Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Thana (1.)

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THÁNA or Tannah, a district in Bombay presidency, India, with an area of 4243 square miles, lying between 18° 42′ and 20° 20′ N. lat. and 72° 45′ and 73° 48′ E. long. It extends along the coast for 105 miles, with a breadth of 50 miles, and is confined between the Sahyádri Gháts on the E. and the sea on the W., while on the N. it is bounded by the Portuguese territory of Daman and by Surat district, and on the S. by Kolába and Poona districts. The district is well watered and wooded, and, except in the north-east, is a low-lying rice tract broken by hills. The spurs of the Gháts form health resorts; the two most

conspicuous hills are Mátherán and Tungär. Most of the hills were once fortified, but the forts built on them are now dilapidated and useless. The only rivers of any importance are the Vaitarna and the Ulhás, the former being navigable to a distance of about 20 miles from its mouth; the latter is also navigable in parts for small craft. There are no lakes; but the Vehár and the Tulsi, formed artificially, supply Bombay city with water. The forests, lying chiefly in the northern half of the district, occupy 1664 square miles, or about 40 per cent. of the total area. The average annual rainfall exceeds 90 inches.

In 1881 the population of Thana was returned at 908,548 (males 468,236, females 440,312); Hindus numbered 806,805, Mohammedans 42,391, and Christians 39,545. The district has seven towns with populations exceeding 10,000, namely, Bandra (14,987), Thána (see below), Bhiwandi (13,837), Kalyan (12,910), Bassein (10,357), Panvel(l0,351), (Iran (10,149). The area under cultivation in 1885–86 was 1,002,448 acres, and 768,057 remained uncultivated. The total area of crops was 522,810 acres, including 5835 twice cropped. Rice is by far the most important product, and occupied 324,680 acres; it is also the chief article of export. Sugar-cane and plantains are cultivated largely, as well as mangoes and cocoa-nuts. In 1885–86 the gross revenue of the district was £245,182, the land yielding £130,409. The territory comprised in the district of Thána formed part of the dominions of the peshwá, and was annexed by the British in 1818 on the overthrow of Baji ráo. Since then the operations to put down the Koli robbers, which extended over several years, have been the only cause of serious trouble, and lately, in 1874 and 1877, there were a number of gang robberies which were suppressed, but not without difficulty.