Help:List of musical symbols

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List of musical symbols
A list of musical symbols with the codes and techniques necessary to create them on Wikisource.


Simple[edit]

Symbol Name LilyPond syntax ABC syntax Notes
{ \relative c'' { b1 b2 b4 b8 b16}  }
Whole note (semibreve), Half note (minim),
Quarter note (crotchet), Eighth note (quaver),
Sixteenth note (semiquaver)
b1 b2 b4 b8 b16 B8 B4 B2 B1 (or B) B1/2 (or B/) ABC works with default note length, varying depending on meter. You can set the default note length:

L:1/8

for a default note length of an eighth note (quaver) The examples below assumes a default note length of 1/4 unless otherwise specified.

{ \relative c'' { b4. b2. b4.. b2.. }  }
Dotted note b4. b2. b4.. b2.. B3/2 B3 B7/4 B7/2 In LilyPond, dotted notes must always have a specified, numeric duration.

In ABC there is a shortcut for a dotted note followed by a note half the value of the undotted one. For example a dotted quarter note followed by an eighth:

B>B

This works the with an eighth followed by a quarter as well:

B<B

{ \relative c'' { b8[ d c b] }  }
Beam b8[ d c b] B/d/c/B/
{ \relative c'' { <a d> <a c e> }  }
Chord <a d> <a c e> [Ad] [Ace]
{ \relative c'' { b\( b b b\) }  }
Phrase b\( b b b\) (B B B B)
{ \relative c'' { r2 r4 r8 r16 }  }
Rest r2 r4 r8 r16 z z/2 z/4
{ \relative c'' { g( b d) }  }
Slur g( b d) (G B d)
{ \relative c'' { b~ b }  }
Tie b~ b B-B

Accidentals[edit]

Symbol Name LilyPond syntax ABC syntax Notes
{ \relative c'' { bes } }
Flat bes
(note + es)
_B
{ \relative c'' { beses } }
Double flat beses
(note + eses)
__B
{ \relative c'' { bis } }
Sharp bis
(note + is)
^B
{ \relative c'' { bisis } }
Double sharp bisis
(note + isis)
^^B

Clefs[edit]

Symbol Name LilyPond syntax ABC syntax Notes
{ \clef treble s1 }
Treble clef \clef treble
\clef G
[K: clef=treble]
[K: clef=G]
[K: clef=G2]
For voice [V:1 clef=G] or key [K:C clef=G]

The numbers for the clefs are the lines where the clef is centered, counted from the lowest.

The square brackets are used for change inside the tune. At the start, use K:Dm clef=F for in d minor noted with bass clef.

{ \clef french s1 }
French clef \clef french [K: clef=G1]
{ \clef bass s1 }
Bass clef \clef bass
\clef F
[K: clef=bass]
[K: clef=F]
[K: clef=F4]
{ \clef varbaritone s1 }
Varbaritone clef \clef varbaritone [K: clef=F3]
{ \clef subbass s1 }
Subbass clef \clef subbass [K: clef=F5]
{ \clef alto s1 }
Alto clef \clef alto
\clef C
[K: clef=alto]
[K: clef=C]
[K: clef=C3]
{ \clef tenor s1 }
Tenor clef \clef tenor [K: clef=tenor]
[K: clef=C4]
{ \clef soprano s1 }
Soprano clef \clef soprano [K: clef=alto1]
[K: clef=C1]
{ \clef mezzosoprano s1 }
Mezzosoprano clef \clef mezzosoprano [K: clef=alto2]
[K: clef=C2]
{ \clef baritone s1 }
Baritone clef \clef baritone [K: clef=alto5]
[K: clef=C5]
{ \clef percussion s1 }
Percussion clef \clef percussion

Rhythm and key[edit]

Symbol Name LilyPond syntax ABC syntax Notes
{ \relative c'' { \time 2/4 s2 }  }
Time signature \time 2/4 M:2/4
{ \relative c'' { \key b \minor s1 }  }
Key signature \key b \minor K:Bm
K:D
{ \relative c'' { \tempo 4 = 120 s1 }  }
Metronome marks \tempo 4 = 120 Q:1/4=120
{ \relative c'' { \tempo "Allegro" s1 }  }
Textual tempo indication \tempo "Allegro" Q: "Allegro"
{ \relative c'' { \tempo "Allegro" 4 = 120 s1 }  }
Tempo & metronome marks \tempo "Allegro" 4 = 120 Q: "Allegro" 1/4=120

Dynamics[edit]

Symbol Name LilyPond syntax ABC syntax Notes
{ \relative c'' { b\< b b\! }  }
Crescendo b\> b b\! !<(!B B B!<)!
{ \relative c'' { b\> b b\! }  }
Diminuendo
or Decrescendo
b\< b b\! !>(!B B B!>)!
{ \relative c'' { b\ppp } }
Pianississimo b\ppp !ppp!B
{ \relative c'' { b\pp } }
Pianissimo b\pp !pp!B
{ \relative c'' { b\p } }
Piano b\p !p!B
{ \relative c'' { b\mp } }
Mezzo piano b\mp !mp!B
{ \relative c'' { b\mf } }
Mezzo forte b\mf !mf!B
{ \relative c'' { b\f } }
Forte b\f !f!B
{ \relative c'' { b\ff } }
Fortissimo b\ff !ff!B
{ \relative c'' { b\fff } }
Fortississimo b\fff !fff!B
{ \relative c'' { b\sfz } }
Sforzando b\sfz !sfz!B
{ \relative c'' { b\fp } }
Forte-piano b\fp

Articulations[edit]

Symbol Name LilyPond syntax ABC syntax Notes
{ \relative c'' { b-. } }
Staccato b-. or b\staccato
{ \relative c'' { b-! } }
Staccatissimo
or Spiccato
b-! or b\staccatissimo
{ \relative c'' { b-> } }
Accent b-> or b\accent
{ \relative c'' { b-- } }
Tenuto b-- or b\tenuto
{ \relative c'' { b-^ } }
Marcato b-^ or b\marcato
{ \relative c'' { b-+ } }
Stopped note
or Pizzicato
b-+ or b\stopped
{ \relative c'' { b-_ } }
Portato b-_ or b\portato
{ \relative c'' { b\espressivo } }
Espressivo b\espressivo
{ \relative c'' { b\fermata } }
Fermata b\fermata
{ \relative c'' { b\shortfermata } }
Short fermata b\shortfermata
{ \relative c'' { b\longfermata } }
Long fermata b\longfermata
{ \relative c'' { b\verylongfermata } }
Very long fermata b\verylongfermata
{ \relative c'' { b\open } }
Open note b\open
{ \relative c'' { b\flageolet } }
Flageolet
or Natural harmonic
b\flageolet
{ \relative c'' { b\halfopen } }
Half open note b\halfopen
{ \relative c'' { b\snappizzicato } }
Snap pizzicato b\snappizzicato
{ \relative c'' { b\upbow } }
Up bow
or Sull'arco
b\upbow
{ \relative c'' { b\downbow } }
Down bow
or Giù arco
b\downbow
{ \relative c'' { b\thumb } }
Thumb b\thumb
{ \relative c'' { b\lheel } }
Left-foot heel pedal mark b\lheel
{ \relative c'' { b\rheel } }
Right-foot heel pedal mark b\rheel
{ \relative c'' { b\ltoe } }
Left-foot toe pedal mark b\ltoe
{ \relative c'' { b\rtoe } }
Right-foot toe pedal mark b\rtoe

Ornaments[edit]

Symbol Name LilyPond syntax ABC syntax Notes
{ \relative c'' { s b\trill } }
Trill b\trill
{ \relative c'' { s b\prall } }
Upper mordent
or Pralltriller
b\prall
{ \relative c'' { s b\mordent } }
Lower mordent b\mordent
{ \relative c'' { s b\turn } }
Turn b\turn
{ \relative c'' { s b\reverseturn } }
Reverse turn b\reverseturn
{ \relative c'' { s \grace b8 b4 } }
Grace note \grace b8 b4
{ \relative c'' { s \appoggiatura b8 b4 } }
Appoggiatura \appoggiatura b8 b4
{ \relative c'' { s \acciaccatura b8 b4 } }
Acciaccatura \acciaccatura b8 b4

NB: The following variations on the mordent also exist: prallmordent, upprall, downprall, upmordent, downmordent, lineprall, prallprall, pralldown and prallup.

Repetition[edit]

Bar lines[edit]

Symbol Name LilyPond syntax ABC syntax Notes
{ \relative c'' { s1 s1 \bar "|" }  }
Standard bar
Standard bar-line
\bar "|" | Standard divider between bars (or measures) of music of set length
{ \relative c'' { s1 s1 \bar "." }  }
\bar "."
{ \relative c'' { s1 s1 \bar "||" }  }
Double bar
Double bar-line
\bar "||" || Separates two sections of music
{ \relative c'' { s1 s1 \bar ".|" }  }
\bar ".|"
{ \relative c'' { s1 s1 \bar ".|." }  }
Bold double bar
Bold double-line
Heavy double
\bar ".|."
{ \relative c'' { s1 s1 \bar "|.|" }  }
\bar "|.|"
{ \relative c'' { s1 s1 \bar "|." }  }
End \bar "|." |] Indicates the end of a piece of music
{ \relative c'' { s1 \bar ":" s1 }  }
Dotted bar
Dotted bar-line
\bar ":" :
{ \relative c'' { s1 \bar "dashed" s1 }  }
Dashed bar
Dashed bar-line
\bar "dashed"
{ \relative c'' { s1 \bar "|:" s1 }  }
Begin repeat \bar "|:" |: Indicates the beginning of a section to be repeated
{ \relative c'' { s1 \bar ":|:" s1 }  }
\bar ":|:"
{ \relative c'' { s1 \bar ":|.|:" s1 }  }
Begin and end repeat \bar ":|.|:" :: Indicates the end of one repeated section and the beginning of another
{ \relative c'' { s1 \bar ":|.:" s1 }  }
\bar ":|.:"
{ \relative c'' { s1 \bar ":|" s1 }  }
Repeat bar-line
Repeat sign
\bar ":|" :| Indicates the end of a section to be repeated
{ \relative c'' { s1 \bar "'" s1 }  }
\bar "'" !shortphrase!
{ \relative c'' { s1 \bar "S" s1 }  }
In-line segno \bar "S" Alternative repeat sign

Other[edit]

Symbol Name LilyPond syntax ABC syntax Notes
{ \relative c'' { b4 b^Foo b b }  }
Text b4 b^Foo b b B "^ Foo" B B B

See also[edit]