Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Hudson (1.)

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HUDSON, a city of the United States of America, capital of Columbia county, New York, is situated on the left bank of the Hudson river at the head of navigation, and on the Hudson and Boston and Hudson River Railways, 114 miles north of New York city. It stands on the ridge of a picturesque elevation called Prospect Hill, which after rising abruptly 60 feet from the river, slopes gradually to an elevation of 500 feet. The high river bank projects into the river in the form of a bold promontory, affording a delightful promenade, and having on either side a fine bay with depth of water sufficient for the largest ships. The wharves are situated at the foot of the promontory and along the margin of these bays. The city is for the most part regularly built, with streets crossing each other at right angles, and a public square situated immediately above the wharves. Works to supply the city with water have lately been constructed at a cost of 250,000 dollars. The principal buildings are the court-house, constructed of marble and limestone and surmounted by a dome, the city hall and post-office, and the academy. The city is also well supplied with other schools, and possesses three public libraries. Hudson at one time vied as a trading port with New York, and, although both its West India trade and its whale fishing have now been abandoned, it still carries on an important river trade, and has regular steam communication with New York and Albany. It also possesses large iron smelting works, a stove-foundry, a tannery, a flour-mill, breweries, iron-foundries, and factories for pianos, carriages, paper, car wheels, and steam fire-engines. Hudson was settled in 1784, being then known as Claverack Landing. It became a city in 1785. The population, which in 1870 was 8615, was 8669 in 1880.