Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Baden (2.)
The springs of Baden were known to the Romans, and the foundation of the town is referred to the Emperor Hadrian by an inscription of somewhat doubtful authenticity. The name of Aurelia Aquensis was given to it in honour of Aurelius Severus, in whose reign it would seem to have been well known. Fragments of its ancient sculptures are still to be seen, and in 1847 remains of Roman vapour baths, well preserved, were discovered just below the New Castle. From the 14th century down to the close of the 17th, Baden was the residence of the margraves, to whom it gave its name. They first dwelt in the Old Castle, the ruins of which still occupy the summit of a hill above the town, but in 1479 they removed to the New Castle (still so called), which is situated on the hill-side nearer to the town, and is remarkable for its subterranean dungeons. During the Thirty Years' War Baden suffered severely from the various combatants, but especially from the French, who pillaged it in 1643, and laid it in ashes in 1688. The margravine Sibylla rebuilt the New Castle in 1697, but the margrave Louis removed to Rastadt in 1706. Since the beginning of the present century the Government has greatly fostered the growth of the town.