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Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Dessau

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DESSAU, the chief town of the duchy of Anhalt, in North Germany, is situated in 51 51 6" N. lat. and 12 18 E. long., on the left bank of the Mulde, nearly twQ miles from its confluence with the Elbe, and 67 miles south-west of Berlin, with which it is connected by railway. The town has three suburbs. Of its gates the Zerbster Thor, with the statues of Otto the Rich and Albert the Bear, alone remains. The ducal palace, which stands in fine pleasure-grounds, contains a collection of historical curiosities, and a gallery of pictures, including works by Cimabue, Lippi, Rubens, Titian, and Vandyck. Among the other buildings are the palace of the hereditary prince, the theatre and concert room, the administrative offices, bank, gymnasium, musical academy, Amelia and Wilhelmine Institutes, two hospitals, and the Schlosskirche, adorned with paintings by Lucas Cranach, in the most in teresting of which (the Last Supper) are portraits of several Reformers. The manufactures of Dessau are woollen, linen, and cotton goods, hats, leather, tobacco, and organs and other musical instruments ; and there is a consider able trade in corn. In the environs are the ducal villas of Georgium and Luisium, the gardens of which, as well as those of the neighbouring town of Worlitz, are much admired. Dessau was probably founded by Albert the Bear ; it was already a town in 1213. It first began to grow into importance at the close of the 17th century, in consequence of the religious emancipation of the Jews in 1686, and of the Lutherans in 1697. Moses Mendelssohn, the philosopher, was born at Dessau in 1729. The popu lation in 1875 was 19,621.