United States Statutes at Large/Volume 40/65th Congress/1st Session/Chapter 53

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United States Statutes at Large, Volume 40
United States Congress
Public Acts of the Sixty-Fifth Congress, 1st Session, Chapter 53

Chapter 53, Act of August 10, 1917, is also commonly known by it's popular titles, the Lever Act or the Food and Fuel Control Act.

The Food Control Act, (Act of October 22, 1919, c. 80, Title I, Public No. 63., H.R. 8624, 41 Stat. 297) amended sections 1 & 4 and repealed sections 8 & 9 prior to the repeal of the entire Act by Joint Resolution of March 3, 1921, (c. 136, Public Res., No. 64., H.J. Res. 382., 41 Stat. 1359).


August 10, 1917. [H. R. 4961.]
[Public, No. 41.]

Chap. 53.—An Act To provide further for the national security and defense by encouraging the production, conserving the supply, and controlling the distribution of food products and fuel.

Food products, fuel, etc.Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, Section 1.That by reason of the existence of a state of war,Measures for conserving supply of designated necessities during present war, authorized. it is essential to the national security and defense, for the successful prosecution of the war, and for the support and maintenance of the Army and Navy, to assure an adequate supply and equitable distribution, and to facilitate the movement, of foods, feeds, fuel including fuel oil and natural gas, and fertilizer and fertilizer ingredients, tools, utensils, implements, machinery, and equipment required for the actual production of foods, feeds, and fuel, hereafter in this Act called necessaries; to prevent, locally or generally, scarcity, To prevent scarcity, etc.monopolization, hoarding, injurious speculation, manipulations, and private controls, affecting such supply, distribution, and movement;To establish governmental control.
Means, etc., created.
and to establish and maintain governmental control of such necessaries during the war. For such purposes the instrumentalities, means, methods, powers, authorities, duties, obligations, and prohibitions hereinafter set forth are created, established, conferred, and prescribed. The President is authorized to make such regulations and to issue such orders Regulations and orders to be issued.as are essential effectively to carry out the provisions of this Act.

Sec. 2. Effective powers vested in the President.That in carrying out the purposes of this Act the President is authorized to enter into any voluntary arrangements or agreements, to create and use any agency or agencies, to accept the services of any person without compensation, to cooperate with any agency or person, to utilize any department or agency of the Government, and to coordinate their activities so as to avoid any preventable loss or duplication of effort or funds.

Sec. 3. Government agents, etc. That no person acting either as a voluntary or paid agent or employee of the United States in any capacity, including an advisory capacity, shall solicit, induce, or attempt to induce any person or officer authorized Inducing contracts, etc., by, forbidden, if pecuniarily interested therein.to execute or to direct the execution of contracts on behalf of the United States to make any contract or give any order for the furnishing to the United States of work, labor, or services, or of materials, supplies, or other property or any kind or character, if such agent or employeeIf party thereto, etc. has any pecuniary interest in such contract or order, or if he or any firm of which he is a member, or corporation, joint-stock company, or association of which he is an officer or stockholder, or in the pecuniary profits of which he is directly or indirectly interested,Interest in contracts recommended by, to be disclosed. shall be a party thereto. Nor shall any agent or employee make, or permit any committee or other body of which he is a member to make, or participate in making, any recommendation concerning such contract or order to any council, board, or commission of the United States, or any member or subordinate thereof, without making to the best of his knowledge and belief a full and complete disclosure in writing to such council, board, commission, or subordinate of any and every pecuniary interest which he may have in such contract or order and of his interest in any firm, corporation, company, or association being a party thereto. Awarding such contracts forbidden.Nor shall he participate in the awarding of such contract or giving such order. Any willful violation of any of the provisions of this sectionPunishment for violations. shall be punishable by a fine of not more than $10,000, or by imprisonment of not more than five years, or both: Provided, Proviso. Criminal code not modified.That the provisions of this section shall not change, alter or repeal section forty-one of chapter three hundred and twenty-one, Thirty-fifth Statutes at Large.Vol. 35, p. 1097.

Sec. 4. Enhancing price to restrict supply, wasting, etc., necessaries, unlawful.That it is hereby made unlawful for any person willfully to destroy any necessaries for the purpose of enhancing the price or restricting the supply thereof; knowingly to commit waste or willfully to permit preventable deterioration of any necessaries in or in connection with their production, manufacture, or distribution;Offenses specified. to hoard, as defined in section six of this Act, any necessaries; to monopolize or attempt to monopolize, either locally or generally, any necessaries; to engage in any discriminatory and unfair, or any deceptive or wasteful practice or device, or to make any unjust or unreasonable rate or charge, in handling or dealing in or with any necessaries; Conspiracies, combinations, etc., to accomplish unlawful acts.to conspire, combine, agree, or arrange with any other person, (a) to limit the facilities for transporting, producing, harvesting, manufacturing, supplying, storing, or dealing in any necessaries; (b) to restrict the supply of any necessaries; (c) to restrict distribution of any necessaries; (d) to prevent, limit, or lessen the manufacture or production of any necessaries in order to enhance the price thereof, or (e) to exact excessive prices for any necessaries; or to aid or abet the doing of an act made unlawful by this section.

Sec. 5. Licenses.That, from time to time, whenever the President shall find it essential to license the importation, manufacture, storage, mining, or distribution of any necessaries,Conducting specified business in necessaries without, forbidden.
Post, pp. 1689, 1696, 1700, 1713, 1714, 1736, 1742, 1743, 1751, 1775, 1778, 1802, 1846, 1866.
in order to carry into effect any of the purposes of this Act, and shall publicly so announce, no person shall, after a date fixed in the announcement, engage in or carry on any such business specified in the announcement of importation, manufacture, storage, mining, or distribution of any necessaries as set forth in such announcement, unless he shall secure and hold a license issued pursuant to this section. The President is authorized toRegulations for issue of, etc., authorized. issue such licenses and to prescribe regulations for the issuance of licenses and requirements for systems of accounts and auditing of accounts to be kept by licensees, submission of reports by them, with or without oath or affirmation, and the entry and inspection by the President's duly authorized agents of the places of business of licensees. Whenever the President shall find that any Unfair storage charges, etc., by licencees to be discontinued.storage charge, commission, profit, or practice of any licensee is unjust, or unreasonable, or discriminatory and unfair, or wasteful, and shall order such licensee, within a reasonable time fixed in the order, to discontinue the same, unless such order, which shall recite the facts found, is revoked or suspended, such licensee shall, within the time prescribed in the order, discontinue such unjust, unreasonable, discriminatory and unfair storage charge, commission, profit, or practice. Substitution of just, etc., ones therefor, by the President.The President may, in lieu of any such unjust, unreasonable, discriminatory, and unfair storage charge, commission, profit, or practice, find what is a just, reasonable, nondiscriminatory and fair storage charge, commission, profit, or practice, and in any proceeding brought in any court such order of the President shall be prima facie evidence. Punishment for violations.Any person who, without a license issued pursuant to this section, or whose license shall have been revoked, knowingly engages in or carries on any business for which a license is required under this section, or willfully fails or refuses to discontinue any unjust, unreasonable, discriminatory and unfair storage charge, commission, profit, or practice, in accordance with the requirement of an order issued under this section, or any regulation prescribed under this section, shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine not exceeding $5,000, or by imprisonment for not more than two years, or both: Provisos.
Occupations, etc., not affected.
Provided, That this section shall not apply to any farmer, gardener, cooperative association of farmers or gardeners, including live-stock farmers, or other persons with respect to the products of any farm, garden, or other land owned, leased, or cultivated by him, No import or export tax authorized.nor to any retailer with respect to the retail business actually conducted by him, nor to any common carrier, nor shall anything in this section be construed to authorize the fixing or imposition of a duty or tax upon any article imported into or exported from the United States or any State, Territory, or the District of Columbia: Provided further, Retailer defined.That for the purposes of this Act a retailer shall be deemed to be a person, copartnership, firm, corporation, or association not engaging in the wholesale business whose gross sales do not exceed $100,000 per annum.

Sec. 6. Punishment for hoarding necessaries.That any person who willfully hoards any necessaries shall upon conviction thereof be fined not exceeding $5,000 or be imprisoned for not more than two years, or both. Offenses specified.Necessaries shall be deemed to be hoarded within the meaning of this Act when either (a) held, contracted for, or arranged for by any person in a quantity in excess of his reasonable requirements for use or consumption by himself and dependents for a reasonable time; (b) held, contracted for, or arranged for by any manufacturer, wholesaler, retailer, or other dealer in a quantity in excess of the reasonable requirements of his business for use or sale by him for a reasonable time, or reasonably required to furnish necessaries produced in surplus quantities seasonally throughout the period of scant or no production; or (c) withheld, whether by possession or under any contract or arrangement, from the market by any person for the purpose of unreasonably increasing or diminishing the price: Provisos.
Exchange, etc., transactions not included.
Post, p. 280.
Provided, That this section shall not include or relate to transactions on any exchange, board of trade, or similar institution or place of business as described in section thirteen of this Act that may be permitted by the President under the authority conferred upon him by said section thirteen: Provided, however, Accumulating their products by farmers, etc., not deemed hoarding.That any accumulating or withholding by any farmer or gardener, cooperative association of farmers or gardeners, including live-stock farmers, or any other person, of the products of any farm, garden, or other land owned, leased, or cultivated by him shall not be deemed to be hoarding within the meaning of the Act.

Sec. 7. Seizure, etc., of hoarded necessaries.That whenever any necessaries shall be hoarded as defined in section six they shall be liable to be proceeded against in any district court of the United States within the district where the same are found and seized by a process of libel for condemnation, and if such necessaries shall be adjudged to be hoarded they shall be Sale, etc.disposed of by sale in such manner as to provide the most equitable distribution thereof as the court may direct, and the proceeds thereof, less the legal costs and charges, shall be paid to the party entitled thereto. Procedure.The proceedings of such libel cases shall conform as near as may be to the proceedings in admiralty, except that either party may demand trial by jury of any issue of fact joined in any such case, and all such proceedings shall be at the suit of and in the name of the United States. District attorneys to prosecute, etc.It shall be the duty of the United States attorney for the proper district to institute and prosecute any such action upon presentation to him of satisfactory evidence to sustain the same.

Sec. 8. Punishment for willfully destroying necessaries.That any person who willfully destroys any necessaries for the purpose of enhancing the price or restricting the supply thereof shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not exceeding $5,000 or imprisoned for not more than two years, or both.

Sec. 9. Punishment for conspiracies respecting necessaries.
Offenses designated.
That any person who conspires, combines, agrees, or arranges with any other person (a) to limit the facilities for transporting, producing, manufacturing, supplying, storing, or dealing in any necessaries; (b) to restrict the supply of any necessaries; (c) to restrict the distribution of any necessaries; (d) to prevent, limit, or lessen the manufacture or production of any necessaries in order to enhance the price thereof shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not exceeding $10,000, or be imprisoned for not more than two years, or both.

Sec. 10. Requisition of necessaries for public use, authorized.That the President is authorized, from time to time, to requisition foods, feeds, fuels, and other suplplies necessary to the support of the Army or the maintenance of the Navy, or any other public use connected with the common defense, and to requisition, or otherwise provide, storage facilities for such supplies; Payment for.and he shall ascertain and pay a just compensation therefor. If the compensation so determined be not satisfactory to the person entitled to receive the same, Suit authorized if amount not satisfactory.such person shall be paid seventy-five per centum of the amount so determined by the President, and shall be entitled to sue the United States to recover such further sum as, added to said seventy-five per centum will make up such amount as will be just compensation for such necessaries or storage space,Jurisdiction of district courts. and jurisdiction is hereby conferred on the United States District Courts to hear and determine all such controversies: Provided, That nothing in this section, or in the section that follows, Proviso.
Necessaries for personal consumption exempt.
shall be construed to require any natural person to furnish to the Government any necessaries held by him and reasonably required for consumption or use by himself and dependents, Seed for seeding also.nor shall any person, firm, corporation, or association be required to furnish to the Government any seed necessary for the seeding of land owned, leased, or cultivated by them.

Sec. 11. Purchase, sale, etc., of food necessaries by United States.That the President is authorized from time to time to purchase, to store, to provide storage facilities for, and to sell for cash at reasonable prices, wheat, flour, meal, beans, and potatoes: Provided, That if any minimum priceProviso.
Minimum price.
shall have been theretofore fixed, pursuant to the provisions of section fourteen of this Act, then the price paid for any such articles so purchased shall not be less than such minimum price. Use of receipts from sales.Any moneys received by the United States from or in connection with the disposal by the United States of necessaries under this section may, in the discretion of the President, be used as a revolving fund for further carrying out the purposes of this section. Any balance of such moneys not used as part of such revolving fund shall be covered into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

Sec. 12. Authority to take over and operate plants to manufacture necessaries, etc.That whenever the President shall find it necessary to secure an adequate supply of necessaries for the support of the Army or the maintenance of the Navy, or for any other public use connected with the common defense, he is authorized to requisition and take over, for use or operation by the Government, any factory, packing house, oil pipe line, mine, or other plant, or any part thereof, in or through which any necessaries are or may be manufactured, produced, prepared, or mined, and to operate the same. Return when not needed.Whenever the President shall determine that the further use or operation by the Government of any such factory, mine, or plant, or part thereof, is not essential for the national security or defense, the same shall be restored to the person entitled to the possession thereof. Compensation to be designated by the President.The United States shall make just compensation, to be determined by the President, for the taking over, use, occupation, and operation by the Government of any such factory, mine, or plant, or part thereof. Suit authorized if amount not satisfactory.If the compensation so determined be unsatisfactory to the person entitled to receive the same, such person shall be paid seventy-five per centum of the amount so determined by the President, and shall be entitled to sue the United States to recover such further sum as, added to said seventy-five per centum, will make up such amount as will be just compensation, Vol. 36, pp. 1098, 1136.in the manner provided by section twenty-four paragraph twenty, and section one hundred an forty—five of the Judicial Code. Operative regulations.The President is authorized to prescribe such regulations as he may deem essential for carrying out the purposes of this section, including the operation of any such factory, mine, or plant, or part thereof, the purchase, sale or other disposition of articles used, manufactured, produced, prepared, or mined therein, and the employment, control, and compensation of the employee. Continuing use of receipts, etc.Any moneys received by the United States from or in connection with the use or operation of any such factory, mine, or plant, or part thereof, may, in the discretion of the President, be used as a revolving fund for the purpose of the continued use or operation of any such factory, mine, or plant, or part thereof, and Balances.the accounts of each such factory, mine, plant,or part thereof, shall be kept separate and distinct. Any balance of such moneys not use as part of such revolving fund shall be paid into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

Sec. 13. Exchanges, boards of trade, etc.
Regulations authorized to govern dealing in necessaries at.
That whenever the President finds it essential in order to prevent undue enhancement, depression, or fluctuation of prices of, or in order to prevent injurious speculation in, or in order to prevent unjust market manipulation or unfair and misleading market quotations of the prices of necessaries, hereafter in this section called evil practices, he is authorized to prescribe such regulations governing, or may either wholly or partly prohibit, operations, practices, and transactions at, on, in, or under the rules of any exchange, board of trade, or similar institution or place of business as he may find essential in order to prevent, correct, or remove such evil practices. Records and accounts to be kept.Such regulations may require all persons coming within their provisions to keep such records and statements of account, and may require such persons to make such returns, verified under oath or otherwise, as will fully and correctly disclose all transactions at, in, or on, or under the rules of any such exchange, board of trade, or similar institution or place of business, including the making, execution, settlement, and fulfillment thereof. Clearing house transactionsHe may also require all persons acting in the capacity of a clearing house, settling, or adjusting transaction at, in, or on, or under the rules of any such exchange, board of trade, or similar institution or place of business, to keep such records and to make such returns as will fully and correctly disclose all facts in their possession relating to such transactions, and Agents to investigate, etc.he may appoint agents to conduct the investigations necessary to enforce the provisions of this section and all rules and regulations made by him in pursuance thereof, and may fix and pay the compensation of such agents. Punishment for violations.Any person who willfully violates any regulation made pursuant to this section, or who knowingly engages in any operation, practice, or transaction prohibited pursuant to this section, or who willfully aids or abets any such violation or any such prohibited operation, practice, or transaction, shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine not exceeding $10,000 or by imprisonment for not more than four years, or both.

Sec. 14. Wheat.
Guaranteed price to be established for, by public notice, to stimulate production.
Post, pp. 1348, 1649, 1844.
That whenever the President shall find that an emergency exists requiring stimulation of the production of wheat and that it is essential that the producers of wheat, produced within the United States, shall have the benefits of the guaranty provided for in this section, he is authorized, from time to time, seasonably and as far in advance of seeding time as practicable, to determine and fix and to give public notice of what, under specified conditions, is a reasonable guaranteed price for wheat, in order to assure such producers a reasonable profit. Conformable to standards.
Vol. 39, p. 482.
The President shall thereupon fix such guaranteed price for each of the official grain standards for wheat as established under the United States grain standards Act, approved August eleventh, nineteen hundred and sixteen. Regulations governing, etc., to be issued.The President shall from time to time establish and promulgate such regulations as he shall deem wise in connection with such guaranteed prices, and in particular governing conditions of delivery and payment, Basis.and differences in price for the several standard grades in the principal primary markets of the United States, adopting number one northern spring or its equivalent at the principal interior primary markets as the basis. Price to producer.Thereupon, the Government of the United States hereby guarantees every producer of wheat produced within the United States, that upon compliance by him with the regulations prescribed, he shall receive for any wheat produced in reliance upon this guarantee within the period, not exceeding eighteen months, prescribed in the notice, a price not less than guaranteed price therefor as fixed pursuant to this section. Terms and conditions.In such regulations the President shall prescribe the terms and conditions upon which any such producer shall be entitled to the benefits of such guaranty. Minimum price for crop of 1918.The guaranteed prices for the several standard grades of wheat for the crop of nineteen hundred and eighteen, shall be based upon number one northern spring or its equivalent at not less than $2 per bushel at the principal interior primary markets. Guaranty absolute.This guaranty shall not be dependent upon the action of the President under the first part of this section, but is hereby made absolute and shall be binding until May first, nineteen hundred and nineteen. Added duty on imports authorized to maintain price.When the President finds that the importation into the United States of any wheat produced outside of the United States materially enhances or is likely materially to enhance the liabilities of the United States under guaranties of prices therefor made pursuant to this section, and ascertains what rate of duty, added to the then existing rate of duty on wheat and to the value of wheat at the time of importation, would be sufficient to bring the price thereof at which imported up to the price fixed therefor pursuant to the foregoing provisions of this section, No existing rate reduced.he shall proclaim such facts, and thereafter there shall be levied, collected, and paid upon wheat when imported, in addition to the then existing rate of duty, the rate of duty so ascertained; but in no case shall any such Purchase, sale, etc., by the Government to sustain guaranty.rate of duty be fixed at an amount which will effect a reduction of the rate of duty upon wheat under any then existing tariff law of the United States. For the purpose of making any guaranteed price effective under this section, or whenever he deems it essential in order to protect the Government of the United States against material enhancement of its liabilities arising out of any guaranty under this section, the President is authorized also, in his discretion, to purchase any wheat for which a guaranteed price shall be fixed under this section, Disposition.and to hold, transport, or store it, or to sell, dispose of, and deliver the same to any citizen of the United States or to any Government engaged in war with any country with which the Government of the United States is or may be at war or to use the same as supplies for any department or agency of the Government of the United States. Continuing use of receipts.Any moneys received by the United States from or in connection with the sale or disposal of wheat under this section may, in the discretion of the President, be used as a revolving fund for further carrying out the purposes of this section. Balances.Any balance of such moneys not used as part of such revolving fund shall be covered into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

Sec. 15. Distilled spirits.
Use of foods, etc., to produce, for beverages forbidden.
Provisos.
Allowed, if not for beverages.
That from and after thirty days from the date of the approval of this Act no foods, fruits, food materials, or feeds shall be used in the production of distilled spirits for beverage purposes: Provided, That under such rules, regulations, and bonds as the President may prescribe, such materials may be used in the production of distilled spirits exclusively for other than beverage purposes, or for the fortification of pure sweet wines as defined by the ActTo fortify wines.
Vol. 39, p. 785.
entitled "An Act to increase the revenue, and for other purposes," approved September eighth, nineteen hundred and sixteen. Nor shall there be imported into the United States Imports forbidden.
Malt and vinous liquors.
Use of foods, etc., to produce, may be limited, etc.
Post, pp. 1728, 1866.
any distilled spirits. Whenever the President shall find that limitation, regulation, or prohibition of the use of foods, fruits, food materials, or feeds in the production of malt or vinous liquors for beverage purposes, or that reduction of the alcoholic content of any such malt or vinous liquor, is essential, in order to assure an adequate and continuous supply of food, or that the national security and defense will be subserved thereby, he is authorized, from time to time, to prescribe and give public notice of the extent of the limitation, regulation, prohibition, or reduction so necessitated. Licenses required.Whenever such notice shall have been given and shall remain unrevoked no person shall, after a reasonable time prescribed in such notice, use any foods, fruits, food materials, or feeds in the production of malt or vinous liquors, or import any such liquors except under license issued by the President and Rules, etc.in compliance with rules and regulations determined by him governing the production and importation of such liquors and the alcoholic content thereof. Punishment for violations.Any person who willfully violates the provisions of this section, or who shall use any foods, fruits, food malterials, or feeds in the production of malt or vinous liquors, or who shall import any such liquors, without first obtaining a license so to do when a license is required under this section, or who shall violate any rule or regulation made under this section, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding $5,000, or by imprisonment for not more than two years, or both: No license at places where manufacture prohibited.Provided further, That nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize the licensing of the manufacture of vinous or malt liquors in any State, Territory, or the District of Columbia, or any civil subdivision thereof, where the manufacture of such vinous or malt liquor is prohibited.

Sec. 16. Distilled spirits.
Commandeering of, in bond, etc., for Government uses, authorized.
That the President is authorized and directed to commandeer any or all distilled spirits in bond or in stock at the date of the approval of this Act for redistillation, in so far as such redistillation may be necessary to meet the requirements of the Government in the manufacture of munitions and other military and hospital supplies, or in so far as such redistillation would dispense with the necessity of utilizing products and materials suitable for foods and feeds in the futura manufacture of distilled spirits for the purposes herein enumerated. Compensation.
Suit if amount not satisfactory.
The President shall determine and pay a just compensation for the distilled spirits so commandeered; and if the compensation so determined be not satisfactory to the person entitled to receive the same, Procedure.such person shall be paid seventy-five per centum of the amount so determined by the President and shall be entitled to sue the United States to recover such further sum as, added to said seventy-five per centum, will make up such amount as will be just compensation for such spirits, Vol. 36, pp. 1096, 1132.in the manner provided by section twenty-four, paragraph twenty, and section one hundred and forty-five of the Judicial Code.

Sec. 17. Punishment for assaulting officials, etc.That every person who willfully assaults, resists, impedes or interferes with any officer, employee, or agent of the United States in the execution of any duty authorized to be performed by or pursuant to this Act shall upon conviction thereof be fined not exceeding $1,000 or be imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

Sec. 18. Appropriation for administrative expenses, printing, etc.That the sum of $2,500,000 is hereby appropriated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to be available until June thirtieth, nineteen hundred an eighteen, for the payment of such rent, the expense, including postage, of such printing and publications, the purchase of such material and equipment, and the employment of such persons and means, in the city of Washington and elsewhere, as the President may deem essential.

Sec. 19. Appropriation for other purposes.That for the purposes of this Act the sum of $150,000,000 is hereby appropriated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to be available during the time this Act is in effect: Provisos.
Restriction.
Provided, That no part of this appropriation shall be expended for the purposes described in the preceding section: Provided further, That itemized statements covering all purchases and disbursements under this and the preceding section Monthly statements to Senate and House.shall be filed with the Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House of Representatives on or before the twenty-fifth day of each month after the taking effect of this Act, covering the business of the preceding month, and said statements shall be subject to public inspection.

Sec. 20. Employees not exempt from military draft.
Ante, p. 76.
That the employment of any person under the provisions of this Act shall not exempt any such person from military service under the provisions of the selective draft law approved May eighteenth, nineteen hundred and seventeen.

Sec. 21. Detailed report to Congress each year.
Contents.
The President shall cause a detailed report to be made to the Congress on the first day of January each year of all proceedings had under this Act during the year preceding. Such report shall, in addition to other matters, contain an account of all persons appointed or employed, the salary or compensation paid or allowed each, the aggregate amount of the different kinds of property purchased or requisitioned, the use and disposition made of such property, and a statement of all receipts, payments and expenditures, together with a statement showing the general character, and estimated value of all property then on hand, and the aggregate amount and character of all claims against the United States growing out of this Act.

Sec. 22. Invalidity of any clause, etc., not to affect remainder of Act.That if any clause, sentence, paragraph, or part of this Act shall for any reason be adjudged by an court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, such judgment shall not affect, impair, or invalidate the remainder thereof, but shall be confined in its operation to the clause, sentence, paragraph, or part thereof, directly involved in the controversy in which such judgment shall have been rendered.

Sec. 23. Construction of terms.That words used in this Act shall be construed to import the plural or the singular, as the case demands. The word "person," wherever used in this Act, shall include individuals partnerships, associations, and corporations. Corporations, etc., responsible for acts of agents.When construing and enforcing the provisions of this Act, the act, omission, or failure of any official, agent, or other person acting for or employed by any partnership, association, or corporation within the scope of employment or office shall, in every case, also be deemed the act, omission, or failure of such partnership, association, or corporation as well as that of the person.

Sec. 24. Act effective until end of present war.That the provisions of this Act shall cease to be in effect when the existing state of war between the United States and Germany shall have terminated, and the fact and date of such termination shall be ascertained and proclaimed by the President; Pending actions, etc., not affected thereby.but the termination of this Act shall not affect any act done, or any right or obligation accruing or accrued, or any suit or proceeding had or commenced in any civil case before the said termination pursuant to this Act; Enforcement of rights, etc.but all rights and liabilities under this Act arising before its termination shall continue and may be enforced in the same manner as if the Act had not terminated. Prosecutions, etc., continued.Any offense committed and all penalties, forfeitures, or liabilities incurred prior to such termination may be prosecuted or punished in the same manner and with the same effect as if this Act had not been terminated.

Sec. 25. Coal and coke.That the President of the United States shall be, and he is hereby, authorized and Power conferred to regulate prices, production, sales, etc., during the war.
Post, p. 1757.
empowered, whenever and wherever in his judgment necessary for the efficient prosecution of the war, to fix the price of coal and coke, wherever and whenever sold, either by producer or dealer, to establish rules for the regulation of and to regulate the method of production, sale, shipment, distribution, apportionment, or storage thereof among dealers and consumers, domestic or foreign: Execution by Federal Trade Commission.said authority and power may be exercised by him in each case through the agency of the Federal Trade Commission during the war or for such part of said time as in his judgment may be necessary.

President may take over and conduct business if producer, etc., fails to comply with regulations.That if, in the opinion of the President, any such producer or dealer fails or neglects to conform to such prices or regulations, or to conduct his business efficiently under the regulations and control of the President as aforesaid, or conducts it in a manner prejudicial to the public interest, then the President is hereby authorized and empowered in every such case to requisition and take over the plant, business, and all appurtenances thereof belonging to such producer or dealer as a going concern, and to operate or cause the same to be operated in such manner and through such agency as he may direct during the period of the war or for such part of said time as in his judgment may be necessary.

Determination of compensation.That any producer or dealer whose plant, business, and appurtenances shall have been requisitioned or taken over by the President shall be paid a just compensation for the use thereof during the period that the same may be requisitioned or taken over as aforesaid, which compensation the President shall fix or cause to be fixed by the Federal Trade Commission.

Suit authorized if amount not satisfactory.That if the prices so fixed, or if, in the case of the taking over or requisitioning of the mines or business of any such producer or dealer the compensation therefor as determined by the provisions of this Act be not satisfactory to the person or persons entitled to receive the same, Procedure.such person shall be paid seventy-five per centum of the amount so determined, and shall be entitled to sue the United States to recover such further sum as, added to said seventy-five per centum, will make up such amount as will be just compensation in the manner provided by Vol. 36, pp. 1096, 1132.section twenty-four, paragraph twenty, and section one hundred and forty-five of the Judicial Code.

Operating employees, etc.While operating or causing to be operated any such plants or business, the President is authorized to prescribe such regulations as he may deem essential for the employment, control, and compensation of the employees necessary to conduct the same.

Sale of products to United States agency may be required.Or if the President of the United States shall be of the opinion that he can thereby better provide for the common defense, and whenever, in his judgment, it shall be necessary for the efficient prosecution of the war, then he is hereby authorized and empowered to require any or all producers of coal and coke, either in any special area or in any special coal fields, or in the entire United States, Agency to control production, sale, purchases, etc.to sell their products only to the United States through an agency to be designated by the President, such agency to regulate the resale of such coal and coke, and the prices thereof, and to establish rules for the regulation of and to regulate the methods of production, shipment, distribution, apportionment, or storage thereof among dealers and consumers, domestic or foreign, and to make payment of the purchase price thereof to the producers thereof, or to the person or persons legally entitled to said payment.

Shipments by producer to cease.That within fifteen days after notice from the agency so designated to any producer of coal and coke that his, or its, output is to be so purchased by the United States as hereinbefore described, such producer shall cease shipments of said product upon his own account and Orders, etc., to be executed by agency alone.shall transmit to such agency all orders received and unfilled or partially unfilled, showing the exact extent to which shipments have been made thereon, and thereafter all shipments shall be made only on authority of the agency designated by the President, and thereafter no such producer shall sell any of said products except to the United States through such agency, and the said agency alone is hereby authorized and empowered to purchase during the continuance of the requirement the output of such producers.

Basis of purchase price.That the prices to be paid for such products so purchased shall be based upon a fair and just profit over and above the cost of production, including proper maintenance and depletion charges, the reasonableness of such profits and cost of production to be determined by the Federal Trade Commission, and Suit, etc., authorized if amount not satisfactory.if the prices fixed by the said commission of any such product purchased by the United States as hereinbefore described be unsatisfactory to the person or persons entitled to the same, such person or persons shall be paid seventy-five per centum of the amount so determined, and shall be Procedure.entitled to sue the United States to recover such further sum as, added to said seventy-five per centum, will make up such amount as will be just compensation in the manner provided by Vol. 36, pp. 1096, 1132.section twenty-four, paragraph twenty, and section one hundred and forty-five of the Judicial Code.

Government prices to be uniform.All such products so sold to the United States shall be sold by the United States at such uniform prices, quality considered, as may be practicable and as may be determined by said agency to be just and fair.

Continuing use of receipts.Any moneys received by the United States for the sale of any such coal and coke may, in the discretion of the President, be used as a revolving fund for further carrying out the purposes of this section. Balances.Any moneys not so used shall be covered into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

Cost of production to be ascertained by Commission.That when directed by the President, the Federal Trade Commission is hereby required to proceed to make full inquiry, giving such notice as it may deem practicable, into the cost of producing under reasonably efficient management at the various places of production the following commodities, to wit, coal and coke.

Information required from producers, purchasers, etc.The books, correspondence, records, and papers in any way referring to transactions of any kind relating to the mining, production, sale, or distribution of all mine operators or other persons whose coal and coke have or may become subject to this section, and the books, correspondence, records, and papers of any person applying for the purchase of coal and coke from the United States shall at all times be subject to inspection by the said agency, and such person or persons shall promptly furnish said agency any data or information relating to the business of such person or persons which said agency may call for, and Authority of agency to procure.said agency is hereby authorized to procure the information in reference to the business of such coal-mine operators and producers of coke and customers therefor in the manner provided for in Vol. 38, pp. 721, 722.sections six and nine of the Act of Congress approved September twenty-sixth, nineteen hundred and fourteen, entitled "An Act to create a Federal Trade Commission, to define its powers and duties, and for other purposes," and said agency is hereby authorized and empowered to exercise all the powers granted to the Federal Trade Commission by said Act for the carrying out of the purposes of this section.

Establishment of maximum prices.Having completed its inquiry respecting any commodity in any locality, it shall, if the President has decided to fix the prices at which any such commodity shall be sold by producers and dealers generally, fix and publish maximum prices for both producers of and dealers in any such commodity, which maximum prices shall be observed by all producers and dealers until further action thereon is taken by the commission.

Allowances for producers.In fixing maximum prices for producers the commission shall allow the cost of production, including the expense of operation, maintenance, depreciation, and depletion, and shall add thereto a just and reasonable profit.

Allowances for dealers.In fixing such prices for dealers, the commission shall allow the cost to the dealer and shall add thereto a just and reasonable sum for his profit in the transaction.

Prior contracts not impaired.The maximum prices so fixed and published shall not be construed as invalidating any contract in which prices are fixed, made in good faith, prior to the establishment and publication of maximum prices by the commission.

Punishment for violations.Whoever shall, with knowledge that the prices of any such commodity have been fixed as herein provided, ask, demand, or receive a higher price, or whoever shall, with knowledge that the regulations have been prescribed as herein provided, violate or refuse to conform to any of the same, shall, upon conviction, be punished by fine of not more than $5,000, or by imprisonment for not more than two years, or both. Each independent transaction shall constitute a separate offense.

No restriction on purchases, etc., for Government use.Nothing in this section shall be construed as restricting or modifying in any manner the right the Government of the United States may have in its own behalf or in behalf of any other Government at war with Germany to purchase, requisition, or take over any such commodities for the equipment, maintenance, or support of armed forces at any price or upon any terms that may be agreed upon or otherwise lawfully determined.

Sec. 26. Hoarding, destroying, etc., necessaries to limit supply, etc., a felony.That any person carrying on or employed in commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, or with or in the Territories or other possessions of the United States in any article suitable for human food, fuel, or other necessaries of life, who, either in his individual capacity or as an officer, agent, or employee of a corporation or member of a partnership carrying on or employed in such trade, shall store, acquire, or hold, or who shall destroy or make away with any such article for the purpose of limiting the supply thereof to the public or affecting the market price thereof in such commerce, whether temporarily or otherwise, shall be deemed guilty of a felony and, Punishment for.upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $5,000 or by imprisonment for not more than two years, or both: Provisos.
Storing personal products of farms, excepted.
Provided, That any storing or holding by any farmer, gardener, or other person of the products of any farm, garden, or other land cultivated by him shall not be deemed to be a storing or holding within the meaning of this Act: Provided further, Associations of farmers, etc.That farmers and fruit growers, cooperative and other exchanges, or societies of a similar character shall not be included within the provisions of this section: Provided further, For future business needs, etc.That this section shall not be construed to prohibit the holding or accumulating of any such article by any such person in a quantity not in excess of the reasonable requirements of his business for a reasonable time or in a quantity reasonably required to furnish said articles produced in surplus quantities seasonally throughout the period of scant or no production. Antitrust Act not affected.
Vol. 26, p. 209.
Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to repeal the Act entitled "An Act to protect trade and commerce against unlawful restraints and monopolies," approved July second, eighteen hundred and ninety, commonly known as the Sherman Antitrust Act.

Sec. 27. Nitrate of soda.
President may procure and sell, to aid agriculture.
That the President is authorized to procure, or aid in procuring, such stocks of nitrate of soda as he may determine to be necessary, and find available, for increasing agricultural production during the calendar years nineteen hundred and seventeen and eighteen, and to dispose of the same for cash at cost, including all expenses connected therewith. Appropriation.For carrying out the purposes of this section, there is hereby appropriated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, available immediately and until expended, the sum of $10,000,000, or so much thereof as may be necessary, Means of operation.and the President is authorized to make such regulations, and to use such means and agencies of the Government, as, in his discretion, he may deem best. Deposit of proceeds.
Post, pp. 494, 1007.
The proceeds arising from the disposition of the nitrate of soda shall go into the Treasury as miscelaneous receipts.

Approved, August 10, 1917.