and the seventh campaign was marked by a series of disasters to that power. He attacked and overthrew Daun s right wing at Burkersdorf (21st July), gained a victory at Reichenbach (16th August), and took Schweid- nitz after a very gallant defence (9th October). Prince Henry was also victorious at Freiberg (29th October). In the meantime Duke Ferdinand had been during the last three years successfully maintaining the war with the French. Fresh reinforcements and new generals were brought against him, but he could not be crushed ; and, by the victories of "Wilhelmsthal (24th June) and Luttern- burg (23d July), France was brought to agree to peace. Thus Austria and Prussia were left to carry on the war alone ; and the former, though amply provided with troops, was without money to furnish the necessary supplies, while Frederick was ever ready to come to terms on having the possession of Silesia secured to him. Austria found herself obliged to yield this point, and peace was at length agreed to. The treaty was signed at the castle of Hubertsburg, in Saxony, 15th February 1763, and thus ended the Seven 1763. Years War, a war disastrous to all concerned, and which is estimated to have cost in actual fighting men 853,000. It effected no territorial change in any of the countries, but through it Prussia rose to be one of the great powers of Europe. Austria, on her part, had carried on the con flict with remarkable vigour and determination ; her sol diers had displayed great bravery, and some of her generals had shown a military genius not greatly inferior to that of Frederick himself. Maria Theresa now zealously devoted herself to improv ing the condition of her people and country. She estab lished schools, removed feudal hardships, improved the condition of the serfs, reformed ecclesiastical abuses, and fostered industry and commerce. The Emperor Francis died 18th August 1765, and was succeeded by his son, Joseph II., who the previous year had been elected king of the Romans. He also became joint-regent with his mother of the hereditary states. Maria established two collateral branches of her house in the persons of her two younger sons, the Archduke Leopold in Tuscany, and the Archduke Ferdinand, who married the heiress of Este, in Modena. By the first partition of Poland (1772) Austria acquired Galicia and Lodomeria, and in 1777 Buckowina was ceded by the Porte. On the death of the elector of Bavaria without issue, the Emperor Joseph laid claim to his do minions. To this Frederick was opposed, and again took the field against Austria. The dispute, however, was settled without war (1779), Austria being content with the cession by Bavaria of the frontier district called the quarter of the Inn, and one or two others. The empress died 29th November 1780, in the sixty-fourth year of her age and the forty-first of her reign. She was a woman of many and great virtues, with few weaknesses, and effected more for Austria than any of her predecessors. Mr Carlyle says that she was " most brave, high and pious minded ; beauti ful, too, and radiant with good nature, though of a temper that will easily catch fire ; there is, perhaps, no nobler woman then living." At her death the monarchy com prised 234,500 square miles, with a population estimated at 24,000,000, and a public debt of 160,000,000 florins, or 16,000,000. The Emperor Joseph II., whose zeal for reform had in great measure been kept in check during the lifetime of his mother, now felt himself at liberty to give it full scope. He attempted a number of changes, of which several were praiseworthy in their objects, but abrupt and premature in their operation, so that in the end they were productive of evil consequences. He sought to establish a system of central government and uniformity of legislation through out his dominions; enjoined the exclusive use of the German language in all schools, courts of justice, <tc. ; granted free and unreserved toleration to all sects of Christians ; abo lished numerous convents and monasteries ; dismantled various fortresses ; and did away with primogeniture and feudal vassalage. Had his people been ripe for these changes he would probably have been hailed as a reformer of abuses ; but the Austrians were attached to their old usages, and were little inclined for change, while the arbi trary manner in which the improvements were introduced could not fail to provoke discontent. General uneasiness, therefore, began to prevail, which in the Netherlands broke out into open revolt in 1789. This, together with an unsuccessful war in which he had engaged with Russia against Turkey, is understood to have preyed upon his over-sensitive mind, and caused his death on 20th February 1790. He was, says Mr Carlyle, "a man of very high qualities, and much too conscious of them ; a man of am bition without bounds ; one of those fatal men fatal to themselves first of all who mistake half genius for whole ; and rush on the second step without having made the first."
He was succeeded by his brother Leopold, grand duke of Tuscany, who by his moderation and firmness was suc cessful in restoring peace to the country, and in quelling the insurrection in the Netherlands. He also made peace with the Porte. The misfortunes of his sister Maria Antoinette and her husband, Louis XVI. of France, led him to enter into an alliance with Prussia against the 1792. Revolutionists, but he died before the war broke out (1st March 1792). He was succeeded by his son, Francis II., who had hardly ascended the throne when he found War with himself involved in a war with France. Hostilities corn- France, menced on 28th April with an attempted invasion of Flanders by the French, but their undisciplined troops were .speedily routed and put to flight. A combined army of 50,000 Prussians, under the command of the duke of Brunswick, and 15,000 Austrians under General Clairfait, besides about 20,000 French, soon after crossed the French frontier, took Longwy and Verdun, and marched on Paris. In the meantime Dumouriez was actively engaged in col lecting an army, and soon found himself in a condition to meet them. A series of engagements took place without any decided result, beyond checking the advance of the nllied troops, who were now also suffering very severely from sickness and famine. It was therefore deemed pru dent to retire, and Verdun and Longwy were soon after retaken. Dumouriez next invaded the Netherlands with an army of 100,000 men, to oppose which the Austrian army only amounted to 40,000. A battle took place at Jemappes on the 6th of November, in which the Austrians fought with heroic bravery, and the contest was long doubtful, but the superior numbers of the French carried the day. The loss on both sides was very great ; and soon after the whole of the Austrian Netherlands, with the ex ception of Luxemburg, was in the hands of the French. The commencement of the campaign of 1793 was dis tinguished by a series of brilliant victories gained by the allies in the Netherlands. Dumouriez was defeated at Aldenhoven, and again in a great battle at Neerwinden (18th March). Soon after, afraid of falling into the hands of the Jacobins in Paris, he passed over to the allies. His successor, General Dampierre, was defeated and slain on the plains of Famars, and the allies became masters of Valenciennes and Conde. Towards the end of the cam paign, however, the republican troops were successful in a number of engagements. At the commencement of the year 1794, the Austrians, Dutch, English, and Hanoverians united their forces in the Netherlands under the command of the prince of Coburg, and the Emperor Francis himself joined the camp, in order by his presence to encourage the troops. In April the allies were successful at Gateau and at Landrecies, and took that town; but their good fortune then forsook them. Clairfait was attacked singly at Kor- tryk by Pichegru, and forced to yield to superior numbers; and the allies under the prince of Coburg were attacked by him at Tournay (22d May), when an extremely long and bloody, but undecisive, battle was fought. The Austrian troops were now greatly dispirited; and, on the 26th June they were defeated by General Jourdan at Fleurus. This was followed by other disasters, so that all Flanders was soon in the hands of the French. Pichegru, pursuing his vic torious career, next invaded Holland, which, before the end of the year, was transformed into a republic. In the begin- 1795. ning of 1795 Prussia abandoned the cause of the allies, and concluded a treaty of peace with the French republic at Basle (5th April), and was joined therein by Hanover and Hesse Cassel, so that Austria and England were left alone to pro secute the war. For some months a cessation of hostilities took place between the contending parties; but on the 6th of September the French army under Jourdan suddenly crossed the Rhine near Diisseldorf, invested that town, and drove the Austrians before it over the Maine. Clairfait, however, reassembled his troops behind the latter river, and attacked the French at Hochst, near Frankfort, and completely defeated them (llth October), so that they were obliged to recross the Rhine. In the meantime Pichegru had crossed the river with another army, near Mannheim, and took pos session of that town. Wurmser, who was sent for its relief, arrived too late for that purpose, but attacked the French army near it, put them to flight, and compelled them to recross the Rhine, leaving a garrison of 8000 men to defend the town, which, after a vigorous siege, surrendered to the Austrians. The French, undismayed by these failures, were only stimulated to greater efforts; and the following 1796. year they sent out three armies against Austria, one under Jourdan towards the Lower Rhine, another under Moreau towards the Upper Rhine, and a third into Italy. In the end of May the French army under Jourdan crossed the Lower Rhine, and gained some successes, but was after wards attacked by the Archduke Charles (16th June), and forced to recross the river. Moreau soon after effected his passage over the Upper Rhine at Strasburg, defeated the Austrians in several partial engagements, and reduced the circle of Swabia to subjection. Jourdan again pushed for ward his troops, and took Frankfort by bombardment, but was defeated with great loss by the archduke at Am- berg (24th August), and again at Wurzburg (3d September). Moreau had in the meantime continued his advance into Bavaria, but was ultimately obliged to effect a retreat, which he carried out with great skill, suffering compara tively little loss, and recrossing the Rhine on 20th October. But a different fate was attending the army in Italy, under the command of a young officer, who afterwards became world-famous for his generalship, namely, Bonaparte. By the promptitude of his movements, and the suddenness of his attacks, he completely overcame and separated the army of the Sardinians from that of the Austrians, and forced the Sardinian king to sign a treaty of peace. He then turned his arms against the Austrians, defeated them in several engagements, and made himself master of the whole of Lombardy, except Mantua. Wurmser was now summoned from Germany with an army of 30,000 men, which raised the Austrian force to about 60,000; while opposed to them were about 55,000 French. In stead, however, of advancing in one body, the Austrians were divided into two columns, which advanced by different routes, a mistake of which Bonaparte did not fail to take advantage. One division of 20,000 men was attacked and compelled to retreat towards the mountains, while Wurmser with the other division entered Mantua. Leaving that city he sustained a double defeat at Lonata and Castiglione (3d August); and, being again severely beaten at Medola (5th August), he was forced to seek shelter in the moun tains of Tyrol. Having received reinforcements, however, he again advanced in divided columns, one of which was defeated at Rovereclo, the other, under himself, near Bassano. He took the road to Mantua with the remains of his army, and reached that town after a brilliant victory over a body of French troops that had been sent to i:i tercept him. Meanwhile the Austrians collected another army of 40,000 men under Alvinzi, who, after a series of successes, gained a decided victory over Bonaparte at Caldiero (llth November). Four days later the Austrians were again attacked by the French near the village of Arcola, and after three days desperate fighting on both sides the Austrians at length retreated. Alvinzi received reinforcements, and again set out to attack the French, but suffered a severe defeat at Bivoli on 14th January 1797. A fortnight later Mantua capitulated, and the French be came undisputed masters of the country. Speaking of the perseverance and patriotic spirit of the Austrians in this struggle in Italy, Sir A. Alison says, "It is impossible to contemplate without admiration the vast armies which they successively sent into the field, and the unconquerable courage with which these returned to a contest where so many thousands of their countrymen had perished before them. Had they been guided by greater or opposed by less ability they unquestionably would have been successful, and even against the soldiers of the army of Italy and the genius of Napoleon, the scales of fortune repeatedly hung equal." (History of Europe.} The Archduke Charles was now recalled from the Rhine to oppose Bonaparte. The latter set out on his journey northward on the 10th of March, with the view of crossing the Alps and so reaching Vienna. The Austrians attempted to oppose his progress at the river Tagliamento, but without success ; and a desperate struggle took place for the possession of the Col de Tarvis, which ended in favour of Napoleon, so that in twenty days after the campaign opened the army of the archduke was driven over the Julian Alps, and the victori ous French army of 45,000 strong was on the northern declivity of the Alps, within 60 leagues of Vienna. Napoleon, still pressing on, took possession of Klagenfurt, and advanced as far as Judenburg on the River Mur ; but finding his position very insecure, and dangers thickening upon him, he despaired of carrying out his intention of dictating peace under the walls of Vienna. He there fore offered terms of accommodation to the Austrians, which they deemed it prudent to accept. Preliminaries were agreed to at Leoben (18th April), and a formal treaty of peace was signed at Campo Formio, 17th October 1797. By this treaty Austria ceded to France Flanders and her Italian possessions, and received in return Venice and its dependent provinces. It, however, contained certain secret articles, by one of which Austria consented to sur render the whole of the left bank of the Rhine to France ; and a convention was appointed to meet at Rastadt to pro vide equivalents on the right bank for the princes dis possessed on the left, and otherwise to settle the affairs of the empire. The terms were not particularly hard as regards Austria. The ceded territories contained about 3,500,000 souls, and those acquired about 3,400,000. But the taking away of the independence of Venice, which had been maintained for 1400 years, was an act of rapacity which excited the indignation of Europe, and Austria s share in it must ever remain a stain on her annals. This peace was not of long duration. As the business of a convention which met at Rastadt advanced, and the bearing of the secret articles became known, a great sensa tion was created in Germany. The high-handed manner in which the French conducted their negotiations, and the insolence and contempt with which they treated the empire, led to the recall of the Austrian ambassador from the con vention in the beginning of 1799, and on the 13th of March France again declared war against Austria. In the meantime the latter power had entered into an alliance with England and Russia against the former. In Germany the Archduke Charles defeated Jourdan at Stockach (26th March), and in several other encounters, and drove him out of the country ; and he afterwards reconquered the whole of the western portion of Switzerland to beyond Zurich from Massena. In Italy Scherer was defeated by the Austrian general Kray at Verona and at Magnano, and then resigned the command into the hands of Moreau. The Russian army, under Suwaroff, now formed a junction with the Austrian, and the French were again beaten near Cassano (27th April). This was followed by other suc cesses, so that in less than three months the French standards were driven back to the summit of the Alps, and the whole plain of Lombardy, with the exception of a few of its strongest fortresses, was recovered. After this the Russian general marched against Macdonald, who was advancing with a French army from Naples. - A desperate conflict took place on the banks of the Trebbia, which was maintained with consummate bravery and skill for three days (17-19 June), until victory declared for the Russians. Out of 36,000 men in the field the French lost above 12,000 in killed and wounded, and the allies nearly as many. One place after another now fell into the hands of the allies; but mutual jealousies and divisions breaking out among them, the Russian and Austrian forces were eventually separated. This led to the most disastrous results. The Russians were to prosecute the war in Switzerland, while the Austrians remained to carry it on in Italy. In the meantime another French army had been collected under General Joubert; and, on the loth of August he was attacked by the allies at Novi. The battle was long and obstinate, but at length the allies were victorious. The French lost their general, who fell mortally wounded, besides about 1500 killed, 5500 wounded, and 3000 prisoners. The loss of the allies was 1800 killed, 5200 wounded, and 1200 prisoners. The Russian general now directed his march towards the Alps, forced the St Gotthard, and descended into the valley of the Urseren, driving the French before him with great slaughter. With great difficulty and loss he effected a passage through the horrible defile of the Shachenthal, between Altdorf and Mutten ; but, at the latter place, instead of meeting the allied troops, as he had expected, he found himself in the midst of the enemy. Before this time Massena had so beset the Russian general Korsakoff at Zurich, that he was compelled to fight, and with difficulty made his escape with the remains of his army, while the Austrian forces under Hotze had also been beaten by Soult. Nothing remained for Suwaroff but retreat, a course which he adopted with extreme reluctance, making his way with incredible resolution and perseverance over the rugged Alps into Glarus and the Grisons, and at length reaching the valley of the Rhine (10th October). Disagreements having taken place between the Austrian and Russian generals regarding their future proceedings, the latter with drew to winter quarters in Bavaria ; and soon after this the capricious czar of Russia, Paul, withdrew from the alliance and recalled his troops.
Bonaparte, who had now returned from his Egyptian 1800. campaign, made proposals for peace, which were rejected, and both sides prepared to renew the contest in 1800. A numerous and well-appointed French army was collected at Dijon, at the head of which the first consul suddenly put himself, and set out for Italy across the Great St Bernard. The passage was effected with great skill and determination in spite of every obstacle, and he arrived in Lombardy before Melas, the Austrian general there, had been informed of the expedition. On the 14th of June a great battle took place near the village of Marengo, the most obstinate and sanguinary that had up to this time been fought. Austrian army numbered 21,000 foot and 7000 hors while opposed to them was an army of 22,000 men. The battle was maintained with great spirit and obstinacy en both sides; but at length, after repeated charges, the French were compelled to give way, and the retreat be came general. At this moment, however, a fresh body of French troops under Desaix arriving on the field the con test was renewed, and after a final struggle the Austrians were compelled to yield. They lost about 7000 men in killed and wounded, and 3000 prisoners; while the French lost about the same number in killed and wounded, and 1000 prisoner?, taken in the early part of the day. Their retreat being cut off, the Austrians capitulated to the conqueror, who thus again acquired possession of the whole of Italy Ir< the meantime Moreau had invaded Germany and defeated Kray in several engagements, parti cularly at Stockach and Moskirch, and again at Biberach and Hochstadt; he also took Munich, and laid Bavaria and Swabia under contribution. An armistice was now agreed to (Parsdorf, 15th July), and overtures were made for peace, but without success. Hostilities were resumed in the end of November, and at first the Austrians gained some advantages, but on the 3d of December they sustained a crushing defeat at Hohenlinden. The fight was long and obstinate ; the French lost on that and the preceding days 9000 men, while the loss of the Austrians was nearly twice as great. The moral effects of the defeat were most disastrous Moreau now advanced by hasty marches, crossed the Inn, took Salzburg, and pressed on towards Vienna, but an armistice was agreed to on 25th December. In Italy the Austrian forces sustained a severe defeat at the passage of the Mincio (2Gth December). 1801. Suffering under these disasters Austria was glad to agree to terms, which were concluded at Luneville, 9th February 1801. By this treaty the whole of the left bank of the Rhine was again ceded to France, and the Adige was declared to be the boundary of Austria in Italy ; the grand duke of Tuscany, on the promise of an indemnity in Germany, re nounced his dukedom in favour of the infant duke of Parma, created king of Etruria ; the duke of Modena re ceived the niargraviate of Breisgau in exchange for his territory ; and the independence of the Batavian, Helvetic, Cisalpine, and Ligurian republics was recognised and guaranteed. A convention was to be again summoned for the regulation and adjustment of the rights of all con cerned. In order to provide indemnities for the despoiled princes, a large proportion of the ecclesiastical sovereignties of the empire was secularised, or, in other words, con fiscated ; and all the free imperial cities were deprived of their privileges with the exception of six. To the share of Prussia fell the bishoprics of Hildesheim and Paderborn, the city of Munster, and other cities and abbacies, to the amount of more than four times what she had lost on the left bank of the Rhine. Thus was she rewarded for her discreditable neutrality and impolitic desertion of the European alliance, though she subsequently suffered for this at Jena and by the treaty of Tilsit. The grand duke of Tuscany received the archbishopric of Salzburg, the bishopric of Eichstadt, and part of that of Passau, in exchange for his hereditary possessions. Austria received the Tyrolese archbishoprics of Trent and Brixen. She had also received, in 1795, Western Galicia as her share in the third division of Poland, so that now her territory comprised over 254,000 square miles, her public debt amounting to 1,220,000,000 florins, or 122,000,000. Austria now enjoyed a short period of peace, and em ployed it in silently repairing the breaches in her army and finances which had been produced by the late wars. After Napoleon had assumed the title of emperor of the French, the Emperor Francis took for himself and his successors that of emperor of Austria (llth August 1804). On llth 1805. April 1805, an alliance was formed between England and Russia for resisting the encroachments of France, and some months later Austria and Sweden likewise joined it. Prussia held aloof, in the hope of receiving Hanover as a reward for her neutrality ; while Baden, Wiirtemberg, and Bavaria sided with France. Deceived by the efforts that Napoleon was ostensibly making for the invasion of Eng land, the Austrians (9th September) crossed the Inn, in vaded Bavaria, and took up a position in the Black Forest. Meanwhile the French troops were in full march from the shores of the Channel to the banks of the Rhine ; and the force in Hanover, under Bernadotte, was ordered to cross the Prussian territory without asking permission, and form a junction with the Bavarians in the rear of the Austrians, while other corps were at the same time directed by circuit ous routes upon their flanks. The Austrian general, Mack, on the first intelligence of the approach of the French, had concentrated his forces at Ulm, Memmingen, and Stockach, contemplating an attack only in front. Great was his consternation, therefore, when he found that there was also an army on his rear. After several partial engagements, in which the Austrians were defeated, the Archduke Ferdinand, at the head of a body of cavalry, succeeded in making his way through the enemy, and in reaching Bohemia ; while Mack, with the rest of the army, shut himself up in Ulm, which, with 30,000 men, he was forced to surrender (20th October). After this, Napoleon, with his usual rapidity, marched with the main body of his troops upon Vienna, and on the 5th of November established his headquarters at Liuz, the capital of Upper Austria. The Russian and Austrian troops made various attempts to obstruct his farther progress (particularly at Diirrenstein, where a desperate engagement took place), but without success ; and, on the 1 3th November, Vienna was in the hands of the conqueror, who made his headquarters at Schonbrunn. In the meantime the Archduke Charles was with the army in Italy, where, on 29th October, he was attacked with great fury on the heights of Caldiero, by the French under Massena. A terrible con flict ensued, and continued till night parted the combat ants. It was renewed the following day, when at length victory declared for the Austrians. The archduke, how ever, was unable to avail himself of his success, for, hear ing of the unfortunate state of matters in Germany, he set out with his army for the defence of the capital, and con ducted it with great skih 1 over the mountains, so that it suffered no serious loss. Marshal Ney, who had been sent with a body of troops into Tyrol, succeeded in taking the mountain barrier of Scharuitz by storm, and in making himself master of Innsbruck. Two bodies of Austrian troops had been so hard pressed that they were obliged to capitulate one under General Jellachich at Feldkirch, and another under the Prince de Rohan at Castel- Franco in Italy. After the loss of Vienna the allied forces collected them selves in Moravia, whither they were followed by Napoleon. At length the two armies came in sight of each other at Austerlitz, and both sides prepared for battle, which it was felt must be a most momentous one, and was to be witnessed by three emperors (those of France, Austria, and Russia). The allied forces numbered fully 80,000 men, of whom 15,000 were cavalry, while the French had 90,000 men in the field. The army of the allies was not well generaled, while on the side of the French were Soult, Bernadotte, Davoust, Murat, Lannes, Oudinot, Bessieres, &c. The battle commenced on the morning of the 2d December, and continued till night. Both sides displayed the greatest skill and bravery; at one part of the field the allies would be victorious, at another the French ; at one time victory would incline to the French, and again to the allies. At length, however, towards evening, the allies came to be beaten at all points, and the route soon became general. Numbers sought to save themselves by crossing the frozen lake of Satschan ; but shots from the French batteries on the heights above broke the ice in all directions, and about 2000 men perished. The allies lost about 30,000 men, killed, wounded, or made prisoners, while the French lost about 12,000 in killed and wounded. This was the most glorious of all Napoleon s victories ; but he was still in a very dangerous position. The Archduke Charles, with an army of 80,000 men, was now approaching Vienna ; Hun gary was rising en masse against him ; Russian reserves were advancing ; and Prussia was at length preparing to declare war, on account of the unauthorised passage of French troops through her territories. From these difficul ties, however, he was freed by the desire of the Emperor Francis for peace. An armistice was agreed to, and finally a treat} of peace was drawn up and signed at Presburg (25th December 1805). By this treaty Austria ceded to Bavaria, now erected into a kingdom, the whole of the Tyrol, Vorarl- berg, Lindau, Burgau, Passau, Eichstadt, Trent, and Brixen, besides several petty lordships ; to Wiirtemberg, now also become a kingdom, the bordering Austrian dominions in Swabia ; and to Baden the Breisgau, the Ortenau, and the town of Constance. She also yielded up her Venetian possessions, and agreed to pay a war contribution of 1,600,000. In exchange for all these sacrifices she merely received the small electorate of Salzburg, and the possessions of the Teutonic Order. In all, Austria lost about 28,000 square miles of territory, with a population of 2,700,000, and a revenue of 14,175,000 florins. It was evidently not the intention of Napoleon to overthrow the Austrian monarchy, but rather to throw its strength to the eastward, and to impose a barrier of subordinate kingdoms between it and France, so as to prevent its interference with his schemes of aggrandisement in Germany and Italy. A blow was inflicted upon the constitution of the Ger man empire by Napoleon, in the formation of the Con federation of the Rhine. Representatives of the different powers concerned assembled at Paris in the beginning of July 180G; and, on the 12th of that month, an Act was signed whereby the kings of Bavaria and Wiirtemberg, the elector of Baden, and thirteen other princes of Western Germany, separated themselves from the German empire, and formed a confederation under the protection of the emperor of the French. 16,000,000 men were thus, by a single stroke, transferred from the empire to a foreign alli ance. Wisely yielding to what he could not prevent, the Emperor Francis, by solemn deed, renounced the title of emperor of the Romans, and declared himself the first of the emperors of Austria. The peace of Presburg was quickly followed by the war between France and Prussia, in which the latter suffered terrible retribution for her selfish policy in leaving Austria to struggle unaided against the common foe of Europe. Great efforts were made to induce Austria to take part in this war, but she prudently remained neutral, contenting herself with making every effort to strengthen and improve her army, and increase her warlike resources. During the whole of 1806 and 1807 the efforts of the war department, under the guidance of the Archduke Charles, were inces sant to restore the losses that had been sustained in the late war. The army was also remodelled upon the system adopted by Napoleon. The transfer of a large portion of the French army in Germany to the Peninsula on the breaking out of war there, emboldened the Austrian Gov ernment to issue a decree (9th June, 1808), instituting a land vehr or militia to be raised by conscription, which soon amounted to 300,000 men, in addition to a regular standing army of 350,000. On hearing of this, Napoleon addressed strong remonstrances to the court at Vienna, which made loud professions of pacific intentions, but did not cease its warlike preparations. In the spring of 1809 the armies on both sides took the field, and, on 8th April, Austrian troops crossed the frontiers at once in Bohemia, on the Inn, in the Tyrol, and in Italy. In the mean time France was bringing together her forces from all quarters towards the valley of the Danube, where at length she had an army, including the troops of the German Confederation, of about 200,000 men, and Berthier was despatched to take the command till the arrival of the emperor. The Archduke Charles had crossed the Inn with upwards of 120,000 men, and on the 16th they had advanced as far as the Isar, which they crossed. Berthier, instead of concentrating his troops, was separating them, so that they were in the utmost danger, when the arrival of Napoleon at once changed the aspect of affairs. On the 19th an action took place at Thann, between a body of about 20,000 French and a like number of Austrians, with out any decisive result ; and the following day the main body of the Austrians, over 50,000 strong, was suddenly attacked and defeated after a feeble resistance at Abens- berg, by a French army of 65,000 men. The same day the Austrians attacked and took Ratisbon, and secured the bridge over the Danube there. Both sides now prepared for a general engagement, which took place at Eckmiihl on the 22d of April. The battle was bravely contested ; but at length the French were victorious, the loss to the Austrians being 5000 killed and wounded, and 7000- prisoners. The archduke retired during the night to-^ recruit his army in Bohemia, and Ratisbon was taken by storm. In other parts, particularly in Italy, success was attending the Austrian arms. Napoleon now lost no time in again marching on to Vienna, and no great attempt was made to impede his progress except at Ebersberg, where Hiller with about 30,000 Austrians took his stand to defend the wooden bridge over the Traun. He was gallantly attacked by a body of French troops under Massena, and a fearful struggle took place ; but at length the French prevailed, and Hiller with drew his troops. Each side lost about 6000 men on this occasion. On the 10th of May the French eagles appeared before the walls of Vienna, and, after an ineffectual attempt at defence, the city surrendered on the 13th. The Arch duke Charles was hastening to the relief of the town, but arrived too late. The two armies therefore prepared for battle, the one on the north bank of the Danube, the other on the south. On the night of the 19th the French pre pared to cross the river at the island of Lobau, and by daybreak on the 21st they had 40,000 men landed on the northern side. The Austrians now resolved upon an attack, and by two o clock, when the fight began, the French force- amounted to about 50,000 men, while the Austrians had 80,000 to oppose them. The scene of action was near the villages of Aspern and Essling, and the struggle was maintained with the most desperate courage on both sides till night parted the combatants. The Austrians had everywhere the advantage, but both sides prepared to renew the contest the next day. During the night, and early in the morning, French troops were still passing over, so that, notwithstanding his losses, Napoleon had fully 70,000 men to renew the fight. It commenced early in the morning, and continued the greater part of the day ; but at length the French were beaten on all sides, and compelled to retreat to the island of Lobau. In these two days they lost upwards of 30,000 men, and the Austrians not less than 20,000. The victory produced a great impression on the mind of Europe, and dissipated in a great degree the charm of Napoleon s invincibility. He, however, made every preparation for renewing the contest. He summoned troops from different parts, and for tified his position on the island of Lobau, connecting it also by several bridges with the south bank of the river. On the evening of the 4th of July he assembled his troops on the island, amounting to 150 000 infantry and 30,000}} cavalry, with 750 pieces of cannon. During the night several bridges, which had been secretly prepared, were thrown over to the northern bank at a point where they were not looked for, and by six o clock the following morning the whole body had passed over. In the after noon the French made a vehement attack upon the Austrians, but were repulsed with great slaughter. Early on the morning of the 6th the Austrians began the attack. Their numbers were then about 115,000 infantry and 25,000 cavalry; but they were in hourly expectation of the arrival of an additional body of 30,000 under the Arch duke John, which was known to be not far off. The battle was contested with the utmost determination and bravery on both sides. The Austrian right wing succeeded in over throwing and putting to flight the left wing of the enemy. On the other wing the contest was long and doubtful; but two divisions of troops having at length succeeded in turn ing the extreme flank of the Austrians, the latter, after a gallant defence, were compelled to abandon their position. In these circumstances, Napoleon collected all his dispos able forces and brought them to bear upon the centre of the Austrians, which was their weak point, the archduke having thrown his strength chiefly into the two wings. After repeated charges, which were repulsed with great bravery, the French succeeded in forcing their line, and the archduke, despairing of maintaining his position, ordered a retreat, which was effected in good order and with little loss. The French were so exhausted that they displayed little vigour in the pursuit, and neither guns nor prisoners were taken. The Archduke John came up in the afternoon, but too late to be of any service. Had he made his appearance sooner there can be no doubt that the result would have been different. As it was, the Austrians suc ceeded in making a most gallant stand against a greater number of the best troops of France, led by Napoleon and some of his greatest generals. This battle of Wagram was one of the greatest and most obstinately contested fights in the whole war, and is perhaps the most glorious in the annals of Austria. The loss on both sides was immense, amounting to about 25,000 on each, including killed and wounded. The Archduke Charles retreated towards Bohemia without any serious molestation from the enemy. A battle was fought at Znaim (llth July) be tween the Austrians and a French army under Massena which was following them, but before it was decided news of an armistice arrived. This was followed by the peace of Vienna (14th October). " The campaign of Aspern and Wagram," says Sir A. Alison, " is the most glorious in the Austrian annals, one of the most memorable examples of patriotic resistance recorded in the history of the world. . . . Other empires have almost invariably succumbed upon the capture of the capital. . . . Austria is the only state recorded in history which (without the aid of a rigor ous climate like Moscow) fought two desperate battles in defence of its independence after its capital had fallen." (History of Europe. ) By the peace of Vienna Austria was compelled to cede Salzburg, Berchtesgaden, the Innviertel, and the Hausruckviertel, to Bavaria ; portions of Galicia to Russia and the grand duke of Warsaw ; and Carniola, Trieste, the greater part of Croatia, Istria, the circle of Villach, &c., to Italy In all she lost about 42,000 square miles of territory and 3,500.000 inhabitants, to gether with more than 11,000,000 florins of revenue. The emperor also agreed to reduce his army to not more than 150,000 men; and a war contribution of 3,400,000 was imposed on the provinces occupied by the French troops. Before leaving the Austrian capital Napoleon caused the fortifications to be blown up. Soon after this Napoleon obtained a divorce from his wife Josephine, and offered his hand to Maria Louisa, daughter of the emperor of Austria, and was accepted. The marriage was celebrated with great pomp at Vienna on the llth March 1810. In 1812 Austria was obliged to enter into an alliance with France against Russia, and to furnish an auxiliary force of 30,000 men for the invasion of the latter country. The disastrous result of that expedi tion to the invaders showed Germany that the fortunate moment had now arrived for regaining her independence. Prussia was the first to form an alliance with Russia, and 1813. declared war against France (17th March 1813). Great efforts were made to induce Austria to join this alliance, but without success. She directed her attention to raising her military strength, and making other preparations to enable her to take an important part in the coming struggle, on the one side or the other. After the defeat of the allies at Liitzen and Bautzen, and the conclusion of an armistice at Pleswitz, Austria came forward as a mediator, with the view of effecting a peace between the parties, and not with out the view, also, of gaining some material advantage for herself. In fact, she now held in her hand the balance between the contending parties. Her army of 150,000 or 200,000, which she had collected in Bohemia, would bring victory to whatever side she joined. Metternich, who at that period had the direction of the cabinet of Vienna, was too clear-headed not to perceive the advantages of the position, and he determined to avail himself of them, in order if possible to restore to Austria her lost possessions. He had openly avowed, that if Napoleon would accede to the terms which he proposed Austria would throw her whole 200,000 men into the scale in his favour. At first it seemed doubtful to which side she would attach herself; but it would appear that the allies had reason to believe that she was favourable to them, and that Napoleon had also reason for suspecting the strength of her attachment to him. It is evident that she would have more to expect from the allies than from Napoleon, but at the same time it was doubtful how far she would be influenced by the existing matri monial alliance. While things were in this doubtful state news arrived of the battle of Vitoria, by which the death blow was given to the power of France in the Peninsula, and after this there was little hope of peace on either side. Austria, whatever her previous intentions, doubtless now felt that there was little to be gained from attaching her self to a sinking empire and a falling cause, and she agreed, in the event of Napoleon not accepting the terms proposed, to join the allies. They could have had little hope that the terms would be accepted ; they included the cession to Austria of all the Illyrian provinces, with Trieste, the re instatement of Prussia in her ancient possessions, with a frontier on the Elbe, and the dissolution of the grand duchy of Warsaw, to be divided between Russia, Austria, and Prussia. These terms not being acceded to, both parties prepared for war. Austria agreed to furnish 200,000 to the allied forces, stipulating in return that she should be restored to the condition in which she was in 1803, or, at any rate, at the peace of Presburg. By gigantic efforts Napoleon was able to raise, his army to 400,000 men, of whom nearly 350,000 were effective, and he resolved to make Dresden the pivot on which all his operations should turn. To oppose him the allies mus tered about 400,000 men, so that the two forces were pretty nearly equal. Of the latter, a grand army of 220,000 men, chiefly Austrians, under Prince Schwarzenberg, was sta tioned in Bohemia; Bliicher, with 95,000 men, w r as to protect Silesia ; while Bernadotte, the crown prince of Sweden, who had joined the allies with 28,000 troops, was to protect Berlin and Brandenburg with an army of 90,000. Napoleon resolved to march with the main body of his troops into Silesia against Bliicher, having despatched.au army of 80,000 men under Oudinot against Berlin, and sending a force of 30,000 to keep the passes from Bo hemia to Dresden. Bliicher judiciously retreated before the French troops, and while Napoleon was following him, the allied army in Bohemia came down upon Dresden. In place, however, of at once beginning the attack, it was delayed till Bonaparte, who had been informed of their movements, had time to arrive. The attack was commenced on 28th August, and kept up with great fury during the day ; but in the evening a series of sallies were made from the town, which took the besiegers completely by surprise, and compelled them to withdraw. Napoleon had now re ceived sufficient reinforcements to enable him to give battle, which he did the next day. He was then able to muster 130,000 men, while the allies numbered about 160,000. The fight was maintained for some time with great bravery on both sides, but at length a body of French troops under Murat succeeded in turning the flank of the allied left wing, and then attacking them suddenly on flank and rear; they were thus thrown into confusion, and the great body of them killed or made prisoners. The allies lost on this occasion about 26,000 men, of whom about 13,000 were prisoners. A French force under Vandamme had been sent to cut off the retreat of the allies, but this was engaged near Culm (29th August) by a body of Russians under Ostermann, and a desperate struggle took place, which was renewed the next day, and only ended by the appearance in the rear of the French of a large body of Prussians, when the leader and most of his troops were made prisoners. The French lost in the two days 18,000 men, of whom 7000 were prisoners. Napoleon, on quitting Silesia, had left Macdonald with an army of 80,000 men to oppose Bliicher. The latter suddenly attacked them with great fury on the Katzbach (26th August), and defeated them with great slaughter. The fight was several times renewed during the three fol lowing clays when the allies were in pursuit, and in all the French lost about 7000 men in killed and wounded, and 18,000 prisoners. Nor was the French army under Oudi- nct more successful, for it sustained a severe defeat at Gross Beeren (23d August), and in that and subsequent engagements lost about 4000 in killed and wounded, and an equal number of prisoners. Napoleon was strongly affected by these reverses, the more so that they were quite unexpected. He gave the command of the army in the north to Ney, and set out himself against Bliicher. Ney engaged the allied army at Dennewitz, and a desperate battle was fought (6th September), in which the French were at length beaten and put to flight with a loss of 13,000 men, of whom one-half were prisoners. The army in Bohemia now again resumed the offensive, and was preparing to fall upon Dresden, when Napoleon suddenly returned and drove them back. He again marched against Bliicher, but returned to Dresden without effecting any thing. He then resolved to enter Prussia and take Berlin, but was obliged to give up this project on learning that Bavaria had joined the allies (8th October). Now fearing that his retreat might be cut off, he directed his march towards the Rhine, and reached Leipsic on the loth of October. Here the combined allied armies under Schwarzen- bsrg, Bliicher, and Bernadotte assembled, and on the 16th an indecisive battle was fought, which to the French was equivalent to a defeat, and the same evening Napoleon made proposals for peace, but no answer was returned. The battle was renewed on the 18th. The French army numbered about 175,000 men, while the allied forces amounted to about 290,000. The French strength was also weakened by two Saxon brigades of foot and one of cavalry passing over to the enemy during the engagement. Notwithstanding these disadvantages the French fought with great bravery and determination but were at length beaten on every side. Next day they were in full retreat, and Leipsic was taken by the allies after a gallant defence. The total loss of the French during these four days exceeded 60,000 men. The emperor reached Erfurt on the 23d October, and there collected the scattered remains of his army. The Bavarians, under Wrede, attempted to inter cept his retreat at Hanau, but though aided by some of the allied troops, they were defeated with great slaughter (30th October). The Rhine was crossed on 1st November, and on the 9th Napoleon arrived in Paris. Thus Germany regained its independence, and the Confederation of the Rhine was dissolved. Austria, as we have seen, had a principal share in bringing this about ; but the Emperor Francis was opposed to the adoption of extreme measures against Napoleon, being desirous that the sceptre of France should continue in the hands of his daughter and her de scendants. Other views, however, prevailed. The war was 1814. carried into the enemy s country, and at length, not with out a good deal of fighting, the allies entered Paris on 31st March 1814. On llth April Napoleon resigned the im perial crown.
In the end of September following a congress was assem bled at Vienna to adjust the claims and the mutual rela tions of the several states. This, however, was found to be a matter of no small difficulty. Russia demanded the whole of Poland, and Prussia laid claim to Saxony. Austria, France, and England were opposed to these claims, and determined to resist them, so that at one time it appeared as if war was again to break out ; but more peaceful views began to prevail, and when the news arrived that Napoleon 1815. had secretly quitted Elba, all minor differences were for gotten in the presence of this pressing danger. They at once declared him an enemy and a disturber of the peace of the world, and prepared to bring against him an army of upwards of half a million of men. But before these had all been collected, Wellington and Bliicher had brought the military career of Bonaparte to a close on the field of Waterloo. In the new partition of Europe, which was fixed by the Congress of Vienna (1815), Austria received Lom- bardy and Venice, the Illyrian provinces, Dalmatia, the Tyrol, Vorarlberg, Salzburg, the Innviertel, and Hausruck- viertel, together with the part of Galicia formerly ceded by her, making in all about 3,200 square miles of territory. The emperors of Austria and Russia and the king of Prussia also entered into a " Holy Alliance," by which they bound themselves to remain united in the bands of true and brotherly love, to mutually help and assist each other, to govern their people like fathers of families, and to main tain religion, peace, and justice in their dominions. This alliance, beautiful in theory, was made, in fact, the means of maintaining absolute power in the hands of the rulers, and of suppressing free institutions and almost every form of liberty among the people. This was particularly the case in Austria, under the direction of Metternich, who did everything in his power to carry out these principles. A strict censorship of the press was established, not only to overlook the home press, but also to superintend the in troduction of foreign publications. A system of secret police was also organised to observe and report what was said and done by the people in private. Besides this, Austria was ever ready to aid in the suppression of revolu tionary movements in other states. In the construction of the German Confederation she used her influence to sup press the popular voice in all matters of government ; her armies were employed in quelling the popular insurrections in Naples and Piedmont in 1822; and by diplomacy she aided in the suppression of the popular movement in Spain in 1 823. During the insurrection in Greece the influence of Austria was exerted against it ; and when Greece was estab lished as a kingdom (f827), under the protection of England, France, and Russia, she kept aloof. When, however, Russia invaded Turkey in 1828, Austria joined with Eng land in interfering to prevent the fall of Constantinople, and in bringing about peace. The commotions that followed the French revolution of July 1830 in different parts of Europe considerably affected Austria. This manifested itself chiefly in Lombardy, where the presence of 30,000 troops was required to maintain the imperial authority. In Parma and Modena the people suddenly rose in insurrection and expelled their rulers, and Austrian troops were employed to restore them. An in surrection also broke out in the Papal States, and the Pope invoked the aid of Austria, whose troops entered Bologna and established themselves there (January 1832). Upon this the f rench sent a force to occupy Ancona, and at one time it seemed as if France and Austria were again to cross swords on Italian soil, but this danger was at length averted. In the minor states of Germany the cry for popular insti tutions was raised, and in many cases the rulers were obliged for a time to comply with them, but after the danger appeared to pass away, Austria, acting in concert with Prussia, succeeded in bringing back the old state of things in the confederation. The Poles, tired of Russian rule, and hoping to be supported by France, took up arms to regain their independence (1831). Although Austria pro fessed a strict neutrality in the struggle, a Polish corps that was driven into her territories was disarmed and detained, while a body of Russian troops under the same circum stances was allowed to continue its operations against Poland. During the remainder of the reign of Francis I. no public event of importance occurred. He died on the 2d of March 1835, in the sixty-seventh year of his age and the forty-third of his reign. He was one of those well- meaning but weak-minded men, who unfortunately adopt the wrong means for effecting the good which they intend. He wished to make his people contented and happy, but he sought to do so by repressing all independence in thought or action, and keeping them in the most abject subjection. He earnestly strove for their advancement, but it was by strenuously endeavouring to keep things as they were, and opposing every form of change. The transition from an old to a new state of things was in his mind always asso ciated with the utmost danger, and to be by all means avoided. He did much in the way of establishing ele mentary schools throughout the country, but said that he wished to have no learned men, only good loyal citizens. He was thoroughly conscientious and correct in his con duct, but at the same time narrow-minded, suspicious, and bigoted. He was most assiduous in his attention to the business of the state, but occupied himself chiefly with small matters and minor details, while more important con cerns were entirely overlooked and neglected. His good qualities, however, commended him to the affections of his people, and this doubtless did much to repress among his subjects the insurrectionary spirit which subsequently mani fested itself. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Ferdinand I, an amiable but weak-minded prince, who left the government very much in the hands of his prime minister, Metternich. The various signs of discontent which had been manifested during the former reign soon became stronger and more marked. Baron Pillersdorf, the successor of Metternich, speaking of this period, says, "Circumstances permitted an uninterrupted enjoyment of peace, but the necessity for internal ameliorations became by so long a delay more urgent, the demand for them more sensible, whilst, owing to the procrastinations of the Government, faith and con fidence were diminished. It is true that the prosperity of the provinces generally did not decline ; on the contrary, many branches of commerce manifested an increase in their development; but in spite of this the situation of the whole empire inspired in diS erent respects serious apprehensions, arising from the disordered state of the economy of finance, the yearly augmentation of the public debt, the inefficiency of the measures adopted, and still more from the oppressed disposition of mind of the clear-sighted and intelligent classes of the population." (The Political Movement in Austria during 1848-49.) The people saw growing up in the nations around them freer institutions and more, liberal modes of government, and they could not help con trasting those with their own system. Austria, too, was made up of a number of different nationalities, and the Government attempted to strengthen its position by working upon their national prejudices and antipathies, setting race against race, and creed against creed. In particular, the German element was favoured at the expense of the other nationalities; and the Germanising measures of the Govern ment excited great discontent among the other races. It has been remarked that the aversion of Austria to the develop ment of the Slavonic element in her population was greatly owing to jealousy of Russia, which power she regarded as desirous of attaching all the Slavonic races to itself. Hence Austria has always been opposed to the encroachments of Russia in Turkey, and in favour of maintaining the integrity of the latter, so that, when war broke out in 1839 between the Sublime Porte and the Pasha of Egypt, she readily joined England in support of. the former.
The court of Vienna was first frightened from its sense. of security by an insurrection in Galicia in 1846. This, having been suppressed, Austria, in conjunction with the other two powers which had dismembered Poland, deter mined to lay hold on Cracow, and thus extinguish the last remnant of Polish independence. This step being contrary to the treaty of Vienna, was strongly remonstrated against both by England and France; but these remonstrances were unheeded, and the republic was incorporated in the Austrian empire. The French revolution of 1848, which convulsed almost the whole of continental Europe, caused the Austrian empire to totter to its foundations. Scarcely had the news Revolutioi of the fall of Louis Philippe reached Vienna when the of 1848. whole city was in a state of open rebellion (13th March). The populace, headed by the students, and forcing the magistracy along with them, made their way into the im perial palace, and loudly demanded from the emperor the dismissal of his old counsellors, and the immediate grant of a new constitution. Alarmed at these demonstrations Prince Metternich resigned, and was soon after on his way to London ; and an imperial proclamation was issued, declar ing the abolition of the censorship of the press, the estab lishment of a national guard, and the convocation of a national assembly. These measures, however, as well as the nomination of a new ministry, were far from sufficing to arrest the popular movement, encouraged and led on by the students and other members of the university. The national guard just called into being, along with the academic legion, formed themselves into a permanent com mittee, and dictated laws to the Government. On the 17th of May, Ferdinand, accompanied by the empress and the members of his family, secretly quitted the palace, and fled to Innsbruck. An attempt to dissolve the academic legion caused an outbreak on the 25th, and the streets were barricaded; but no fighting took place, for the ministers yielded to the demands of the rioters, and gave up their design. A committee of citizens, national guards, and students, which was formed for the preservation of peace and order, was legalised by the prime minister, and assumed the authority of the Government. In the mean time the revolutionary spirit was manifesting itself in other parts of the empire. In Italy the inhabitants of Milan and Venice rosa against their rulers, and expelled the Austrian troops. This was followed by a general rising throughout Lombardy and Venice. Tho insurgents found an ally in Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, who came with an army to their assistance, and declared war against the empire. At first he succeeded in driving the Austrians back to the northern frontier of Italy; but General Radetzky, having received reinforcements, van quished him in several engagements, and compelled him to flee to his own dominions, and conclude a truce with the victors. This was followed by the reconquest of Milan and the whole of Lombardy. Venice withstood the besieging army of the Austrians for some months, but was at length obliged to surrender. In Bohemia the Czechs or Slavonic party determined to obtain redress against the Germanis ing measures of the Government, and forwarded a petition to the emperor, demanding a united and independent national assembly for Bohemia and Moravia, independent municipal institutions, and an equal share in public offices with the German part of the population. An evasive answer was returned, and the citizens of the capital rose in insurrection. A national assembly of delegates of the Slavonians in all parts of the empire was summoned to meet at Prague. Three hundred made their appearance, and the assembly was opened in the beginning of June. The efforts of the military to maintain peace excited the enmity of the citizens, and they petitioned for the removal of the commander, Prince Windischgratz. Meanwhile a collision took place between the Slavonic militia and the regular troops. The Germans joined with the military, and the insurrection raged for five days ; the town was bombarded and taken, and the leaders dispersed or taken prisoners. In Hungary the National Diet had passed measures in favour of a responsible ministry, a perfect equality of civil rights, religious toleration, the formation of a national guard, and abolition of the censorship of the press. The emperor gave his consent to these measures ; but a strong Austrian party in the country, chiefly Slavonians, was opposed to them, and, instigated and supported by the Austrian Government, they broke out in open revolt. Jellachich, the ban or governor of Croatia, was the leader of the insurgents, and collecting an army of 65,000 men, he marched on towards Pesth. An army was speedily raised by the Hungarians to meet him, and a battle was fought within 25 miles of the capital on 29th September, in which Jellachich was beaten. The emperor now openly declared against the Hungarians, annulled the decrees of the Diet, suspended the civil authorities, and appointed Jellachich commander of the army. The Diet, denying the authority of the emperor, organised a committee of safety, and elected Kossuth president. This was equivalent to a declaration of war, and an Austrian army was ordered out against them. The people of Vienna, sympathising with the Hungarians, rose in arms, when the garrison of that city departed for Hungary (6th October). A deputation waited on the minister of war, Latour, demanding their recall, and on his refusal they took the arsenal by storm, and murdered him. The National Diet, which had met on the 22d of July, now declared its sittings permanent, and elected a committee of public safety. It sent an address to the emperor asking for a new ministry, the revocation of the edict against the Hungarians, the dismissal of Jellachich, and an amnesty for the rioters. The emperor, who had returned from Innsbruck to Vienna in June, returned ail evasive answer, and fled to Olmiitz. The people in the capital armed themselves under the leader ship of General Bern, and prepared to resist the impend ing attack of the army. The garrison, after having retired outside the limits of the city, was joined by Jellachich s horde of Croatians and by the army of Windischgratz. On 23d October, an army of 100,000 men appeared before Vienna, and the city was summoned to surrender. This the people refused to do, and the attack was commenced on the 28th, when the city was set on fire in many places. The next day a part of the suburbs was taken, and the leaders began to think of surrendering when the news of a Hungarian army hastening to their relief inspired them with fresh courage. This force, however, was attacked and put to flight by Jellachich (30th October), and next day the city was taken by storm, after a desperate struggle, which was attended with immense slaughter. On 22d November a new ministry was formed, of which Prince Schwarzenberg was president; and on 2d December the Emperor Ferdinand was induced to abdicate the throne. His brother, Francis Charles, who was his legal successor, likewise renounced his right in favour of his son, Francis Joseph, who was proclaimed emperor under the title of Francis Joseph I.
The war in Hungary was renewed by Windischgratz, 1849. who crossed the Leitha, and after several successful en gagements entered the capital of that country (January 1849), the Hungarian Government and one division of the army having departed eastward to Debreczin, while the other under Gb rgei retired northward towards W T aitzen. The Austrian general, instead of pursuing them, remained in active for seven weeks at Pesth, and thus afforded them time to organise. In Transylvania General Bern gained a decisive victory over the Austrians in that territory, and also defeated and put to flight a Russian force that had come to their assistance. At length Windischgratz moved forward towards Debreczin, and met the Hungarians at Kapolna, where an obstinate and bloody but indecisive battle was fought (26th February). Next day the Austrians, having received reinforcements, renewed the fight, and the Hungarians were obliged to retire. The latter having re cruited their forces, another obstinate battle was fought near Godolo (5th April), in which the Austrians were de feated, as they were in several subsequent engagements, so that they were compelled to abandon the capital and recross the Danube, leaving a small garrison at Buda, which after wards surrendered. Had the victorious army now marched on to Vienna they would doubtless have succeeded in bringing the Austrians to terms ; but disputes among the rulers and dissensions among the generals prevented such a course. In June Prince Paskewitch crossed the Galician frontier at the head of a Russian army of 130,000 men; and General Haynau, who now had the command of the Austrian troops, was joined by a Russian corps under General Palutin. The Hungarians were unable to contend against these forces, and had again to leave their capital, the seat of the Government being transferred to Szegedin. Driven from this place, the army made a stand at Temesvar, but were defeated with great slaughter (9th August), and again, two days later, at Arad. On 13th August the Hun garian general, Gorgei, who had been named dictator, sur rendered to the Russians. Hungary was now treated as a conquered country, and the greatest cruelties were prac tised against the people by the Austrian general, Haynau. The military and parliamentary leaders were shot or hanged, and the prisons filled with unhappy victims. In the mean time the war in Italy was renewed by the king of Sardinia. He was, however, defeated at Mortara (21st March) by the Austrian general, Radetzky, and again at Novara (23d March), when he abdicated in favour of his son, Victor Emmanuel, with whom a peace was concluded. Venice held out against the Austrians till 23d August, when it was forced to surrender. The congress which, since the final struggle in Vienna, had been adjourned to Kremsier, was dissolved (March 4-, 1849), and a constitution promulgated by the free will of the emperor. At this time efforts were made in the German National Assembly at Frankfort to form Germany into one integral empire, excluding Austria, the imperial crown being offered to the king of Prussia. This was violently opposed by the Austrian Government, and though the king of Prussia did not venture in the face of this opposition to accept the imperial crown, he concluded a treaty with the kings of Saxony and Hanover (May 1849), with the view of forming a strict union with the different states of the German confederacy to the exclusion of Austria. To this treaty the majority of the lesser states afterwards ac- ceeded, and a diet was convened at Erfurt (May 1852), under the presidency of Prussia, for the reorganisation of Germany. Austria, to counteract the efforts of her rival, invited the different states to send their representatives to Frankfort, where she assumed the lead. The legality of the assembly was at once acknowledged by Bavaria, and Saxony and Hanover were subsequently gained over to it. While matters were in this state disturbances arose in Hesse- CasseL The margrave invoked the assistance of Austria, while the people looked for aid to Prussia. Having re ceived the authority of the diet at Frankfort, Austria sent an army into Hesse, where they were confronted by another army from Prussia, and an immediate commencement of hostilities was looked for, but this was averted by a con ference held at Olmiitz, when Prussia acknowledged the right of Austria to enter Hesse. Soon after this Austria and Prussia convoked a congress of all the states at Dres den, where it was agreed that the final settlement of the affairs of the confederacy should be submitted to the de cision of the diet at Frankfort. Austria now proposed to the diet that all her provinces, including Hungary and Lombardo-Venetia, should be included in the German con federacy, but this bold proposal failed of acceptance. Austria now made strenuous efforts to develop the re sources of the monarchy by encouraging agriculture, in dustry, and commerce. The land was freed from the burdens of feudalism, taxes were removed, new roads were formed, and railways were constructed. A new tariff was adopted (July 1851), and negotiations were entered into with the other German states for a complete customs union with the Zollverein, but this was strongly opposed by Prussia and several of the other states in the union. A commercial treaty, however, was, after considerable negotiation, con cluded between Austria and the Zollverein (19th February 1853). The liberal concessions that had been made by the Government were rapidly disappearing, a rigorous military system of rule was being introduced, and centralisation was taking the place of the old provincial system. On the 1st of January 1852 it was announced that the constitution and fundamental rights were abolished, the ministers were declared responsible only to the emperor, trial by jury was set aside, the censorship of the press was again in operation. The influence of the Roman Catholic clergy and the Jesuits was also re-established. A popular outbreak occurred in Milan (6th February 1853), when a number of the military were lulled, but it was speedily suppressed. An attempt was made to assassinate the emperor in Vienna by a young Hungarian (18th February). In the quarrel between the Montenegrins and the Porte, Austria sided with the former, and Count Leiningen was sent to Constantinople (February 1853) to demand the redress of their grievances, which was granted. About this time Russia demanded the protectorate of the Greek Christians in Turkey, and this being denied, her troops crossed the Pruth and occupied the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia (July 1853). Austria took a leading part, along with France and England, in condemn ing these proceedings and in endeavouring to bring aboiit peace. She also gave the Western powers to believe that she would actively co-operate with them in the defence oi Turkey, but afterwards fell back upon vague promises, and on April 20, 1854, entered into an alliance with Prussia, by which the two powers guaranteed each other s dominions from attack, and pledged themselves only to take an active part in the war when the interests of Germany appeared to be endangered. On June 14th Austria agreed with Turkey to occupy the Danubian principalities with an armed force, and by the end of August she had a large army there, which virtually brought the war on the Danube to an end. Austria still continued to use her exertions to bring about peace, and with this view a conference was opened at Vienna in March 1855, but the representatives of the several powers were unable to agree upon a basis. After the fall of Sebastopol she again reneAvcd her efforts, and having ascertained the terms on which the Western powers would be prepared to treat, she sent Count Ester- hazy to St Petersburg to lay them before the czar, by whom they were accepted, and a treaty of peace was signed at Paris, 31st March 1856. In August 1855 the emperor signed a concordat with the Pope, giving the church greater power in the country than it had ever possessed before. The clergy were to have unlimited control over all ecclesiastical matters and matters connected with education, and were to enjoy free communication with Rome without the intervention of the civil power. The Government now seemed desirous of re laxing somewhat their restrictions, and of making the people forget the troubles of 1848 and 1849. The mili tary rule was made less strict, and a general amnesty was proclaimed for political offences (12th July 1856). The em peror visited Italy in the end of 1856 and Hungary in May 1857, but the remembrance of past wrongs was still alive in the minds of the people, and he was everywhere received with the greatest coolness. Austria was opposed to the union of the Danubian principalities, and for some time refused to evacuate them, but at length (March 1857) her troops were recalled.
Sardinia had frequently remonstrated with Austria con cerning her policy in Italy, while Austria, on the other hand, complained of the attacks made upon her by the Sardinian press. A growing coolness had also sprung up between Austria and France on this subject, which reached its climax when the French emperor said to the Austrian minister, M. Hiibner, at the levee on the 1st of January 1859. 1859, "I regret that our relations with your Government are not so good as they were ; but I request you to tell the emperor that my personal feelings for him have not changed." The preparations for war were carried on with the greatest activity by Austria, France, and Sardinia. England sent Lord Cowley to Vienna to endeavour to arrange differences, but without success. P.ussia proposed a congress of the five great powers, and this was agreed to. War witli but Austria demanded the disarmament of Sardinia previous France and to the congress, which the latter declined to agree to, and Sardinia, both sides prepared for war. Austrian troops poured into Italy, France was concentrating her forces at Toulon, and Garibaldi was organising a corps of Italian volunteers. The Austrians crossed the Ticino (April 26), and the French troops were marched into Italy. Napoleon left Paris on the 10th of May, and reached Genoa on the 12th, where he was next day joined by Victor Emmanuel. The first serious encounter took place at Montebello (May 20), when a strong body of Austrians was, after a desperate resist ance, defeated and put to flight by a body of French troops. The Austrians again suffered a severe defeat at Palestro (May 31). On 4th June the battle of Magenta was fought, in which the Austrians were, after a long and desperate conflict, defeated and put to flight by the combined army of the French and Sardinians, under the command of the Emperor Napoleon in person. The Austrians fought with great bravery and determination, but were not well officered, and the arrival of General M Mahon with his troops at an opportune moment decided the battle against them. They had about 75,000 men in the field, while the allies num bered about 55,000. The latter lost about 4000 men in killed and wounded, the former about 10,000, besides 7000 prisoners. Next day the inhabitants of Milan rose in insurrection, and the garrison fled. Pavia was evacuated on the 7th, and on the 8th the fortified position of Melegnano was taken after three hours hard fighting. The same day the allied monarchs made their triumphal entry into Milan. One stronghold after another now fell into the hands of the conquerors. The defeated army retreated to the further bank of the Mincio, where it was reorganised, and the emperor himself assumed the command. It then recrossed the Mincio, and took up a position near the village of Solferino. Here the allies came up to it, and both sides prepared for battle. The Austrian army num bered about 170,000 men, while the allied troops were not less than 150,000. The battle commenced early in the morning of the 24th June, and continued till late in the afternoon, The Austrian line extended for nearly 12 miles. The right and left wings of the Austrians were for some time successful, while Napoleon was using every effort to break their centre. In this he was at length suc cessful, and the wings were then obliged to retire in order that they might not be overflanked. The French lost in killed and wounded 12,000 men, the Sardinians 5000, and the Austrians 20,000, besides 7000 prisoners. The Austrians now abandoned the line of the Mincio, and fell back upon Verona. The allies crossed the Mincio, Peschiera was invested, and great preparations were made on both sides for renewing the contest. While all Europe was in the expectation of another great battle, news arrived that an armistice for five weeks had been agreed to and on llth July the two emperors met at Villafranca, and agreed to terms of peace. A conference was afterwards held at Zurich, and a treaty drawn up and signed (10th November 1859). By it Austria gave up Lombardy, with the excep tion of the fortresses of Mantua and Peschiera, to Napoleon, who was to hand it over to the king of Sardinia ; Italy was to be formed into a confederation under the presidency of the Pope, and Austria was to be a member on account of Yenetia ; and the princes of Tuscany and Modena were to have their possessions restored to them.
In March 1860 the emperor, by patent, enlarged the number and powers of the Reichsrath or council of the empire, and on 21st October promulgated a new constitu tion, in which he declared the right to issue, alter, and abolish laws, to be exercised by him and his successors only with the co-operation of the lawfully assembled diets and of the Reichsrath. The things to be settled with the co-operation of the Reichsrath were all legislative matters relating to the rights, duties, and interests of the seve ral kingdoms and countries, such as the laws connected with the coinage, currency, public credit, customs, and commercial matters. This was followed by proposals of similar changes for Hungary; and, on 27th February fol lowing, it was decreed that their former constitutions should be restored to Hungary, Croatia, Slavonia, and Transyl vania. At last-mentioned date a fundamental law was also promulgated for the representation of the empire by a Reichsrath, composed of two bodies, a house of peers and a house of deputies, and declaring the constitution and functions of each. It was declared to be the earnest wish of the Government that hyper-centralisation should be avoided. On 1st May the new Reichsrath was formally opened by the emperor at Vienna, when he declared his r-.onvictinn "that liberal institutions, with the conscientious introduction and maintenance of the principles of equal rights of all the nationalities of his empire, of the equality of all his subjects in the eye of the law, and of the partici pation of the representatives of the people in the legisla tion, would lead to a salutary transformation of the whole monarchy." Hungary, Croatia, Slavonia, and Transylvania declined to send representatives, claiming to have constitu tions and rights distinct from the empire. The Reichsrath sat till the close of 1862, occupying itself chiefly with eccle siastical affairs, the state of education, personal liberty, and the laws relating to tho press, commerce, feudal tenures, &c. In 1863 the emperor of Austria invited the different poten tates of Germany to meet him at Frankfort, in order to determine upon a scheme of reform for their common country. They almost all responded to the invitation except the king of Prussia, and the congress was opened (August 16) by a speech from the emperor. The proceedings, how ever, did not result in any important change, owing in great measure to the want of sympathy from Prussia, The death of Ferdinand VII., king of Denmark (15th November 1863), gave rise to a general ferment in Germany on the subject of the duchies Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenburg. To the Germans a united fatherland had long been a favourite idea, and they now saw a step towards its accomplishment. Notwithstanding the treaty of London (8th May 1852), which fixed the succession to the Danish crown, and was signed by Austria and Prussia, they denied the right of the new king, Christian IX., to the duchies, and laid claim to them as part of Germany. To enforce their claim the diet determined that they should be occu pied by an armed force, and Saxony and Hanover were directed to enter and take possession of Holstein. This was done without their coming into hostile collision with the Danish troops, who retired to Schleswig (December 1863). Soon after this, however, Austria and Prussia gave notice that they, as the chief powers in Germany, in tended to take upon themselves the carrying on of the war. Hostilities commenced (1st February 1864) when Austrian and Prussian troops crossed the Schleswig frontier. Den mark had trusted to England and France coming forward to maintain the conditions of the treaty of 1852 ; but these powers remained passive, and the Danes, after a short but heroic stand, were forced to succumb. An armistice was concluded (1st August), and a treaty of peace was eventually signed at Vienna (30th October), by which Denmark made over Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenburg to Austria and Prussia, But Austria speedily suffered terrible retribution for the part she had taken in this affair. By inducing Austria to join with her, Prussia succeeded in removing part of the odium of the proceeding from herself, and she also suc ceeded in obtaining the aid of a rival power to secure territories which she had previously determined to appro priate as her own. The acquired territory naturally lay very convenient for Prussia, and Austria would have will ingly enough given up her claim on it if Prussia had agreed to grant her a territorial equivalent in some other quarter of her dominions. This the latter power declined to do, but would readily have consented to a pecuniary compen sation. A convention was therefore held at Gastein (August 1865), which brought about a temporary understanding. Prussia was to receive Lauenburg on payment of a sum of 1,500,000 thalers, while Austria was to have the adminis tration of affairs in Holstein, and Prussia in Schleswig. Austria, however, was desirous of the formation of the duchies into a separate state, and supported the claims of the duke of Augustenburg to them. This was strenu ously opposed by Prussia, who regarded the public meet ings that were permitted to be held in Holstein in sup port of this as a breach of agreement. Austria referred the question to the Frankfort diet, which decided in favour of the duke. Matters were now approaching a crisis. Prussia had long looked with jealousy upon the power of Austria, and considered a war with that country for the supremacy of Germany as sooner or later a necessity. The German people had for some time felt that there was not room for two great powers, each too great to submit to the other, one or other must give way before the country could obtain its proper place and influence in Europe. 1866. While both powers were professing the utmost desire for peace, each was actively preparing for war. Prussia entered into an alliance with Victor Emmanuel (27th March 1866), the latter undertaking to declare war against Austria as soon as Prussia commenced hostilities, while the former engaged to secure Venetia for her Italian ally. In the beginning of May orders were issued by the emperor of Austria for putting the whole army upon a war footing, and for concentrating a portion of it upon the Bohemian and Silesian frontiers ; and about the same time the Prus- War with sian cabinet issued orders to fill up to the war strength the Prussia. different branches of the service. On 7th June the Prus sian troops entered Holstein, and compelled the Austrians to retire, which they did without bloodshed. Austria was in an unprepared state when the war actu ally broke out, but the Prussian forces, on the other hand, were thoroughly equipped. The Austrian army in the north amounted to 247,000 men, besides the Saxon army at Dresden of 24,000, in all 271,000. The Prussian force consisted of three armies : the first, under the command of Prince Frederick Charles, consisted of 93,000 men, and was destined for Saxony and Bohemia ; the second, under the crown prince, numbered 115,000 men, and was to operate in Silesia ; while the third, or army of the Elbe, under General Herwarth, consisting of 46,000 men, was to march on the right flank of the first army, making in all 254,000 men, besides reserve corps of 24,300 men stationed at Berlin. General Benedek was appointed commander- in-chief of the Austrian army, and his forces were distri buted along the frontier that separates Moravia from Saxony and Silesia. On the 16th of June the Prussians entered Saxony, and marched upon Dresden, the Saxon army retiring to join the Austrians. On the 18th the Austrians entered Silesia, and the same day the Prussians took possession of Dresden. The three Prussian armies now advanced into Bohemia, and endeavoured to concen trate in the direction of Gitschin. On June 26th an en gagement took place between some companies of the first army and a body of Austrians at Podol, in which the latter were defeated, while, at Hiihnerwasser, the advanced guard of the Elbe army attacked some Austrian troops and drove them back towards Miinchengratz. Here, on the 28th, a severe struggle took place between the Prussians and the Austrians, supported by the Saxons, but the latter were ultimately driven back in the direction of Gitschin. In the meantime the second army, under the crown prince, had to ^march through the long and narrow passes of the mountains lying between Silesia and Bohemia. On the 27th one of the corps of this army, under General Stein- metz, engaged an Austrian force under General Ramming, and after a severe contest began to give way, but the crown prince coming up, the Austrians were driven back. The ^ same day another corps of this army took possession of Trautenau, but were attacked by the Austrians under General Gablenz, and sustained a repulse. Both sides having received reinforcements, the action was renewed next day at Soor, when victory ultimately declared for the Prussians. At Skalitz, on the 28th, the Prussians, under Steinmetz, were attacked by the Austrians under Archduke Leopold, but the latter were defeated, and the town taken by storm. It is said that on this occasion the archduke had disobeyed positive orders, which were on no account to make an attack. On the 29th, two divisions of the first army, under Generals Tiimpling and Werder, defeated the Austrians under Count Clam Gallas, at Gitschin, and took the town. The count, who occupied a strong position here, had orders not to attack the enemy, but these he had disobeyed, and the consequence was that Benedek, who had taken up a strong position at Dubenetz to oppose the army of the crown prince, found himself at once in a most dangerous situation, and was obliged to retreat towards Koniggratz. On the same day bodies of Austrians were defeated at Koniginhof and Schweinschadel. In these various engagements the Austrians lost in all from 30,000 to 40,000 men. Both sides now concentrated their forces in the direction of Koniggratz, and prepared for a general engagement. On June 30 the king of Prussia joined the army, and the battle of Koniggratz, or Sadowa, was fought on the 3d of July. The Austrians numbered about 220,000, and the Prussians probably about 240,000. The battle was long and well contested, both sides fighting with the greatest determination and bravery ; but at length the Austrians were broken, and obliged to retire. The Prus sians lost 359 officers and 8794 men, while the Austrians and Saxons lost in all about 44,200 men, of whom 19,800 were prisoners. This terminated what has been sometimes called the Seven Days War. The Austrians retreated to Zwittau and afterwards to Olmiitz. A portion of the Prus sians went in pursuit, but the king, with an army of up wards of 100,000 men, marched on towards Vienna, and reached Nikolsburg, July 18. After the battle of Konig gratz, the emperor, seeing the disastrous state of his affairs, resolved to cede Venetia to the Emperor Napoleon, so as to be able to bring his army in Italy against the Prussians, and he also expressed his willingness to accept the media tion of the latter to bring about a peace. The Archduke Albert, who had the command of the army in Italy, with which he had inflicted a severe defeat on the Italians at Custozza, was recalled to take the chief command in place of Benedek. An armistice, however, was agreed upon through the mediation of France (22d July). The preliminaries of peace were signed at Nikolsburg (26th July), and negotiations were afterwards carried on at Prague, where a treaty was signed (23d August). By this treaty Austria gave up to the kingdom of Italy Venetia and the fortresses of the quadrilateral, namely, Peschiera, Mantua, Verona, and Legnano ; recognised the dissolution of the late German Confederation, and consented to a new formation of Germany, in which she should have no part ; gave up all claim to the duchies of Holstein and Schleswig ; and agreed to pay a war indemnity of 40,000,000 thalers, less 20,000,000 allowed her on account of the duchies. Having thus obtained peace, the emperor now turned his attention to home affairs. Hungary was still in a very troubled and dissatisfied state. We have seen that she declined to send representatives to the Reichsrath, insisting on her right to self-government, and refusing to have any thing else. The plan of opposition she adopted was that of passive resistance, by the non-payment of taxes. At length, at the opening of the Hungarian diet at Pesth by the emperor in person, on December 14, 1865, he recog nised the necessity of self-government for Hungary so far as it did not affect the unity of the empire and the position of Austria as a great European power. He also recognised the Pragmatic Sanction as the basis on which a settlement of their difficulties was to be sought. At the opening of the diet on 19th November 1866, an imperial rescript, signed by the emperor, was read, in which he promised, by the appointment of a responsible ministry and the re storation of municipal self-government, to do justice to the constitutional demands of the Hungarians. In the end of 1866, Baron Beust, who had previously been prime minister of Saxony, and was not only a foreigner but a Protestant, was made foreign minister. He subsequently became prime minister and chancellor of the empire. In the spring of 1867 the emperor summoned the Reichsrath to assemble at Vienna to deliberate upon various important measures, the proposed amendments in the Hungarian constitution, the question of ministerial responsibility, the sending of dele gates to assemblies, the extension of the constitutional self- government of the different provinces, the reorganisation of the army, the improvement of the administration of justice, and the promotion of the economical interests of the coun try. It was opened by the emperor in person on May 22, and in his speech on the occasion he earnestly recommended to their attention these subjects. " To-day," he said, " we are about to establish a work of peace and of concord. Let us throw a veil of forgetfulness over the immediate past, which has inflicted deep wounds upon the empire. Let us lay to heart the lessons which it leaves behind, but let us derive with unshaken courage new strength, and the resolve to secure to the empire peace and power." On 8th June the emperor and empress were crowned king and queen of Hungary at Pesth amid great public rejoicings, on which occasion full pardon was given for all past political offences, and full liberty to all offenders residing in foreign countries to return. Many important and liberal measures were dis cussed and carried in the Reichsrath ; in particular, mar riage was made a civil contract, and the perfect equality of believers of different creeds was recognised. On 25th May 18G8, the civil marriage bill received imperial assent, aiid on 30th July 1870 the concordat with Rome was de clared to be suspended in consequence of the promulgation of the doctrine of Papal infallibility. This last measure introduced a very beneficial change in the relations between Austria and the kingdom of Italy, and has brought about more sympathy and cordiality between these two states than formerly existed. For some years the Government had much difficulty in settling the law of elections so as to secure the due repre sentation of the different races and classes of the people in the Reichsrath. On 6th March 1873 a reform bill was passed by the lower house, taking the election of members of the Reichsrath out of the hands of the provincial diets and transferring it to the body of the electors in the several provinces, thus substituting direct for indirect election. In April it passed the upper house and received the imperial assent. This measure was hailed with great satis faction, and has established the government upon a much broader and more secure basis. The session of the new Reichsrath was opened by the emperor in person on Novem ber 5. In the same year a great exhibition of the indus tries of all nations was held at Vienna. It was opened on May 1 by the emperor, and attracted to the capital, among others, tho prince of Wales, the czar of Russia, the em peror and empress of Germany, the king of Italy, and the shah of Persia. On 2d December the twenty-fifth anni versary of tho emperor s accession to the throne was celebrated amid great rejoicings in Vienna, having been celebrated three days before in Pesth. The emperor and empress were present on both occasions, and everywhere met with an enthusiastic reception. In the spring of 1874 a bill for the abolition of the concordat was intro duced by the Government, and measures for restricting the powers of the clergy passed both houses. In his speech at the opening of the Reichsrath on 5th November of that year, the emperor said that by the system of direct popu lar elections the empire had obtained real independence, and exhorted the members to work with united energy at the solution of the greatest of their tasks, the uniting of the people of Austria, so that she might become a powerful state, strong in ideas of justice and liberty. SeeDr F.Kohlrausch, Die Deutsche Gcschichte, 1866 ; Ungewitter, DieOesterreichischeMo iiarchie, 1856; Geschichteder Oesterreichischen Kaiserstaates, 1859 ; Stein, Handbuch dcr Geographic, 1870 ; Grant Duff, Studies in European Politics, 1866, and Elgin Speeches, 1871; Sir A. Malet, The Overthrow of tlie Germanic Confederation, 1870 ; The Campaign 0/1866 in Germany, translated by Colonel Yon Wright, j 1872 ; Steinhauser, Geographic von Oesterreich- U ngarn, 1872 ; The I Armed Strength of Austria, by Captain W. S. Cooke, 1874. (D. K.)