The Chódavaram division comprises most of what was in former times known as 'the Rampa country,' from the village of that name which stands just north of Chódavaram village. Its history is sketched in the account of Rampa below. Almost all the division is occupied by the Eastern Gháts, and four-fifths of it consists of forest. The density of the population is as low as 32 persons to the square mile. There is only one metalled road in the division, namely that from the headquarters to Rajahmundry, but the road from the former to Dévipatam is partially maintained.
Only one village in the division is on ryotwari tenure, four are held as mokhásas direct from Government, 50 belong to zamindaris, and the rest, some 300 in number, consists of hill muttas held on the kával tenure referred to in Chapter XI. The zamindari villages are said to have belonged long ago to some Reddi chiefs called the Reddi Rázus, and to have been sold by them, apparently before the permanent settlement of 1802-03, to various lowland zamindars. At present 20 villages belong to the Pólavaram estate, four to Pithápuram, and two to Gútála; while the independent estates of Dandangi and Toyyéru and the disputed mokhása estate of Kondamodalu contain respectively twelve, eight and four villages. The hill muttas are 24 in number and often have a separate history of their own. A brief description of them will be found below.
As there is only one Government village in the division, the ordinary statistics of soils and cultivation are not available. The chief crops are said to be paddy, pulses, ragi, cambu and maize. In the hills, pódu cultivation is the rule.
Bandapalli : Four miles east-north-east of Chódavaram. Population 223. It is the head village of a hill mutta comprising thirteen villages. In the fitúri of 1840 the then muttadar and his eldest son took a prominent part among the insurgents. A reward was offered for their capture, but they disappeared and were never seen again. The mansabdar of Rampa, on coming into power in 1848, annexed the mutta on the plea that there were no heirs to it, though the vanished muttadar had left an infant son. In the settlement of 1879, made by Mr. Sullivan at the end of the Rampa rebellion, this son was given a sanad and his quit-rent was fixed at Rs. 42. Birampalli: Head village of a hill mutta of eleven villages. Lies seven miles south-east of Chódavaram, and contains l66 inhabitants. The people of this mutta joined the rebellion of 1879; but they seem to have been driven to this act by the rapacity of a renter to whom the muttadar had sub-let the property. This renter admitted having made Rs. 300 a year out of it, though the quit-rent was only Rs. 40. At the settlement of 1879 no punishment was imposed upon the people for having joined the late rebellion, as it was conceded that they had some excuse for their action, but the muttadar was deposed for maladministration and the property was given to his brother on a quit-rent of Rs, 42.
Bodulúru; Head village of a hill mutta of the Rampa country, containing 36 villages and paying a quit-rent of Rs. 60. It lies 25 miles north by west of Chódavaram, and contains 90 inhabitants. The muttadar joined in the Rampa rebellion, and had not 'come in' at the time of Mr. Sullivan's settlement. His quit-rent was accordingly raised from Rs. 40 to Rs. 60.
Bolagonda: Head village of a hill mutta; lies eight miles north-east of Chódavaram; population 218. The mansabdar of Rampa obtained possession of this estate in 1867 by means of a forged document purporting to be a deed of resignation by the muttadar. He obtained an income of Rs. 306 out of the property, though the quit-rent was only Rs. 40. The mutta was restored in 1 879 to its former owner, but as he had joined in the fitúri of 1858, and in the 1879 rebellion had been constantly seen with the notorious Tamman Dora and only escaped arrest owing to the absence of direct evidence to connect him with the atrocities committed, his quit-rent was raised to Rs. 60, and the mutta was reduced by granting the village of Vádapalli as a reward to a loyal munsif.
Chavala: An uninhabited village forty-two miles north by west of Chódavaram, Gives its name to a hill mutta, though the chief village of this is now Jájilanka, population 23. The mutta contains 13 villages and pays a quit-rent of Rs. 50. The muttadar joined in the Rampa rebellion and had not 'come in' at the time of Mr. Sullivan's settlement.
Chidugúiru: Uninhabited village ten miles north-west of Chódavaram, which gives its name to a hill mutta containing 36 villages and paying a quit-rent of Rs. 40, the chief village of which is Badagunta. For participation in the rising of 1838-40, the then muttadar was hanged and was succeeded by his brother. In 1872, the Rampa mansabdar took possession of the property on the plea that it had been relinquished by the owner, but in 1879 a descendant of the man who had been hanged was appointed muttadar.
Chódavaram: Head-quarters of the division. Population 377. It contains a local fund dispensary (established in 1902), and a police-station garrisoned by a Special Hill Reserve 40 strong, The siege it underwent at the beginning of the 1879 rebellion is briefly described in the account of Rampa below. Chódavaram was strongly held by troops throughout the greater part of the rebellion. It is situated on one side of an extensive plateau.
Chopakonda: Eight miles south-west of Chódavaram. Population 67. Chief place in a hill mutta paying a quit-rent of Rs. 21 and containing six villages. In 1849 the mansabdar of Rampa obtained possession of this on the ground that the muttadar has disappeared, and by a village settlement obtained an income of Rs. 1 16 per annum from it. In 1879 the real muttadar, who had been alive all the time and was well known to the hill people, was restored.
Dandangi: Twelve miles south-south-west of Chódavaram. Population 161. Is the head-quarter village of a zamindari estate consisting of ten villages and paying a peshkash of Rs. 565. The estate forms part of a property of 26 villages which was sold by the Reddi Rázus, apparently before the permanent settlement, to the then zamindar of Nuzvid. This passed by sale in later years to the ancestors of the present owners of the Gútála zamindari, and from them (some time before 1855) to the ancestors of the present zamindars of Dandangi.
Dorachintalapálem: Fourteen miles north-east of Chódavaram. Population 27. Gives its name to a hill mutta of fourteen villages the chief place in which is Narasápuram. In 1871 the then muttadar died without legitimate issue and the mansabdar of Rampa at once annexed the property. An illegitimate son of the late owner accordingly took a prominent part in the rebellion of 1879; and would not come in at the time of the settlement. The villagers were allowed to elect one of their own number as muttadar, and the quit-rent was raised from Rs. 50 to Rs. 70.
Geddáda : Four miles north-west of Chódavaram. Population 275. Chief village of a hill mutta of the old Rampa estate, containing nine villages and paying a rent of Rs. 21.
Kákúru: Twenty-eight miles north of Chódavaram. Population 78. Chief village of a hill mutta of the Rampa country, which pays a quit-rent of Rs. 40 and contains eight villages. The muttadar joined in the Rampa rebellion and had not come in at the time of Mr. Sullivan's settlement. His mutta was settled by Mr. Carmichael in 1881.
Kondamodalu: Twenty-seven miles west of Chódavaram. Population 332. The head-quarters of a mokhása estate at the entrance to the gorge on the Gódávari. The present owner is the grandson of the Linga Reddi who assisted Government in the Rampa rebellion.
'The Government are aware,' wrote Mr. Sullivan in 1879, 'that Linga Reddi has from the very commencement of the rising shown himself a most loyal adherent of the Government. Not only has he supplied information and messengers, but he has brought into the field 50 or 60 well-trained matchlockmen who have been of great use as scouts and envoys. With his following he himself on more than one occasion accompanied parties of troops and police and has done everything he could to render assistance. It was he who at the commencement of the outbreak surprised and brought in Jangam Pulicanta Sambiah.'
His services were rewarded by the grant, as a mokhása, of the village of Rávilanka, which is held on the condition that the grantee attends the Collector with peons when required to do so,1 and pays a quit-rent of Rs. 300. Linga Reddi had previously, in 1858, been granted an allowance of Rs. 50 a month to compensate him for the withdrawal of his right of collecting fees on goods passing up and down the Gódávari. This grant is conditional on good behaviour. Linga Reddi had just then earned the gratitude of Government by holding aloof from the fitúri of his partner Subba Reddi.2
Kondamodalu comprises four villages and pays Rs. 110 annually to the zamindar of Pólavaram. Its precise relations with the latter are at present the subject of a law suit.
Kundáda: Eighteen miles north-west by north of Chódavaram. Population 129. Chief village of a hill mutta belonging to the old Rampa estate, containing eight villages and paying a quit-rent of Rs. 21. The muttadar was loyal during the 1879 rebellion, and his village was plundered and burnt by the insurgents.
Marriváda: Three miles east of Chódavaram, which gives its name to a hill mutta containing three villages of the old Rampa mutta. This was granted to the family of one Karam Dhulu Dora, who during the first few months of the Rampa rebellion was of the greatest service to the authorities. 'He was always with me,' wrote the Sub-Collector, 'giving such assistance as guide, etc., as was in his power.' The grant imposed a quit-rent of Rs. 15, but not the service conditions attached to most of the other hill muttas. This same family were also given, free of rent, the mokhása village of Darimadugula in the Bandapalli mutta, which had formerly been their property but had been taken from them by the mansabdar of Rampa.
Musurumilli: Five miles south of Chódavaram. Population 188. Is the chief place in a hill mutta of 18 villages. The people of this behaved well during the 1879 rebellion, and it was settled on the old quit-rent of Rs. 42.
Nédunúru: An uninhabited village nine miles north-west of Chódavaram which gives its name to a hill mutta of the Rampa country, the chief place in which is Dévarapalli and which pays a quit-rent of Rs. 42 and contains eleven villages. The muttadar joined in the Rampa rebellion and had not come in at the time of Mr. Sullivan's settlement. The mutta was settled in 1886.
Nimmalapálem: Twelve miles north-east of Chódavaram. Population 170. A mokhása village which the present holder says was given to his ancestor about 1858 by the muttadar of Geddáda, to whom he was related. It was confirmed free of quit-rent in the possession of the holder at the settlement of 1879.
Pálem: Six miles south-west of Chódavaram. Population 319. Gives its name to a hill mutta containing nine villages and paying a quit-rent of Rs. 21. See also Velagapalli.
Pámuléru: Twenty-four miles north by west of Chódavaram. Population 15. Gives its name to a hill mutta of the old Rampa country, containing eleven villages and paying a quit-rent of Rs. 40, the chief place in which is Kutruváda. This surrendered to the Rampa mansabdar about 1874, and was sub-let by him to an outsider who was arrested as a ringleader in the rebellion of 1879. In the settlement of that year, however, no one else was willing to take the property and it was given to his son on a quit-rent of Rs. 50. The quit-rent was reduced to Rs. 40 again about ten years ago.
Péta: Twenty miles south of Chódavaram. Population 728. Chief place in a small zamindari estate containing two villages and paying a peshkash of Rs. 546, Its history, mútato nomine, is precisely the same as that of the Dandangi estate.
Rampa: A little hill village just north of Chódavaram. Population 177. Near it, beside a waterfall about 25 feet high, is a shrine formed of three huge boulders, two of which make a kind of roof, and fitted with a doorway and one side-wall of cut stone. The water of the fall pours continually between the boulders. A rough lingam and other holy emblems have been carved out of the rock.
Rampa was once the chief place in the small mutta of the same name and the residence of its muttadar. This man was chieftain over the whole of the old Rampa country and controlled the other muttadars there, and the rebellion in this which occurred in 1879 and is referred to below was in consequence called 'the Rampa rebellion.'1
In the earliest records which mention him, the zamindar, mansabdar, or rája of Rampa is described as an independent ruler. Mr. Grant, in his Political Survey of the Northern Circars already several times referred to, calls him as independent as the rája of Bastar ; and the Committee of Circuit, writing in 1787, said that, though the zamindari of Rampa belonged to the Circar of Rajahmundry, yet neither the Company nor the Nizam's government received any tribute from it. 'The country,' said this body, 'is represented to be extremely mountainous and full of jungle, the natives rude and uncultivated, frequently making incursions on the adjacent countries, plundering the villages during the harvest, and driving off the cattle.'
At the time of the permanent settlement of 1802-03 the Rampa country was as entirely disregarded as if it had not existed, and no settlement of any part of it was made. During the disorders which arose in this district early in the nineteenth century, the mansabdar, Rámbhúpati Dévu, descended with an armed force from the hills and took forcible possession of some villages in the plains. He was driven out of these and submitted, offering to acknowledge ' for ever the sovereignty of the Company.'
Then (1813) for the first time a settlement was made with him. The villages he had taken were restored to him as mokhásas and, along with his ancestral possessions in the hills, were confirmed to him free of peshkash on condition that he maintained order in them and prevented incursions into the low country.2 He appears to have leased his villages to certain subordinate hill chiefs or muttadars, whom he required to keep order in their own charges and from whom he received an income of Rs. 8,750 per annum.1 These were the ancestors of the present muttadars.
He died in 1835 leaving a daughter and an illegitimate son named Sri Madhuvati Rámbhúpati Dévu, and the former was recognized by the muttadars as heiress to the zamindari. She declined to marry, declaring her intention of following the example of a former zamindarni of the country who had remained unwedded all her life.2 Some time afterwards, however, her chastity was suspected, and she and her brother, both of whom were apparently detested, were driven out of the country.
They were maintained by the Government, and in 1840 the estate was placed under the Court of Wards. Grave disturbances followed (a police force was cut up in 1840) 3 but by 1845 the more turbulent of the muttadars had been apprehended or driven to flight. The zamindarni surrendered the estate in favour of her illegitimate brother 4; and in 1848, after protracted negotiations, the muttadars agreed to accept this man as mansabdar and to perform their old police duties, on condition that their united quit-rents should not exceed Rs. 1,000 and that the mansabdar should never attempt to exact more from them.
The mansabdar agreed to this, but quickly broke his promise. His confiscations of muttas and oppressions of the people resulted in risings against his authority in 1858 and 1861; and such was the hatred he inspired that when, in 1862, he attempted to go and reside in his property an insurrection arose which had to be put down by a strong force of police. He continued his depredations, however, and by 1879 had succeeded in getting eight muttas into his own enjoyment, had doubled the quit-rent in several others, and was deriving a considerable revenue from taxes on fuel and grazing and other unauthorized cesses.
He succeeded in doing this largely by making it appear, sometimes by disgraceful devices, that all his actions had the sanction of Government; and unfortunately the officers of Government neither adequately realized what was going on in his country nor made sufficient endeavours to protect the muttadars.5 They forgot that the agreement of 1848 was made under the authority of Government; and some of the muttadars who complained of the mansabdar's exactions were referred to the Civil Courts, though the hill men are notorious for their dread of the plains. The growing discontent among 'the people was increased by new abkári regulations preventing the drawing of toddy for domestic purposes and leasing the toddy revenue to renters. These renters demanded that the muttadars should pay fees (called chigurupannu) for the right to tap toddy, and the mansabdar threatened to levy an additional tax, called modalupannu, at the rate of one-half or two-thirds of the chigurupannu.
This was the last straw, and was the immediate cause of the 'Rampa rebellion' of 1879. The unpopularity of the police, who had assisted in introducing the new toddy rules and also oppressed the people on their own account, was a contributory cause. The people said that 'they could not stand all the taxes that were being imposed; that three years ago came the chigurupannu; that this year the mansabdar was demanding modalupannu; that the constables were extorting fowls; and that, as they could not live, they might as well kill the constables and die.'1 The operation of the civil law of the country was an additional grievance. Traders from the low country had taken advantage of the simplicity of the hill men, 'who would much sooner walk into a tiger's den than put in an appearance in the Rajahmundry court,' to make unfair contracts with them, and then, if these were not fulfilled according to the traders' own interpretation, to file suits against them, obtain ex parte decrees, and distrain as much of their property as they could lay hands on. In satisfaction of a debt of Rs. 5, cattle and produce worth Rs. 100 had. been sometimes carried off in this manner, and sometimes, it was said, the formality of a suit was dispensed with, and the trader, accompanied by a friend personating an officer of the court, made the distraint without any authority whatever. The hill people laid the blame for all this injustice on Government and Government rules and regulations, and thought that their only remedy lay in rising against the authorities.
On the 9th March 1879 the police inspector of Rampa reported that there was reason to apprehend a disturbance. The Collector had gone to Bhadráchalam, so the Sub-Collector and Superintendent of Police set out for the hills with a small body of police. At Gókavaram they met one of the muttadars who was suspected of disaffection, but he tried to allay their suspicions and accompanied them to Chódavaram. The next day, however, two policemen were stopped near that place by a body of armed men, and news was received of the capture by some insurgents of a body of police near Bodulúru. Early on the 13th March a large party of hill men came close to Chódavaram and stated their grievances to the Sub-Collector, who went out unarmed to meet them. He attempted to reassure them and they expressed themselves satisfied; but a few minutes later they called out that they could not trust the Sircar's promises, and began firing on the camp. No particular harm was done by their fire, but the Sub-Collector's party, which consisted of 39 police of all ranks with 32 carbines, was now cut off. They had no difficulty in holding out at Chódavaram until reinforcements came up, and by the 17th the force in the village amounted to 149 men. Some 400 officers and men of the 39th Native Infantry had also been landed at Cocanada on the l6th and were moving up the country. Meanwhile, however, at Rampa two captured constables were solemnly sacrificed before the chief shrine by the insurgents, the leaders of the latter announced that rebellion was their only hope, and the whole of the Rampa country was speedily ablaze.
In the next month (April) the disturbance spread to the Golgonda hills of Vizagapatam, and in July to the Rékapalle country in Bhadráchalam; but the causes of the disaffection there (which are mentioned in the accounts of Rékapalle and Dutcharti) were essentially different from those operating in Rampa itself.
The disturbed area now comprised over 5,000 square miles of wooded and hilly country. The operations of the troops were much hampered by the nature of the ground, and the malcontents took advantage of their superior knowledge of the country to maintain a harassing guerilla warfare, avoiding all direct encounters with the troops, but attacking isolated police-stations and burning or looting the villages of those who assisted the authorities. Troops were hastened up to the country, and by the end of 1879 the Government forces included, besides several hundred police drafted from neighbouring districts, as many as six regiments of Madras Infantry, two companies of Sappers and Miners, and a squadron of cavalry and a wing of infantry from the Hyderabad Contingent.
The chief leaders of the insurgents were four notorious characters named Chandrayya, Sirdar Jangam Pulicánta Sámbayya, Tamman Dora, and Ambul Reddi of Bodulúru. The second of these was arrested as early as April 29th, 1879. Chandrayya, however, scored many successes in the Yellavaram division at the beginning of May, and succeeded in burning Addatígela police-station. He was nearly captured in the middle of that month, but in June he shut up a party of police under a European officer for some days in Addatígela. The spread of the disaffection to Rékapalle and Dutcharti, and the fear that the hill tribes of Pólavaram division might join the insurgents, led to strenuous efforts on the part of the authorities, and troops were moved up from all sides. The northern and eastern frontiers of the Rampa country were occupied by strong detachments of sepoys, and military posts were established along the banks of the Gódávari and Saveri. At the same time Mr. Sullivan, First Member of the Board of Revenue, was appointed (in July 1879) to visit the district and ascertain the real causes of the trouble and suggest remedies for it. The steps he took, which included the deposition of the mansabdar and a promise that the muttadars should thenceforth deal directly with Government, did much to allay the excitement, and before the end of August 1879 as many as 70 of Chandrayya's men had been 'captured, and Rampa was comparatively quiet.
Rékapalle was also pacified about the same time, and the apprehended rising in Pólavaram did not take place. The remaining rebels were now driven north to the hills of Golgonda and Jeypore. Ambul Reddi was captured in November 1879 and Chandrayya was killed in February 1880. Their removal broke the back of the trouble. Disturbances went on in a desultory fashion in the Vizagapatam district, and in October 1880 Tamman Dora made a brief incursion into that part of the country. But by November 1880 quiet was finally and everywhere restored.
The most deadly foe of the police and troops engaged in suppressing the outbreak had been the malaria which infests this part of the country. At the end of the March 1880, out of 2,400 men employed, no less than 590 were on the sick list. Many deaths occurred, and in many other cases those attacked were months before they completely recovered.
The mansabdar of Rampa, as has been said, was deposed. As the Government order put it, 'for gross misconduct and oppression the Government have cancelled absolutely and for ever the mansabdari tenure of Rampa and the mokhása tenure of the villages of the plain.' The mutta held by the mansabdar was also cancelled, and he himself was detained as a State prisoner at Berhampore. Most of the muttadars were either reappointed or replaced, and their position was defined. As early as September 1879 Mr. Sullivan had held a durbar at which the new sanads were distributed. With four exceptions, the settlement was made with the muttadár actually in undisputed possession or, where the mutta had been annexed by the mansabdar, with the heir of the former muttadar. In arranging the terms of the tenure of each mutta, the loyalty or disloyalty of its owner in the recent disturbances was considered and the quit-rent was raised or reduced in accordance therewith. Generally, however, the muttas were granted on the same terms as in 1848. The sanads contained two conditions; firstly, that a stipulated annual quit-rent, including an abkári tax and a local fund cess, should be paid annually to Government; and, secondly, that the muttadar should conduct himself loyally and peaceably, and should give every assistance to the Government in maintaining quiet and order. A warning was added that if the muttadar failed in his duties his mutta was liable to be resumed. The decision of Government as to the rights of the muttadars over the forests will be found in Chapter V.
The Rampa mutta had always been in the personal enjoyment of the mansabdar, and was resumed by Government. It had formerly consisted of thirteen villages. Ten of these, with the title of muttadar of Rampai were given to the munsif of Chódavaram, who had given the greatest assistance to Government throughout the outbreak, had been their channel of communication with the muttadars, had obtained information regarding the movements of the rebels, and had got together a body of armed men to co-operate with the police and the troops. The grant was made free of quit-rent, and was conditional on the grantee's being of good behaviour, paying the local fund cess, and presenting to the Collector every year, in token of his allegiance, a bow and three arrows. The other three villages of the Rampa mutta were given to the muttadar of Marriváda, who had also shown his loyalty during the rebellion.
Sirigindalapádu: One mile south-east of Chódavaram. Population 75. The village used to belong to the Bandapalli mutta; but at the settlement of 1879 it was given at the request of the muttadar to a relative of his, who was going to assist him in the management of the mutta, and who had shown himself loyal in the recent rebellion. It pays no quitrent.
Tádapélli: Fourteen miles north-west by north of Chódavaram. Population 466. Chief village of a hill mutta containing nine villages. The quit-rent fixed in 1848 was Rs. 40, but it was illegally raised by the mansabdar to Rs. 100 in 1862. The muttadar did not take part in the insurrection of 1879 but many of his people did, and he himself not only assisted the insurgents with supplies but also concealed himself from the officers of Government and gave them no help whatever. In consideration of the fact however that his mutta is an isolated and rugged tract, right in the path taken by the rebels in their raids, it was considered at the settlement of 1879 that his conduct was more due to fear of the rebels than disloyalty to Government, and his quit-rent was only raised to Rs. 63.
Tunnúru: Ten miles north-west of Chódavaram. Population 80, Gives its name to a hill mutta containing 16 villages and paying a quit-rent of Rs. 35. This was returned as deserted at the settlement of Rampa in 1848, but by 1879 it had been reoccupied, and a sanad was accordingly given to a descendant of a former muttadar.
Vádapalli: Twelve miles south-west of Chódavaram. Population 193. It was given to an ancestor of the present holder by Government in recognition of his services in the Rampa rebellion, on a quit-rent of Rs. 15.
Vélagapalli: Eight miles south-south-west of Chódavaram. Population 50. The chief place in a mutta containing six villages and paying a quit-rent of Rs. 21. In 1848 it also included the Pálem mutta; but at the settlement of 1879 it was found that these had been divided, and separate sanads were accordingly given to the respective owners in that year.
Válamúru: Twenty miles west-north-west of Chódavaram. Population 35. Gives its name to a mutta containing 22 villages and paying a quit-rent of Rs. 42. This was one of the old Rampa muttas, but behaved well in the 1879 rebellion. At the settlement of that year there was a dispute about the succession which is described in Mr. Sullivan's report.
Vémulakonda: Ten miles north-west of Chódavaram. Population 95. Chief place in a mutta containing ten villages and paying a quit-rent of Rs. 26. The then muttadar joined in the rebellion of 1858, but the people took no part in the rising of 1879.
- 1 G.O. No. 2297, Judicial, dated 11th November 1881.
- 2 G.O. No. 1240, Revenue, dated 11th September 1858.
- 1 The following give accounts of the early history of Rampa, the causes of the rebellion and its course: G.Os., Judl., Nos. 1036, dated 5th May 1879; 755, dated 3rd April 1879; and 109, dated l6th January 1880. Also the report of Mr. D.F. Carmichael, when Special Commissioner, dated November 1st, 1881; and the Presidency Administration Reports for 1879-80 and 1880-81.
- 2 G.O. No. 1036, Judicial, dated 5th May 1879, appendix, p. 11.
- 1 G.O. No. 109, Judicial, dated 16th January 1880, p. 75.
- 2 G O. No. 1036, Judicial, dated 5th May 1879, appendix, p. 3.
- 3 Ibid., appendix, p. 5.
- 4 Ibid., p. II.
- 5 G.O. No. 109, Judicial, dated 16th January 1880, p. 8,
- 1 G.O, No. 109, Judicial, dated 16th January 1880, p. 10.