Enhanced Partnership with Pakistan Act of 2009

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An Act
To authorize appropriations for fiscal years 2010 through 2014 to promote an enhanced strategic partnership with Pakistan and its people, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

Section 1. Short Title; Table of Contents.[edit]

(a) Short Title.—
This Act may be cited as the ``Enhanced Partnership with Pakistan Act of 2009´´.
(b) Table of Contents.—
The table of contents for this Act is as follows:
Sec. 1. Short Title; Table of Contents.
Sec. 2. Definitions.
Sec. 3. Findings.
Sec. 4. Statement of Principles.
Sec. 101. Authorization of Assistance.
Sec. 102. Authorization of Appropriations.
Sec. 103. Auditing.
Sec. 201. Purposes of Assistance.
Sec. 202. Authorization of Assistance.
Sec. 203. Limitations on Certain Assistance.
Sec. 204. Pakistan Counterinsurgency Capability Fund.
Sec. 205. Requirements for Civilian Control of Certain Assistance.
Sec. 301. Strategy Reports.
Sec. 302. Monitoring Reports.

Sec. 2. Definitions.[edit]

In this Act:
Except as otherwise provided in this Act, the term “appropriate congressional committees” means the Committees on Appropriations and Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committees on Appropriations and Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives.
The term “counterinsurgency” means efforts to defeat organized movements that seek to overthrow the duly constituted Governments of Pakistan and Afghanistan through violent means.
The term “counterterrorism” means efforts to combat al Qaeda and other foreign terrorist organizations that are designated by the Secretary of State in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1189), or other individuals and entities engaged in terrorist activity or support for such activity.
(4) FATA.—
The term “FATA” means the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.
The term “Frontier Crimes Regulation” means the Frontier Crimes Regulation, codified under British law in 1901, and applicable to the FATA.
The term “impact evaluation research” means the application of research methods and statistical analysis to measure the extent to which change in a population-based outcome can be attributed to program intervention instead of other environmental factors.
The term “major defense equipment” has the meaning given the term in section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2794(6)).
(8) NWFP.—
The term “NWFP” means the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan, which has Peshawar as its provincial capital.
The term “operations research” means the application of social science research methods, statistical analysis, and other appropriate scientific methods to judge, compare, and improve policies and program outcomes, from the earliest stages of defining and designing programs through their development and implementation, with the objective of the rapid dissemination of conclusions and concrete impact on programming.
The term “security forces of Pakistan” means the military and intelligence services of the Government of Pakistan, including the Armed Forces, Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate, Intelligence Bureau, police forces, levies, Frontier Corps, and Frontier Constabulary.
The term “security-related assistance”—
(A) means—
(i) grant assistance to carry out section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2763); and
(ii) assistance under chapter 2 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2311 et. seq); but
(B) does not include—
(i) assistance authorized to be appropriated or otherwise made available under any provision of law that is funded from accounts within budget function 050 (National Defense); and
(ii) amounts appropriated or otherwise available to the Pakistan Counterinsurgency Capability Fund established under the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2009 (Public Law 111-32).

Sec. 3. Findings.[edit]

Congress finds the following:
(1) The people of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the United States share a long history of friendship and comity, and the interests of both nations are well-served by strengthening and deepening this friendship.
(2) Since 2001, the United States has contributed more than $15,000,000,000 to Pakistan, of which more than $10,000,000,000 has been security-related assistance and direct payments.
(3) With the free and fair election of February 18, 2008, Pakistan returned to civilian rule, reversing years of political tension and mounting popular concern over military rule and Pakistan’s own democratic reform and political development.
(4) Pakistan is a major non-NATO ally of the United States and has been a valuable partner in the battle against al Qaeda and the Taliban, but much more remains to be accomplished by both nations.
(5) The struggle against al Qaeda, the Taliban, and affiliated terrorist groups has led to the deaths of several thousand Pakistani civilians and members of the security forces of Pakistan over the past seven years.
(6) Despite killing or capturing hundreds of al Qaeda operatives and other terrorists—including major al Qaeda leaders, such as Khalid Sheikh Muhammad, Ramzi bin al-Shibh, and Abu Faraj al-Libi—the FATA, parts of the NWFP, Quetta in Balochistan, and Muridke in Punjab remain a sanctuary for al Qaeda, the Afghan Taliban, the Terikh-e Taliban and affiliated groups from which these groups organize terrorist actions against Pakistan and other countries.
(7) The security forces of Pakistan have struggled to contain a Taliban-backed insurgency, recently taking direct action against those who threaten Pakistan’s security and stability, including military operations in the FATA and the NWFP.
(8) On March 27, 2009, President Obama noted, “Multiple intelligence estimates have warned that al Qaeda is actively planning attacks on the United States homeland from its safe-haven in Pakistan.”.
(9) According to a Government Accountability Office report (GAO–08–622), “since 2003, the [A]dministration’s national security strategies and Congress have recognized that a comprehensive plan that includes all elements of national power—diplomatic, military, intelligence, development assistance, economic, and law enforcement support—was needed to address the terrorist threat emanating from the FATA” and that such a strategy was also mandated by section 7102(b)(3) of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-458; 22 U.S.C. 2656f note) and section 2042(b)(2) of the Implementing the Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-53; 22 U.S.C. 2375 note).
(10) During 2008 and 2009, the people of Pakistan have been especially hard hit by rising food and commodity prices and severe energy shortages, with 2⁄3 of the population living on less than $2 a day and 1⁄5 of the population living below the poverty line according to the United Nations Development Program.
(11) Economic growth is a fundamental foundation for human security and national stability in Pakistan, a country with more than 175,000,000 people, an annual population growth rate of two percent, and a ranking of 136 out of 177 countries in the United Nations Human Development Index.
(12) The 2009 Pakistani military offensive in the NWFP and the FATA displaced millions of residents in one of the gravest humanitarian crises Pakistan has faced, and despite the heroic efforts of Pakistanis to respond to the needs of the displaced millions and facilitate the return of many, it has highlighted the need for Pakistan to develop an effective national counterinsurgency strategy.

Sec. 4. Statement of Principles.[edit]

Congress declares that the relationship between the United States and Pakistan should be based on the following principles:
(1) Pakistan is a critical friend and ally to the United States, both in times of strife and in times of peace, and the two countries share many common goals, including combating terrorism and violent radicalism, solidifying democracy and rule of law in Pakistan, and promoting the social and economic development of Pakistan.
(2) United States assistance to Pakistan is intended to supplement, not supplant, Pakistan’s own efforts in building a stable, secure, and prosperous Pakistan.
(3) The United States requires a balanced, integrated, countrywide strategy for Pakistan that provides assistance throughout the country and does not disproportionately focus on security-related assistance or one particular area or province.
(4) The United States supports Pakistan’s struggle against extremist elements and recognizes the profound sacrifice made by Pakistan in the fight against terrorism, including the loss of more than 1,900 soldiers and police since 2001 in combat with al Qaeda, the Taliban, and other extremist and terrorist groups.
(5) The United States intends to work with the Government of Pakistan—
(A) to build mutual trust and confidence by actively and consistently pursuing a sustained, long-term, multifaceted relationship between the two countries, devoted to strengthening the mutual security, stability, and prosperity of both countries;
(B) to support the people of Pakistan and their democratic government in their efforts to consolidate democracy, including strengthening Pakistan’s parliament, helping Pakistan reestablish an independent and transparent judicial system, and working to extend the rule of law in all areas in Pakistan;
(C) to promote sustainable long-term development and infrastructure projects, including in healthcare, education, water management, and energy programs, in all areas of Pakistan, that are sustained and supported by each successive democratic government in Pakistan;
(D) to ensure that all the people of Pakistan, including those living in areas governed by the Frontier Crimes Regulation, have access to public, modernized education and vocational training to enable them to provide for themselves, for their families, and for a more prosperous future for their children;
(E) to support the strengthening of core curricula and the quality of schools across Pakistan, including madrassas, in order to improve the prospects for Pakistani children’s futures and eliminate incitements to violence and intolerance;
(F) to encourage and promote public-private partnerships in Pakistan in order to bolster ongoing development efforts and strengthen economic prospects, especially with respect to opportunities to build civic responsibility and professional skills of the people of Pakistan, including support for institutions of higher learning with international accreditation;
(G) to expand people-to-people engagement between the two countries, through increased educational, technical, and cultural exchanges and other methods;
(H) to encourage the development of local analytical capacity to measure program effectiveness and progress on an integrated basis, especially across the areas of United States assistance and payments to Pakistan, and increase accountability for how such assistance and payments are being spent;
(I) to assist Pakistan’s efforts to improve counterterrorism financing and anti-money laundering regulatory structure in order to achieve international standards and encourage Pakistan to apply for “Financial Action Task Force” observer status and adhere to the United Nations International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism;
(J) to strengthen Pakistan’s counterinsurgency and counterterrorism strategy to help prevent any territory of Pakistan from being used as a base or conduit for terrorist attacks in Pakistan or elsewhere;
(K) to strengthen Pakistan’s efforts to develop strong and effective law enforcement and national defense forces under civilian leadership;
(L) to achieve full cooperation in matters of counter-proliferation of nuclear materials and related networks;
(M) to strengthen Pakistan’s efforts to gain control of its under-governed areas and address the threat posed by any person or group that conducts violence, sabotage, or other terrorist activities in Pakistan or its neighboring countries; and
(N) to explore means to consult with and utilize the relevant expertise and skills of the Pakistani-American community.

Approved October 15, 2009.

Legislative History[edit]

  • CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, Vol. 155 (2009):
    • Sept. 24, considered and passed Senate.
    • Sept. 30, considered and passed House.