European Treaties bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648/Document 03

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The Treaty of Alcaçovas (also known as treaty or Peace of Alcaçovas-Toledo) was signed between the kingdoms of Castile (Castilla) and Portugal in 1479 that put an end to the Castilian civil war begun in 1474 over the succession of the kingdom of Castile. The Treaty of Alcaçovas was an agreement between Portugal and Castile where ownership of the Canary Islands was transferred to Castile in exchange for claims in West Africa.Excerpted from Treaty of Alcaçovas on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.


3. Treaty between Spain and Portugal, concluded at Alcaçovas, September 4, 1479. Ratification by Spain, March 6, 1480. [Ratification by Portugal, September 8, 1479.]


INTRODUCTION.

In 1460 the Infante Henry died and the sovereignty of the newly discovered lands became vested in the crown of Portugal. King Alfonso V., however, whose chief ambitions were to extend his Moorish conquests and annex Castile, did not directly concern himself with continuing the work of explo­ ration. This was left to private enterprise, and the impetus given by the infante gradually wore itself out, although the Guinea trade was actively prosecuted.

In 1475 Alfonso invaded Castile, and, to strengthen his pretensions to that country, became betrothed to the Princess Joanna, Queen Isabella's rival for the Castilian crown. The resulting War of Succession extended beyond the limits of the peninsula into the Canary Islands, where the Portuguese aided the natives against the Castilians;[1] and it gave the Castilians the chance to engage vigorously in trade with Guinea--a country which, in spite of the bull Romanus pontifex, they continued to claim.[2] As the result of preliminary negotiations held at Alcántara in March, 1479, between Queen Isabella of Castile and her aunt, the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal, the bases for a settle­ ment were laid, and it was agreed that a peace should be negotiated and con­ cluded in Portugal.[3]

In the following June, in pursuance of this agreement, Queen Isabella despatched Dr. Rodrigo Maldonado, of Talavera, a lawyer i n whom she had great confidence, as ambassador to Portugal with full powers to treat.[4] On the side of Portugal, D. João da Silveira, baron d'Alvito, was appointed plenipotentiary,[5] but negotiations were principally directed by Prince John.

On September 4 the plenipotentiaries concluded two treaties at Alcaçovas. One, called the Tercerias, dealt mostly with dynastic matters;[6] the second, a treaty of perpetual peace, incorporated and ratified the treaty of peace con­ cluded on October 30, 1431, between John I. of Portugal and John II. of Castile, and also included a number of additional articles. These related mostly to such matters as the restitution of places, release of prisoners, pardoning of offenders, demolition of fortresses, and suppression of rob­ beries committed on land or sea by the subjects of one crown against those of the other. But by the eighth of these additional articles,[7] Ferdinand and Isa­ bella bound themselves not to disturb Portugal in her possession of the trade and lands of Guinea,[8] or of the Azores, Madeira, or Cape Verde Islands, or of any other islands in the region from the Canaries towards Guinea, and not to interfere in the conquest of Morocco. On the other hand, by the ninth article,[9] King Alfonso and Prince John ceded the Canaries to Castile.

The treaty was apparently ratified by Alfonso and Prince John at Evora oil September 8,1479.[10] It was ratified by Queen Isabella ( King Ferdinand being absent in his kingdoms of Aragon) at Trujillo, on September 27, 1479;[11] proclaimed and published in the frontier cities of Badajoz and Elvas on September 15, and at Evora on September 30;[12] and was ratified by Ferdinand and Isabella at Toledo on March 6, 1480.

Portugal at once took measures to secure her rights. On April 6, 1480, Alfonso ordered the captains of ships sent by Prince John to Guinea to capture such foreign ships as they might encounter within the limits laid down by the treaty of Alcaçovas ("das Canarias pera baixo e adjante contra Guinea") and to cast their crews into the sea.[13] In the following year the Pope confirmed the clause of the treaty that excluded foreigners from Guinea.[14]

It was pursuant to this treaty that, in 1492, the Catholic sovereigns ordered Columbus not to go to La Mina; and that, in 1493, the King of Portugal claimed the lands discovered by Columbus as his own.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

Text: MS. The original manuscript of the ratification, signed by Ferdinand and Isabella at Toledo, March 6, 1480, is in the National Archives at Lisbon, gav. 17, maço 6, no. 16. See also above, note II of this document.

Text: Printed. Spanish. The whole of the treaty, except the formal pre­ liminary part, is printed in Joseph Soares da Sylva, Collecçam dos Docu­ mentos, com que se Authorizam as Memorias para a Vida del Rey D. João o I., tom. IV. of Memorias para a Historia de Portugal, que com­ prehendem o Governo del Rey D. Joaõ o I. ( 1730- 1734), doc. no. 36, pp. 270 ff. That Soares printed this treaty by mistake appears from a collation of his "doc. no. 36" with the manuscript register entitled "Demarquaco?s e Contractos", preserved in the National Archives at Lisbon. Soares intended to print the treaty concluded on October 30, 1431, between John I. (d. 1433) and the King of Castile, a copy of which covers ff. 142-165 of the above-mentioned register. Preceding this treaty, on ff. 113-140, is the treaty of Alcaçovas which confirms and partially incorporates the treaty of 1431, Soares's "doc. no. 36" begins with f. 117 of the register, i. e., with the treaty of 1431as it stands in the treaty of Alcaçovas; it continues through the treaty of Alcaqovas and through the first part of the original treaty of 1431, and ends at f. 146 of the register. The eighth and ninth articles of the "new articles" of the treaty of Alcaçovas are printed in Alguns Documentos, pp. 42-45, from the above- mentioned register.

Text: Printed. Portuguese. A Portuguese version of a portion of the eighth article is printed by H. Harrisse, Diplomatic History of America ( 1897), p. 156.

Text: Printed. Latin. A Latin version of the eighth article is in the bull of June 21, 1481, Doc. 4.

References: Contemporary and early writings. Ruy de Pina, Chronica do Rey Dom Affonso V. ( 1790), in J. F. Corrêa da Serra, Collecçaõ de Livros Ineditos de Historia Portugueza, pub. by the Acad. Real das Sciencias, Lisbon, tom. I., c. 206; Nunes do Liam, Cronicas dos Reys ( 1780), tom. IV., c. 66; H. del Pulgar, Crónica de los Reyes Católicos ( 1878), pt. II., cc. 89, 90, 91, in B. C. Aribau, Biblioteca de Autores Españoles, tom. LXX.; G. Zurita, Anales de Aragon ( 1578- 1585), pt. II., lib. XX., c. 34, IV. 306-307; Viscount de Santarem ( M. F. de Barros e Sousa ), Quadro Elementar ( 1842- 1876), I. 379-382, II. 368-378.

References: Later writings. H. Schäfer, Geschichte von Portugal ( 1836- 1854), II. 580-582, in Heeren and Ukert, Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten; H. Vignaud, Toscanclli and Columbus ( 1903), pp. 62-64; id., Histoire Critique de la Grande Entreprise de Christophe Colomb ( 1911), I. 207-211; Harrisse, Diplomatic History ( 1897), pp. 2-5; J. B. Sitges, Enrique IV. y la Excelente Señora Doña Juana la Beltraneja, 1425-1530 ( 1912), pp. 331 ff.


TEXT.<ref>This text is from the original manuscript of the ratification, signed by Ferdinand and Isabella, Mar. 6, 1480, preserved in the National Archives in Lisbon, gav. 17, maço 6, no. 16.</ref>

Don Ferrando e Dona Ysabel, por la gracia de Dios rrey e rreyna de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de Cecilia, de Toledo, de Valençia, de Gallizia, de Mallorcas, de Sevilla, de Çerdeña, de Cordova, de Corçega, de Murçia, de Jahen, de los Algarbes, de Algezira, et de Gibraltar, conde e condesa de Barce­ lona, señores de Viscaya et de Molina, duques de Atenas, e de N[e]opatria, condes de Ruysellon et de Çerdania, marqueses de Oristan e de Goçiano, fazemos saber a quantos la presente carta bieren, que por el Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, oydor de la nuestra audiencia e del nuestro consejo, como nuestro procurador e enbaxador fueron por nuestro mandado tratadas pazes perpetuas entre nos e los dichos nuestros rreynos e señorios e el muy ylustre Rey de Portogal e de los Algarbes de aquen e allen mar en Africa, nuestro primo, e el ylustre principe Don Juan, su fijo, e entre los dichos sus rreynos et señorios, las quales dichas pazes fueron primeramente tratadas por Don Juan de Silveyra, Varon Dalvito, del consejo del dicho Rey de Portogal, e escrivano de la poridat e veedor de la fazienda e chançeller mayor del dicho Principe de Portogal, e por Pero Botello e Rodrigo Alfonso, cavalleros e del consejo del dicho Rey de Portogal, e despues fueron asentadas, firmadas, e juradas por el dicho Varon Dalvito, como procurador bastante e sufiçiente delos dichos Rey e Prinqipe de Portogal, e como su procurador e enbaxador, segund que mas conplidamente es contenido en la escritura de capitulaçion e asiento de las pazes que sobre ello fue fecha, en la qual entre otras cosas se contiene que cada e quando fuesemos requeridos por parte del dicho muy ylustre Rey de Portogal e del ylustre principe, su fijo, otorgariamos, confirmariamos, e jurariamos las dichas pazes por nuestras personas, e porque por Ferrando de Silva, del consejo delos dichos Rey e Prinçipe de Portogal e su enbaxador e procurador, fuesemos requeridos, que otorgasemos e jurasemos e firmase­ mos las dichas pazes segunt' que por el dicho doctor, nuestro procurador e etibaxador, fueron otorgadas, firmadas, e juradas, nos mandamos venir para ante nos la dicha escritura dela dicha capitulacion e asiento delas dichas pazes para las ver e esaminar. El tenor de la qual de verbo ad verbo es este que se sigue:

En el nombre de Dios Todo Poderoso, Padre, e Fijo, e Sp[irit]u Santo, tres personas rrealmente distintas e apartadas e una sola esençia divina, manifiesto e notorio sea a quantos este publico ymstrumento de confirmaçion e asiento, rreformaçion et rreteficacion de pazes perpetuas vieren, que en el año del tiascimiento de Nuestro Señor Jhesu Christo de mill e quatroçientos e setenta e nueve años, a quatro dias del mes de Setienbre, en la villa de los Alcaqovas, en las casas donde posava la muy ylustre Señora Ynfante Doña Beatris, en presençia de mi, el notario publico e general abaxo nonbrados e de los testigos aqui escritos, estando y el honrrado e discreto Doctor Rodrigo Maldoñado, oydor del audiencia e del consejo de los muy altos e muy poderosos señores Don Ferrando e Doña Ysabel, rrey e rreyna de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de Ceçilia, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Gallizia, de Mallorcas, de Sevilla, de Çerdeña, de Cordova, de Corçega, de Murcia, de Jahen, del Algarbe, e de Algezira, de Gibraltar, conde e condesa de Barceloña, señores de Viscaya e de Molina, duques de Atenas e de Neopatria, condes de Ruysellon e de Cerdania, marqueses de Oristan e de Goçiano e del su consejo e su enbaxador e pro­ curador suficiente para lo abaxo escrito, e el honrrado Don Juan de Silveyra, varon Dalvito, del consejo del muy alto e muy poderoso señor Don Alfonso, por la gracia de Dios rrey de Portogal e de los Algarbes de aquen e allen mar en Africa, escrivano de la poridad, veedor de la fazienda e chançeller mayor del muy ylustre Principe Don Juan, su fijo prymogenito, heredero de los dichos rreynos e senorios, procurador bastante de los dichos señores de la otra parte, segunt amos mostraron por las procuraciones de los dichos señores sus costituyentes.

[Here follow the powers granted by Ferdinand and Isabella to Rodrigo Maldonado, dated July 2, 1479, and the powers granted by King Alfonso and Prince Dom João, his son, to João, Baron d'Alvito, dated August 19, 1479. The ratification then continues:]

E luego el dicho procurador de Jos dichos señores Don Ferrando e Doña Ysabel, rrey e rreyna de Castilla e dAragon, etc. dixe que por quanto entre los dichos señores sus costituyentes de la una parte e el dicho procurador de los dichos señores Rey e Principe de la otra, despues del fallescimiento del senor Rey Don Enrrique de gloriosa memoria, rrey que fue de Castilla e de Leon etc., fuera e al presente son grandes debates e quistiones, desençiones, e diferençias yntitulandose los dichos señores Rey Don Ferrando e Reyna Doña Ysabel, rrey e rreyna de Castilla de Leon de Portogal e de los Algarbes etc., e el dicho señor Rey Don Alfonso, rrey de Castilla e de Leon etc., lo qual diera principalmente causa a muy grandes e muy crudas guerras que oviere del dicho tienpo aca entre los dichos señores de que sesiguieran muchas muertes de om + ~es, quemas, incendios e innumerables rrobos, fuerças, prisiones, rrescates, e otras ynjurias, ofensas de diversas calidades e tomamientos de cibdades e villas e lugares e fortalezas e muchas perdidas e daños, gastos e despensas e yntolerables males, en grande deservicio de Dios Nuestro Señor e delos dichos señores, e grant daño e detrimento de los dichos sus rreynos e senorios e subditos e naturales dellos, e que agora por que a nuestro señnor provera por su ynfinita bondat de clemencia, como autor de paz. El qual el sienpre sobre todas cosas encomendo e mando procurar e guardar que la dicha señora Ynfante Dona Beatris por servicio suyo e delos dichos señores, e por la naturaleza e grandes deudos que con ellos tiene, trato e procuro con todas sus fuerqas de tratar paz e conformidad entre ellos, e moviera e praticara algunos medios para los tirar de los dichos debates e diferencias, guerras e males, e dar asiento e paz entre ellos e los dichos señores movidos con zelo del servicio de Dios e del bien publico de los dichos rreynos e señorios e subditos e natu­ rales dellos, queriendo seguir las pazes de los bien aventurados rreyes de gloriosa memoria, sus progenitores, los quales tovieran de muy luengos e antiguos tiempos aca pazes ynviolablemente guardadas porsy e por los dichos sus rreynos e señorios e por conservar los grandes deudos que entre ellos ha e el mucho amor e conformidad que entresy e los dichos sus rreynos eran ante de las dichas guerras, e escusar que se non fagan mas males nin daños de aqui adelante, los quales de cada dia se yvan acrecentando, deliberan de con­ firmar e reformar e asentar porsi e por sus subcesores e por los dichos sus rreynos e señorios entre ellos las pazes antiguas, con algunos nuevos capitulos e condiçiones que para mejor guarda dellas eran nescesarias. Del qual contrato de las pazes antiguas, con la rreteficacion e rreformacion e adiçiones agora nuevamente fechas, el tenor es este que se sigue:

[Here follows the ancient treaty of peace concluded in 1431 between John I. of Portugal and the Infante Dom Duarte his son, and the other infantes, and King John of Castile.]

Comiençan los capitulos que nuevamente fueron fechas e añadydos e acre­ c?tadas a este trato de las pazes.

[8.] Otrosy, quisieron mas los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de Aragon e de Seçilia, etc., e les plogo para que esta paz sea firme, estable, e para sienpre duradera, e prometieron, de agora para en todo tienpo, que por si nin por otro, publico nin secreto, nin sus herederos e subcesores, non turbaran, molestaran, nin ynquietaran, de fecho nin de derecho, en juyzio nin fuera de juyzio, los dichos señores Rey e Principe de Portogal, nin los rreyes que por tienpo fueren de Portogal, nin sus rreynos, la posesion e casi posesion en que estan en todos los tractos, tierras, rrescates de Guinea, con sus minas de oro, e qualesquier otras yslas, costas, tierras, descubiertas e por descobrir, falladas e por fallar. yslas de la Madera, Puerto Santo, e Desierta, e todas las yslas de los Açores, e yslas de las Flores, e asy las yslas de Cabo Verde, e todas las yslas que agora tiene descubiertas, e qualesquier otras yslas que se fallaren o conquirieren de las yslas de Canaria para baxo contra Guinea, porque todo lo que es fallado e se fallare, conquerir o descobrir en los dichos terminos, allende de lo que ya es fallado, ocupado, descubierto, finca a los dichos Rey e Prinçipe de Portogal e sus rreynos, tirando solamente las ystas de Canaria, a saber, Lançarote, Palma, Fuerte Ventura, la Gomera, el Fierro, la Graciosa, la Grant Canaria, Tenerife, e todas las otras yslas de Canaria, ganadas o por ganar, las quales fincan a los reynos de Castilla; e bien asy non turbaran, moslestaran, nin inquietaran qualesquier personas que los dichos tractos de Guinea, nin las dichas costas, tierras descobiertas e por descobrir, en nonbre o de la mano de los dichos señores rreys e prinçipe, o de sus subçesores, nego­ çiaren, trataren, o conquirieren, por qualquier titulo, modo, o manera que sea o ser pueda. Antes, por esta presente, prometen e seguran, a buena fee, syn mal engaño, a los dichos señores rrey e prinçipe e a sus subcesores, que non mandaran por sy, nin por otro, nin consyntiran, ante defenderan que syn liçencia de los dichos señores Rey e Prinçipe de Portogal non vayan a negoçiar a los dichos tractos, nin ystas, tierras de Guinea, descobiertas e por descobrir, sus gentes naturales o subditos, en todo logar o tienpo, e en todo caso, cuydado o non cuydado, nin otras quatesquier gentes estrangeras que estovieren en sus reynos e señorios, o en sus puertos, armaren o se abitullaren, nin daran a ello alguña ocasion, favor, logar, ayuda, nin consentimiento, direte nin yndirete, nin consentiran armar nin cargar para alla en manera alguna. E sy alguno de los naturales o suditos de los rreynos de Castilla, o estranjeros, qualesquier que sean, fueren tratar, ympedir, danificar, rrobar, o conquirir la dicha Guinea, tractos, rrescates, minas, tierras, yslas della descobiertas o por des­ cubrir, syn licencia e consentimiento espreso de los dichos señores rrey e prinçipe, o de sus subçesores, que los tales sean pugnidos en aquella manera, logar, e forma, que es ordenado por el dicho capitulo desta nueva reformacion e rretificaçion de los tractos de las pazes que se tenia e deve tener en las cosas de la mar, contra los que salen a tierra en las costas, prayas, puertos, abras, a rrobar, danificar, o mal fazer, o en el mar largo las dichas cosas fazen.[15]

Otrosi, los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de Leon, etc., pro­ metieron, otorgaron, por el modo sobredicho, por sy e por sus subcesores, que non se entremeteran de querer entender, nin entenderan en manera alguna, en la conquista del rreyno de Fez, como se en ello non enpacharan, nin entremeteran, los Reyes pasados de Castilla, ante libremente los dichos señores Rey e Prinçipe de Portogal e sus reynos e subcesores, podran pro­ seguir la dicha conquista, e la defenderan, como les ploguiere. E prometieron e otorgaron en todos los dichos señores rrey e rreyna, que por sy nin por otro, en juyzio nin fuera del, de fecho nin de derecho, non moveran sobre todo lo que dicho es, nin parte dello, nin sobre cosa alguna que a elto pertenesca, pleito, dubda, question, nin otra contienda alguna, ante todo guardaran, con­ pliran muy enteramente e faran guardar e complir syn menguamiento alguno. E, porque adelante non se pueda alegar ynorançia de las dichas cosas vedadas e penas, los dichos señores rrey e rreyna mandaron luego a las justiçias e ofiçiales de los puertos de los dichos sus rreynos, que todo asy guarden, e cunplan, e esecuten fielmente, e asy lo mandaran pregonar e publicar en su corte e en los dichos puertos de mar de los dichos sus rreynos e señorios, para que a todos venga en notiçia.

E el dicho Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, en nombre y como procurador y enbaxador de los dichos señores Rey Don Fernando y Reyna Dona Ysabel, rrey y rreyna de Castilla, de Leon, d'Aragõ, etc., sus señores, y el dicho Don Juan de Silveyra, baron d'Alvito, en nombre y como procurador de los dichos señores Rey Don Alfonso, rrey de Portogal y de los Algarbes de aquen y de allen mar em Africa, y del dicho señor Principe Don Juan, su fijo, sus señores, por virtud del dicho poder que para ello tienen, que encima va encorporado, dixeron que asentavan y otorgavan y asentaron y otorgaron pases perpetuas entre los dichos señores, sus constituyentes, y sus rreynos y señorios, para que serã guardadas entre ellos perpetuamente, segund es contenido en el tracto de las pases antiguas con las dichas condiciones, segund y por la forma y manera que en esta escritura y capitulacion se contiene; y dixeron que sy neçessario y complidero hera pera mayor validacion que aprovavan y reformavan y ennovavan, como de fecho aprovavan y reformavan y rrecti­ ficavan y ennovavan el dicho tracto de las pases antiguas como en el se contiene, enquanto es necessario y complidero o conviniente al tienpo presente con las dichas adiciones a ellas por ellos fechas. E prometieron y se obligaron, uno a otro y otro a otro, en nombre de los dichos señores sus constituientes, que ellos y sus [sub]cessores en los dichos sus rreynos y señorios ternan y guardaran para agora y para siempre jamas las dichas pases segund y por la forma y manera que en esta escritura se contiene syn arte y sin engaño y sin cautela alguna, y nõ yran nyn vernan nyn consentyran nyn permitiran que sea ydo nyn venido contra lo en ella contenido nyn parte alguna dello direte ny indirete por nynguna causa, color, ny rason alguno que sea o ser pueda, pensado o por pensar, y sy lo contrario fisieren, lo que Dios no quiera, que por el mesmo fecho yncurra la parte que lo fisiere en pena de tresientas mit doblas de oro de la vanda de buen oro y justo peso para la otra parte obediente. Las quales prometieron y se obligaron que pagaran rrealmente y con efecto a la parte que en la dicha pena encurriese a la otra parte obediente luego tanto que en ella cayere syn contienda de juizio. E pagada la dicha pena o non pagada o remetida sinque poende[16] el dicho contracto de las dichas pases firme e vale­ dero para syempre jamas.

Otrosy dixeron que rrenunciavan y rrenunciaron en nonbre de los dichos señores sus constituyentes todas alegaciones, excepciones, y todos rremedios juridicos y beneficios, auxilios ordinarios y extra ordinarios, que a los dichos señores constituyentes y a cada uno d'ellos compete podrian pertenescer agora y en qualquier tiempo de aqui adelante para anular o rrevocar o enfrengir, en todo o en parte, esta dicha escritura de tracto, assyento, y rreformacion y rretificacion de las dichas pases con las dichas adiciones por ellos fechas o por difirir o impedir el efecto dellas. E asy mismo rrenunciaron todos los derechos, leyes, costumbres, estilos, y fasañas y opiniones de doctores que para ello les pudiesen aprovechar en qualquier manera, especialmente renun­ ciaron la ley y derecho que diz que general renunciaciõ non vala. Para lo qual todo asy tener y guardar y complir y pagar la dicha pena, sy en ella cayeren, obligaron los dichos procuradores los bienes patrimoniales y fiscales, muebles y raizes, avidos y por aver, de los dichos señores sus constituyentes y de sus subditos y fiaturales. E por mayor firmesa los dichos procuradores dixeron que juravan y juraron a Dios y a Santa Maria y a la señal de la cruz que tocaron con sus manos derechas, y a los Sanctos Evangelios do quier que estan, en nonbre y en las almas de los dichos señores sus constituyentes, por virtud de los dichos poderes que para ello especialmente tienen, que ellos y cada uno d'ellos, por sy y por sus subcessores y rreynos y señorios, ternan y guardaran y faran tener y guardar perpetua y inviolablemente las dichas pases, segund que en esta escritura se contiene, a buena fé y sin mal engaño, syn arte y syn cautela alguna. E que los dichos señores sus constituyentes, nyn alguno dellos, non pidiran por sy nyn por interpuestas personas abso­ lucion, relaxacion, dispensacion, nyn comutacion del dicho juramento a nuestro muy Sancto Padre ny a otra persona alguna que poder tenga para lo dar y conceder. E puesto que proprio motu, o en otra qualquier manera le sea dado non usaran del. Ante aquello nõ embargante ternan y guardaran y compliran y faran tener y complir todo lo contenido en este dicho contracto de las dichas pases con las dichas adiciones y cada cosa y parte dello segund que en el se contiene fiel y verdaderamente y con efecto, y en testimonio de verdat otorgaron los dichos procuradores esta escritura y contracto de las dichas pases y pidieron a my el notario dello sendos instrumentos cõ mi publico signo y mas los que complideros fuesen para guarda del servicio de los dichos señores sus constituyentes. Testigos que a ello fueron presentes Fernando de Silvera del consejo del dicho señor Rey de Portogal y covdel­ mayor de sus rreynos y el doctor Juan Texera del consejo y desembargo y de las peticiones y su vice chancellery Pero Botello y Rodrigo Alfonso, cavalleros del dicho señor rrey y del su consejo, y otros. E yo, Juan Garcez, cavallero de la casa del dicho señor principe y su escrivano de su fasienda y de la fasienda del rregno del Algarve de allen mar en Africa, notario general y publico en todos los rreynos y señorios del dicho señor rrey, que juntamente com Benito Royz de Castro, escrivano de camara de los dichos señores Rey y Reyna de Castilla y de Aragon y etc., y con los dichos testigos a todo fue presente quando los dichos procuradores otorgaran esta escritura de capitu­ lacion y todas las cosas particularmente en ella contenidas. E fisieron el dicho juramento poniendo sus manos derechas sobre una crus y sobre un libro de los Santos Evangelios. La qual dicha capitulacion y escritura yo, el dicho Juan Garces, fielmente fis escrevir en estas treynta y tres fojas atras escritas contando esta y fue fielmente emendada y corregida y reformada por ante los dichos procuradores segund se contiene en cada una foja signada por my y por el dicho Benito Roys de nuestros nonbres al pié della y por mi mano la sobre escrevi y sygne de mi publico señal que es tal. E yo Benito Roys de Castro, escrivano de camara de los dichos señores Rey y Reyna de Castilla y de Aragon etc. y notario publico en la su corte y en todos los sus rreynos y señorios, que por licençia y poder autoridad que me rue dada y otorgada por el dicho señor Rey de Portogal para dar fee y testimonio de verdad en el tracto de las pases y en todas las otras cosas que a ella per­ tenescen, fui presente con el dicho Juan Garces y testigos ençima nonbrados quando los dichos procuradores de los dichos señores otorgaram esta escritura y fisieron el dicho juramento, poniendo sus manos derechas en una crus y en un libro de los Santos Evangelios, y lo fis emendar en uno con el dicho Juan Garces segund suso va emendado. La qual va escrita en treynta y quatro fojas con esta en que va puesto esta my señal, y enfin de cada plana va puesto mi nonbre acostumbrado y lo signe de my señal que es tal.

La qual escritura de assyento y capitulacion de pases vista y entendida por nós y por los del nuestro consejo y por los grandes y cibdades y villas de nuestros rreynos, la aprovamos, otorgamos, y confirmamos, y prometemos y juramos a la señal de la crus y a los Santos Evangelios por nuestras manos corporalmente tangidas, presente el dicho Fernando de Silva, enbaxador de los dichos señores Rey y Principe de Portogal, de complir y mantener y guardar esta dicha escritura de contracto de pases y todos los capitulos en ella con­ tenidos y cada uno dellos a buena fee y syn mal engaño, syn arte y syn cautela alguna, por nos y por nuestros herderos y subsessores y por nuestros rreynos y señorios, tierras, gentes, subditos naturales dellos, solas clausulas, pactos, obligaciones, penas, vinculos, renunciaciones en este dicho contracto y assy­ ento de pases contenidos, y por certenidat, corroboracion, y convalidacion de todo mandamos faser esta carta y la dar al dicho Fernando de Silva para la dar a los dichos señores Rey y Principe de Portogal. La qual firmamos de nuestros nonbres y mandamos sellar con nuestro sello de plomo pendiente en filos de seda a colores. Dada en la muy noble cibdad de Toledo, a seys dias del mes de março, año del nascimiento del nuestro señor Jesu Christo de mill y quatrocientos y ochenta años. Non sea dubda onde dise en la segunda foja sobre raydo onde poz que las assentaredes y firmaredes. E en la tercera foja donde dise diez y nueve. E en la setena foja en la margem donde dise que destos nuestros rreynos viniere con el procurador del dicho Rey de Castilla. E en la tresena foja sobre raydo onde dise tractos. E en la catorzena entre renglones onde dis sus reynos. Lo qual todo fue emendado y corregido presente el dicho Fernando de Silva. E en la dosena foja sobre raydo onde dis sentencias.

YO, EL REY. YO, LA REYNA. YO, FERNAND ALVARES de Toledo, secretario del Rey y de la Reyna, nuestros señores, lo fise escrevir por su mandado. Registrada. ALFONSO SANCHES de Logroño, chanceller.


TRANSLATION.[17]

We, Don Ferdinand and Doña Isabella, by the grace of God, king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Seville, Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarves, Algeciras, and Gibral­ tar; count and countess of Barcelona; lord and lady of Biscay and Molina; duke and duchess of Athens and Neopatras; count and countess of Roussillon and Cerdagne; marquis and marchioness of Oristano and Gociano: make known to all who shall see the present letter that perpetual peace between us and the said our kingdoms and lordships, and our cousin, the very illustrious king of Portugal and the Algarves on this side and beyond the sea in Africa, and his son, the illustrious prince, Dom John, and the said their kingdoms and lordships, was negotiated, at our command, by Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, oidor of our audiencia and member of our council, acting as our representative and ambassador. The said peace was first negotiated by Dom João da Silveira, baron d'Alvito, member of the council of the said king of Portugal and his private secretary, inspector of the treasury, and chancellor-in-chief of the said prince of Portugal, and by Pero Botello and Rodrigo Alfonso, knights and members of the council of the said king of Portugal. Afterward the peace was affirmed, signed, and sworn to by the said Baron d'Alvito acting as a com­ petent and qualified representative of the said king and prince of Portugal, and as their representative and ambassador, as is set forth more fully in the instrument of agreement and treaty of peace which was made in regard to it. Among other things that instrument sets forth that whenever we should be notified on the part of the said very illustrious king of Portugal, and by his son, the illustrious prince, we should authorize, confirm, and swear to the said peace in our own person. And inasmuch as we have been notified by Ferrando de Silva, member of the council of the said king and prince of Portugal, and their representative and ambassador, to authorize, swear to, and sign the said peace, as it was authorized, signed, and sworn to by the said doctor, our repre­ sentative and ambassador, we ordered the said instrument of agreement and treaty of the said peace to be brought before us, in order that we might see and examine it. Its tenor,, word for word, is as follows:

In the name of God Almighty, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, three persons really distinct and separate, and one sole divine essence. Be manifest and publicly known to all who shall see it this public instrument of confirmation and agreement, revision, and rectification of perpetual peace which [was made] in the year of the nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ, 1479, on the fourth day of the month of September, in the city of Alcaqobas, in the houses where the very illustrious infanta, Doña Beatrice, was lodging, in the presence of me, the notary public and general, below named, and of the undersigned witnesses, and being there the honorable and prudent doctor, Rodrigo Maldonado, oidor of the audiencia and member of the council of the very exalted and very powerful lord and lady, Don Ferdinand and Doña Isabella, king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Seville, Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarve, Algeciras, and Gibral­ tar, count and countess of Barcelona, lord and lady of Biscay and Molina, duke and duchess of Athens and Neopatras, count and countess of Roussillon and Cerdagne, marquis and marchioness of Oristano and Gociano, member of their council, and their ambassador and representative qualified to act in what is below written, and the honorable Dom João da Silveira, baron d'Alvito, member of the council of the very exalted and very powerful lord, Dom Alfonso, by the grace of God, king of Portugal and the Algarves on this side and beyond the sea in Africa, private secretary to the king, inspector of the treasury, chancellor-in-chief of his firstborn son, the very illustrious prince, Dom John, heir of the said kingdoms and lordships, and qualified representa­ tive of the said lords of the other part--as both showed by the procurations of their constituents the said lords.

[Here follow the powers granted by Ferdinand and Isabella to Rodrigo Maldonado, dated July 2, 1479, and the powers granted by King Alfonso and Prince John, his son, to João, baron d'Alvito, dated August 19, 1479. The ratification then continues:]

And thereupon the said representative of the said lord and lady, Don Ferdi­ nand and Doña Isabella, king and queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., declared that inasmuch as since the death of the lord king Don Henry of glorious memory, former king of Castile, Leon, etc., there have been and are at present serious disputes, questions, discussions, and differences between his constituents, the said lord and lady of the one part, and the said representative of the said lords, the king and prince, of the other part, because the said lord and lady, King Don Ferdinand and Queen Doña Isabella called themselves king and queen of Castile, Leon, Portugal, and the Algarves, etc., and the said lord, King Dom Alfonso, called himself king of Castile, Leon, etc., which furnished the chief cause for very serious and very cruel wars that were waged here dur­ ing the said time between the said lords, and from which resulted the deaths of many men, conflagrations, fires, innumerable acts of violence, imprisonments, ransoms and other injuries, offenses of different kinds, the capture of cities, towns, villages, and fortresses, many losses anal injuries, waste and expenses, and intolerable evils, to the great disservice of God our Lord, and of the said lords, and grave injury and detriment to the said their kingdoms and lordships, and the subjects and natives of the latter (and may this now be adjusted by our Lord, through His infinite goodness and clemency, as the Author of peace, for He always recommended and ordered that peace be pro­ cured and kept) and the said lady, Infanta Doña Beatrice, for His service and that of the said lord and lady, because of her relationship and great obligations toward them, tried and endeavored with all her might to obtain peace and harmony between them, and will set in motion and make use of any means whatsoever to free them from the said disputes and differences, and wars and evils, and cause agreement and peace between them--the said lord and lady, moved with zeal for the service of God and for the public welfare of the said kingdoms and lordships, and the subjects and natives of them, and desirous of continuing the peace of their progenitors, the very fortunate kings of glorious memory, who had observed here an inviolable peace for themselves and for the said their kingdoms and lordships from very remote and ancient times, and in order to preserve the close relationship that exists between them, and the great love and harmony which reigned between themselves and the said their kingdoms before the said wars, and in order to avoid the occurrence of other evils and injuries from this time forward, and which are increasing daily, do determine to confirm, revise, and agree to, for themselves and their successors, and for the said their kingdoms and lordships, between them, the ancient peace, with certain new articles and conditions, which were necessary for the better keeping of it. Of that con­ tract of the ancient peace, with the rectification, revision, and additions now newly made, the tenor is this which follows:

[Here follows the ancient treaty of peace concluded in 1431 between John I. of Portugal and his son, the infante Dom Duarte, and the other infantes, and King John of Castile.]

The articles which were newly made, added, and appended to this treaty of peace commence:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

[8.] Moreover, the aforesaid King and Queen of Castile, Aragon, Sicily, etc., willed and resolved, in order that this peace be firm, stable, and everlast­ ing, and promised, henceforth and forever, that neither of themselves nor by another, publicly or secretly, or by their heirs and successors, will they disturb, trouble, or molest, in fact or in law, in court or out of court, the said King and Prince of Portugal or the future sovereigns of Portugal or their kingdoms, in their possession or quasi possession in all the trade, lands, and barter in Guinea, with its gold-mines, or in any other islands, coasts, or lands, discovered or to be discovered, found or to be found, or in the islands of Madeira, Porto Santo, and Desierta, or in all the islands of the Azores, or the islands of Flores, as well as the islands of Cape Verde, or in all the islands hitherto discovered, or in all other islands which shall be found or acquired by conquest [in the region] from the Canary Islands down toward Guinea. For whatever has been found or shall be found, acquired by con­ quest, or discovered within the said limits, beyond what has already been found, occupied, or discovered, belongs to the said King and Prince of Portugal and to their kingdoms, excepting only the Canary Islands, to wit: Lançarote, Palma, Forteventura, Gomera, Ferro, Graciosa, Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and all the other Canary Islands, acquired or to be acquired, which belong to the kingdoms of Castile. And in like manner, [they promised] not to disturb, trouble, or molest any persons whomsoever, who, under any title or in any way or manner whatsoever, shall trade or traffic in or acquire by conquest the said trade of Guinea or that of the said coasts or lands, dis­ covered or to be discovered, in the name or under the authority of the said king and prince or their successors. On the contrary, by these presents, they do promise and assure, in good faith and without deceit, the said king and prince and their successors, that they will not, of themselves or through others, order or consent, but rather forbid, that any of their people, native or subject, in any place or at any time, or in any case, specified or not speci­ fied, or any other foreign people who might be within their kingdoms and dominions, or who shall be equipped or provisioned in their ports, go to traffic in the said trade or in the islands or lands of Guinea discovered or to be discovered. Neither will they give any occasion, favor, opportunity, aid, or consent, direct or indirect, for such trade, nor consent to equip or freight for those regions in any manner. And if any of the natives or subjects of the kingdoms of Castile, or any foreigners whosoever, shall traffic in, obstruct, injure, plunder, or acquire by conquest the said Guinea, or its trade, barter, mines, lands, and islands, discovered or to be discovered, without the express license and consent of the said king and prince or of their successors, [they do promise] that all such shall be punished in the manner, place, and form ordained by the said article of this new revision and correction of the treaties of peace which hold and ought to hold in maritime affairs, against those who go by land along the coasts and shores, or in the ports and bays, to plunder, commit depredations, or do evil, or who shall do such things on the high seas.

Moreover, the said King and Queen of Castile, Leon, etc., promised and agreed, in the manner abovesaid, of themselves and for their successors, not to presume to meddle, nor will they meddle in any manner, with the conquest of the kingdom of Fez, just as the former sovereigns of Castile did not obstruct it or meddle with it; but the said King and Prince of Portugal and their kingdoms and successors shall be freely allowed to prosecute the said conquest and to defend it as they please. And the said king and queen promised and agreed faithfully that, neither of themselves nor by any other, in court or out of court, in fact or in law, will they raise against the above- said, nor any part of it, nor anything that pertains to it, any suit, doubt, question, or any other contention, but that, on the contrary, they will observe and fulfill everything strictly to the letter, and will have it observed and fulfilled without any diminution. And in order that no one in the future may allege ignorance of the said prohibitions and penalties, the said king and queen immediately ordered the justices and officials of the ports of the above­ said their kingdoms faithfully to observe, fulfill, and execute everything as herein ordained, and such justices and officers shall so proclaim and publish it in their courts and in the said seaports of the abovesaid their kingdoms and dominions, so that all people may have notice of it.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

And the said Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, in the name of, and acting as the representative and ambassador of the said lord and lady, King Don Ferdinand and Queen Doña Isabella, king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, etc., his master and mistress, and the said Dom João da Silveira, baron d'Alvito, in the name of, and acting as the representative of his masters, the said lords, King Dom Alfonso, king of Portugal and of the Algarves on this side and beyond the sea in Africa, and of the said lord, his son, Prince Dom John, by virtue of the said power conceded to them for that purpose (as is above incorporated), declared that they agreed to and authorized, and they did agree to and authorize, perpetual peace between their constituents, the said lords, and their kingdoms and lordships, so that it may be kept per­ petually between them, as was set forth in the treaty of the ancient peace, with the said conditions, according to and in the form and manner as is set forth in this instrument and agreement. They declared that if it were necessary and obligatory for its greater validation, they approved, revised, and renewed, as in fact they did approve, revise, rectify, and renew, the said treaty of the ancient peace as is set forth in it, in so far as may be necessary, obligatory, and advisable at the present time, with the said additions made therein by them. They promised, and each bound the other mutually, in the name of their constituents, the said lords, that the latter and their succes­ sors, and the said their kingdoms and lordships will keep and observe for the present and for evermore the said peace according to and in the form and manner which is set forth in this instrument, without any deception, evasion, or mental reservation whatsoever. They will not oppose or violate, nor consent, nor permit that what is set forth in it be opposed or violated, or any part of it, directly or indirectly, under any motive, pretext, or reason what­ soever, or that may be imagined or that can be imagined. And should they do the contrary (which may God not permit), then by that very fact, the guilty party shall incur a fine of 300,000 gold doblas of the grade of good gold and of just weight [which shall be given] to the other, obedient, party. They promised and bound themselves to really and truly pay this sum--the party which should incur the said fine to the other, obedient, party--as soon as the fine should be incurred, without constraint of judgment; and whether the said fine be paid or not, or whether it be remitted, the said contract of the said peace would still be firm and valid forever.

Furthermore, they declared that they renounced, and they did renounce, in the name of their constituents, the said lords, all allegations, exceptions, and all legal remedies and beneficial aids, ordinary and extraordinary, which might rightly belong to their constituents, the said lords, or to any one of them, now or at any time hereafter, to annul, revoke, or infringe, in whole or in part, this said instrument of treaty, agreement, revision, and rectifica­ tion of the said peace, with the said additions made by them, or to postpone or prevent its operation. Likewise they renounced all rights, laws, customs, usages, actions, and opinions of doctors of which they might avail themselves for it in any way. Especially did they renounce the law and right which declares a general renunciation invalid. In order to keep, perform, and comply with all the above, and in order to pay the said fine, should it be in­ curred, the said representatives pledged the property, both patrimonial and fiscal, the chattels and the landed property owned or to be owned, of their constituents, the said lords, and of their subjects and natives. And for greater assurance, the said representatives, by virtue of the said powers which they have especially for it, declared that they took oath, and they did take oath, before God and Holy Mary, and on the sign of the cross, on which they placed their right hands, and on the holy gospels, wherever they may be, in the names and on the consciences of their constituents, the said lords, that they, and each one of them, for themselves and for their successors, and their kingdoms and lordships, will keep and observe the said peace, and cause it to be kept and observed, perpetually and inviolably, according as it is set forth in this instrument, in good faith, and without any evasion, decep­ tion, or mental reservation whatsoever. Their constituents, the said lords, or any one of them, will not ask of our very Holy Father, or of any other person who may have the power to grant and concede it, in their own name, or by means of persons acting as their agents, absolution, remission, dispensa­ tion, or commutation of the said oath. And even should this be granted proprio motu, or in any other manner, they will not avail themselves of it. But the rather, notwithstanding that, they will keep, observe, and perform, and cause to be kept and performed, all that is set forth in this said contract of the said peace with the said additions, and each and every part of it, as it is set forth therein, faithfully and truly, and actually. In testimony of the truth, the said representatives approved this instrument and contract of the said peace, and each requested of me, the notary who drew it, writs of it, with my public seal, and whatever else might be suitable for the observance of the serv­ ice of their constituents, the said lords. Witnesses of it, who were present, were Fernando de Silveira, member of the council of the said lord king of Portugal and master of the horse of his kingdoms, Doctor João Texera, member of the council and disembargo and of petitions, and his vice-chan­ cellor, Pero Botello and Rodrigo Alfonso, knights of the said lord king and members of his council, and others. And I, João Garces, knight of the household of the said lord prince and his notary of his treasury and of the treasury of the kingdom of the Algarve beyond the sea in Africa, notary general and public throughout the kingdoms and lordships of the said lord king, who together with Benito Roys de Castro, notary of the high court of justice of the said lord and lady, king and queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., and with the said witnesses, was present throughout when the said representa­ tives approved this instrument of agreement and all the things particularly set forth in it. And they took the said oath by placing their right hands on a cross and on a book of the holy gospels. I, the said João Garces, caused this said agreement and instrument to be written down faithfully on these thirty-three leaves above written counting this leaf. It was faithfully amended and corrected and revised in the presence of the said representa­ tives, just as it is set forth on each single leaf, which was signed by me and the said Benito Roys with our names at the foot of it. With my hand I wrote the wrapper and sealed it with my public seal, which is as follows. And I, Benito Roys de Castro, notary of the high court of justice of the said lord and lady, king and queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., and notary public in their court and throughout their kingdoms and lordships, by the per­ mission, power, and authority, which was granted and conceded to me by the said lord king of Portugal to attest and witness the truth of the treaty of peace and of all the other things which pertain to it, was present, together with the said João Garces and the witnesses abovementioned, when the said representatives of the said lords approved this instrument and took the said oath by placing their right hands on a cross and on a book of the holy gospels. I caused it to be corrected, together with the said Juan Garces, just as it is corrected above. It is written on thirty-four leaves, counting this leaf on which this my seal is placed. Finally on each leaf is written my customary name and I sealed it with my seal which is as follows.

This instrument of agreement and treaty of peace having been seen and examined by us, by the members of our council, and by the grandees, cities, and towns of our kingdoms, we approve, assent to, and confirm it, and promise and swear, on the sign of the cross and on the holy gospels, on which we actually placed our hands in the presence of the said Fernando de Silva, am­ bassador of the said lords, king and prince of Portugal, to perform, maintain, and observe this said instrument of contract of peace, and all the articles con­ tained in it, and each one of them, in good faith, and without any evasion, deception, or mental reservation whatsoever, by us and by our heirs and suc­ cessors, and by our kingdoms and lordships, lands, peoples, and subjects natives of them, under the stipulations, agreements, obligations, fines, bonds, and renunciations contained in this said contract and treaty of peace. For the assurance, corroboration, and validation of all, we caused this letter to be written and delivered to the said Fernando de Silva, in order that he might give it to the said lords, the king and prince of Portugal. We signed the same with our names, and ordered it sealed with our leaden seal hanging from colored silken threads. Given in the very noble city of Toledo, on the sixth day of the month of March, in the year of the nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ, 1480. Let there be no doubt where it says on the second leaf above the erasure "onde poz que las assentaredes y firmaredes"; on the third leaf where it says "diez y nueve"; on the seventh leaf, where it says in the margin " que destos nuestros rreynos viniere con el procurador del dicho Rey de Castilla"; on the thirteenth leaf, where it says above the erasure "tractos"; and on the fourteenth leaf, where it says between the lines "sus reynos". It was thoroughly corrected and revised in the presence of the said Fernando de Silva. And on the twelfth leaf, where it says above the erasure"sentencias".

I, THE KING. I, THE QUEEN.

I, FERNANDO ALVAREZ de Toledo, secretary of the king and of the queen, our lord and lady, had it written by his command. Registered. ALFONSO SANCHEZ de Logroño, chancellor.


  1. J. de Viera y Clavijo, Historia General de las Islas Canarias ( 1858- 1863), II. 37.
  2. Pulgar, Crónica, pt. II., cc. 62, 88. The Catholic sovereigns declared ( 1475) that "los Reyes de España tuvieron siempre la conquista de Africa y Guinea, y llevaron el quinto de cuantas mercaderias en aquellas partes se resgataban". Navarrete, Viages ( 1825- 1837), I. xxxvii-xxxix, with which, however, compare Santarem, Recherches sur la Priorité ( 1842), p. 199. A few years later, but before the end of the war, they instructed their ambassadors in Rome to procure permission for themselves and those to whom they should give license "para que puedan contratar con los infieles que tienen la mina del oro e de la Guinea sin incurrir por ello en sentencia de excomunion." M. F. de Navarrete et al., Coleccion de Documentos Inéditos para la Historia de España ( 1842--), VII. 552.
  3. For accounts of the peace negotiations, see the chronicles of Nunes do Liam, Ruy de Pina , and Pulgar, and J. B. Sitges, Enrique IV. y Doña Juana la Beltraneja.
  4. His powers are dated July 2, 1479. Santarem, Quadro Elementar, I. 380. On the part taken by him in the negotiations, see Pulgar, Crónica, pt. II., c. 90. He was one of the signers of the treaty of Tordesillas, Doc. 9.
  5. His powers are dated Aug. 19, 1479. Santarem, loc. cit.
  6. This treaty is printed in full in J. B. Sitges, op. cit., app. 2.
  7. This is the article printed below.
  8. It is interesting to notice that in summarizing the treaty the chroniclers, Ruy de Pina and Nunes do Liam, describe Guinea as extending as far as the Indies--" O Senhorio de Guinee, que he dos cabos de Nam e do Bojador atée os Yndios inclusiva­ mente", although no reference to the Indies is found in the treaty itself.
  9. Cf. Doc. 1, note 8.
  10. This seems to be the correct interpretation of the evidence given in Harrisse, Diplomatic History, p. 2, and notes.
  11. A late copy of this ratification, preserved in the Biblioteca Nacional at Madrid, has been brought to the editor's attention by Professor R. B. Merriman. Cf. also Navarrete, Viages, I. xxxix, and Pulgar, op. cit., c. 91.
  12. Santarem, Quadro Elementar, II. 377-378.
  13. Algs. Docs., p. 45.
  14. Doc. 4.
  15. The treaties of Oct. 30, 1431. The article referred to is art. 7 of the "new articles".
    It is printed in Sylva, Memorias, tom. IV., doc. no. 36, pp. 327-329, and in abstract in Santarem, Quadro Elementar, II. 372-374. In the latter work, article 7 includes also article 8, according to the numbering adopted above. In the manuscript treaty the articles are not numbered.
  16. Quede porende?
  17. The translation is by Dr. J. A. Robertson.