History of India/Volume 1/Index

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INDEX

A

Abhidhamma Pitaka, contains Buddhist
metaphysics, 283
Aborigines, wars with, 30

Description of, in Rig- Veda, 34-35
First Hinduized, 37

Formed Sudra caste, 84
Actions, five, in Vaisesika philosophy,
266

Acts, in Nyaya philosophy, 263

Adhvaryus, class of Vedic priests, duties
of, 86

Aditi, Vedic goddess, 69

Adityas, sons of Aditi, 69
Twelve, the suns of the months, 69
Administration, Megasthenes's account
of, 210-212
Adoption, Hindu law of, 58
Of a son, part of Hindu religion, 166
Adornment, according to Megasthenes,
218-219

Adultery, a criminal offence, 220

Agamas, sacred books of the Jains, 228

Agni, the god of fire, 71-72

Agnihotra, daily milk-libation to sacred
fire, 162

Agnimitra, son of Pushpamitra, 321

Agnishtoma, Soma sacrifice, 163

Agnosticism of Sankhya philosophy
counteracted by Yoga school, 257

Agnyadhana, ceremony, 163-166

Agrahayani, rite performed in month of
Agrahayana, 251

Agrarian laws, 223, 224

Agriculture, 8

Derivation of Sanskrit word for, 13

Among the ancient Hindus, 13
Ahura Mazda, Iranian equivalent of Va-
runa, 63
Aitareya Brahmana, coronation ceremony
in, 131-132

Ajatasatru, son of Rajagriha, 298

Ajivakas, a sect of ascetics, 328

Alara, teacher of Buddha, 290

Amrita, the immortal drink, 25

Ananda, convert to Buddhism, 293-295

Ancestor-worship among Hindus, 166

Andaroi (Andhras), Hindu nation, 205

Audhra kingdom, in the Deccan, found-

ing of, 184

Limits of, 203

Andhras, described by Megasthenes, 205

Anga, kingdom of Ancient India, 284

Animal food, 22

Animals, 7, 29

Sacrifice of, 22, 160

In ancient India, 217

Anukramanis, Vedic indexes, 193-194

Anuruddha, convert to Buddhism, 293,
295
Apastamba, Kalpa Sutra of, 191-192

A teacher who flourished in the fifth
century B. c., 202

Modern followers of, 203
Aranyakas, compilation of, 85

General character of, 94
Of the Rig- Veda, 94

Of the Yajur-Veda, 94-95
Arjuna, one of the five Pandava princes,

101
Skill of, 102
Wins the hand of Draupadi, 105
Recovers cattle stolen from Virata,
108
Discovery of, 108
Kills Bhishma, 109
Conflict of, with Karna, 110
Kills Karna, 110

Rise of, as a god, 169

Arrian, Greek historian, 213

Arsha marriage, 238

Aryan settlements in the Panjab, 4

Derivation of, 8
Civilization, extension of, 36
Conquerors, internal strife among, 37
World, boundaries of, in 1000 B. c., 126.
128
Nation, formed of Brahmans, Kshatri-
yas, and Vaisyas, 137
People principally Vaisyas almost to

the Mohammedan conquest, 187
Aryans, development of, in Ancient

India, 2-3
A united community, 5
Domestic Economy of, 7
Nomadic life led by, 8
Expansion of, 30, 82, 128-130
Ancient compositions of, preserved tra-
ditionally by certain families, 78

Home of, passage concerning, 201
Ascetics, Hindu, 235, 236
Rules for, 241-242
Ashtaka, rites performed in the month of
Agrahayana, 261-262

Asia, spread of Buddhism throughout, 322

Asoka, Hindu king, 3
Father of Mahinda, 320
Astronomy, science of, 193

In the Rig-Veda, 156-167

In the Brahmanic period, 156, 167
Asvamedha, horse-sacrifice, 163

Celebrated by Yudhishthira, 110

Celebrated by Rama, 124*

Asvapati, a monarch, 163

Asvayugi, rite performed in the month of

Asvayuga, 251

Rites described by Sankhayana, 251
Asvins, 20
Known as great physicians, 74
Atharva-Veda, compilation of, 85, 86

Late in gaining canonicity, 90-91
Division of, ,91
Character of, 91

Brahmanas of, 93
Atomic theory in Hindu philosophy, 264,
265
Avesta, possible allusions to Aryan cus-
toms in, 24
Ayodhya, capital of the Kosalas, 119

Social life in, in the Brahmanic period,

149

B

Badarayana Vyasa, founder of the Ve-

danta philosophy, 270

Outline of Brahma Sutra of, 270-271

Barbarians, revenge of, 36

Battle of the Ten Kings, 37, 38

Baudhayana, one of the earliest of the
Sutrakaras, 200

Benares, a city, 126

Bengal, believed to have been invaded by

Pandavas, 106

Hinduized, 203

Bhaddiya, convert to Buddhism, 293

Bhagu, convert to Buddhism, 293

Bharadvaja, a hermitage, 120

Bharata, son of Duhshanta, 132
Son of Kaikeyi, 119
Bharatas, known also as Kurus, a tribe,
98
Bhima, one of the five Pandava princes,

101
Fights with Duryodhana, 102
Kills brother of Queen of Virata, 108

Kills Duhsasana, 109
Bhishma, a renowned warrior, son of

Santanu, 100

Killed unfairly by Arjuna, 109

Bhujya, shipwreck of, 20

Bimbisara, King of the Magadhas, 284
Conversion of, to Buddhism, 291

Birds, 17

Brahma, evolution of, 75

Theme of the older Upanishads, 95
His part in creation, 167
True nature of, as taught in the Chhan-
dogya Upanishad, 174-176

Marriage of, 238
Brahmadatta and Dighavu, parable of,
313-316

Brahmana literature, 86

Brahman, caste, 136

Duties of a, 86, 87
Worsted in learning by warrior caste,
114
Only, practise austerities in Krita Age,
136
Allowed to marry into other castes, in
Brahmanic and Epic periods, 164
Occupations of, 232, 233
Arrogance toward other castes, 233
Translation from Megasthenes concern-

ing, 234-236
Brahmanas, composition of, 85, 143-144

General character of, 92
Of Rig-Veda, 92-93
Of Sama-Veda, 93
Of Yajur-Veda, 93

Of Atharva-Veda, 93
Brahmanic period, hermit life in, 85, 144

Justice officially administered in, 143
Municipal government in, 143
Students in, 144
Teachers in, 144
Ethical ideal in, 146-146
Metals in, 147
Food in, 147-149
Social life in, 149-154
Plan of towns in, 160
Manufactures in, 160
Child marriage unknown in, 164
Widow marriage not prohibited in, 164

Astronomy a distinct science in, 167
Brihaspati, conception of, 74
Lord of hymns, 74
Buddha, birth of, 281

Religion of, 253
Disapproval of caste by, 276
Beginning of teachings of, 276

Character of, 279

Preaches his doctrines in the vernacu-
lar, 283
Marries Subhadhra, 286
Son born to, 286
Leaves home to study philosophy and
religion, 286, 289
Converts his former disciples, 291
Sends his sixty followers out to preach,
291
Wife of, a convert, 292
Residence in Veluvaua, 292
Guest of Bimbisara, 292
Son of, a convert, 293
Stepmother and wife admitted to order
of Buddhist nuns by, 296
Temptation of, 289-290
Work of, in the seventeenth, eighteenth,
and twentieth years of his ministry,
297
Still preaching at the age of eighty, 297,
298
Resides on Vulture's Peak, 298
Wanderings of, 296-300
Seized with fatal illness at Pava, 800
Death of, at Kusinagara, 280, 301-302
Cremation of, 302
Body of, said to have been divided into
eight portions, 302-303

Teachings of, on caste, 309
Buddhism, spread of, 184

Partial resemblance to Sankhya philos-
ophy, 263
Opposed by Mimamsa philosophies, 270
Prevailing faith of Asia, 276
Spread of, to Tibet, in seventh century
A. D., 280
Spread of, to Japan, in sixth century
A. D., 280
Becomes state religion in China in
fourth century A. D., 280, 322
Divided into two sects, 280
Essentially a system of self-culture and
self-restraint, 304
Distinguishing features of, 313
Ten prohibitory rules for monks, 312-
313
The precepts of benevolence and love,
313
State religion of India, 319
Early missionary activity of, 319-320
In Ceylon, 320
Introduced into Burma about 460 A. D.,
321
Spread of, throughout Asia, 322
Introduced into Siain about 638 A. D.,

321
Buddhist books in China in the second

century, 322
Law, seven jewels of, 306-307
Monastic system, antiquity of, 311
Missionaries visit Java about 638 A. D.,

321
Buddhists, sacred books of the, 281
Triad of the, 299
Burial customs in the Black Yajur-Veda,

166
Customs in the White Yajur-Veda, 165
Hymn on, 60
Practised by the ancient Hindus, 165

Unknown in the Epic period, 166

Building, art of, 28

Burma, Buddhism in, about 460 A. D.,
321

C

Cakes, preparation of, from grain, 21

Canons, Jain, codification of, 326

Carpentry, 26

Caste, absence of, among the early

Hindus, 6, 60
Unknown in Rig- Veda, 51-52, 143
No priestly, in Vedic period, 76
Brahmanic, rise of the, 83-84
Kshatriya, rise of the, 84, 186
Vaisya, rise of the, 84
Sudra, rise of the, 84
Aborigines formed the Sudra, 84
Reaction against, 84
Among priests, 134
System, beginning of, 186
Brahmanic, 136
Vaisya, 136
Sudra, 136
Not distinguished in the Brahmanic
age, 138, 141-142
Developed in Brahmanic and Epic
times, 143
Brahmans allowed to marry outside
their own, in Brahmanic period, 164
Vaisya, undivided in Philosophic
period, 154
Translation from Vasishtha concerning,
233
Vaisya, translation from Megasthenes
concerning, 236-237
Kshatriya, translation from Megas-
thenes concerning, 236
Buddha's teaching on, 309
No distinction of, recognized by Bud-
dhism, 310
Laws varied in severity according to,
220-221
Theoretic origin of, according to Va-

sishtha, 230
Castes, three highest, educated together,

150

Seven, described by Megasthenes, 234
Categories, seven in Vaisesika philosophy,
266-266
Cattle, 18

Stolen from Virata by princes of Has-

tinapura, 108
Causation, according to Sankhya philos-
ophy, 255-256
Cause and effect, in Nyaya philosophy,
262-263
Ceylon, discovery of, 203

Believed to have been invaded by the
Pandavas, 106
A resort of Hindu traders, 185
Known to Megasthenes and .Mian, 207
Converted to Buddhism, 320
Twice conquered by the Dravidians,

321
Chaitri, a rite performed in the month of
Chaitra, 262

Chandalas explained as a caste, 231

Chandragupta, empire of, included whole

of Northern India, 204

Army of, 204

Chaturmasya, a sacrifice, 162

Chera, Hindu kingdom, 185, 203

Chhandogya, extracts from, 174-175

Child, rites performed at birth of, 246

Name of, 246
First feeding of, with solid food, 246-
247
Marriage unknown in Brahmanic and
Epic periods, 164
Marriage not prevalent in Philosophic

Age, 239

Children, desire for, 166

China, Buddhism state religion in, in

fourth century A. D., 280
Buddhist books in, about the second

century, 322

Chola, Hindu kingdom, 185, 203

Chullavagga, translation from, 283

Chumbala, a river, 129

Churning of the ocean of milk, 26

Civilization, Hindu, age of, 1

Aryan, higher state of, 7
Extension of, 36
Development of, in Brahmanic period,
99
Advance of, among Hindus, 133

In the time of Baudhayana, 201
Coherence, category of, in Vaisesika phi-
losophy, 266

Commerce in the Eig-Veda, 18

Conquests, Aryan, determined by course

of river systems of Northern India,

126

Corn, preparation of, 8

Coronation of Yudhishthira, 106

Ceremony described in the Aitareya
Brahmana, 131-132
Ceremony described in the White Ta-

jur-Veda, 132-133
Corpses burned and ashes buried in Epic
period, 166

Cosyri, a Hindu tribe, 206

Council, first Buddhist, at Rajagriha, 281

Second Buddhist, at Vaisali, 281
Third Buddhist, at Patna, 281
Of Rajagriha, 318
At Vaisali, 318-319

Third, at Pataliputra, 319
Creation, two hymns on, 78-80

Legends of, 167-168
Extracts from the Upanishads con-
cerning, 176-178
Extracts in the Aitareya Aranyaka

concerning, 178

{{Cremation, hymn on, 60
Among the Hindus, 165
Of Buddha, 302 }}

Crimes, agrarian, severe punishment of,
222
Criminals tried by the ordeal of fire, 166,
156

Cultivation in Ancient India, 216

D

Dadhikra, a deified war-horse, 29

Daiva marriage, 238

Dandaka, a forest, 120

Darsa-purnamasa, a sacrifice performed

on the first day after the full and new

moon, 162
Dasaratha, king of the Kosalas, 119
Death of, 120
Dasyus, 33

Reference in Rig-Veda to habitation of,

33-34
Debate between a woman and a priest, 163

Deccan, 126

Hinduized, 203
Delhi, central district of Kuru kingdom,
98

Devadatta, convert to Buddhism, 293, 295

Devas, 10
Worshippers of the, 10
Dhammapada, Buddhist work, extracts
from, 317
Dharma Sutras, theme and value of, 189
Source of Manu's code, 189-190
Dhrishtadyumna, brother of Draupadi,
105
Dhritarashtra, grandson of Santanu, 101
Father of Duryodhana, 104

Dyu, primitive sky-god, 63

Digambaras, Jain sect, 323-324

Dighavu and Brahmadatta, parable of,
313-316

Dirghatamas, a Brahman . 132

Dissensions, domestic, 67

Doab, entry of the Kurus into the, 83

Entry of the Panchalas into the, 83

Colonization of the, 98
Domestic ceremonies, value of, for knowl-
edge of Hindu life, 244
Draupadi, svayamvara of, 104

Chooses Arjuna as her husband, 105
Marries the five Pandava princes, 105
Publicly insulted by Duryodhaua, 107
Slave of Duryodhana, 107

The Queen of Virata's handmaid, 108
Dravidiaus, 184
Conquer Ceylon twice, 321
Drona, a warrior, 101

Conquers Drupada, 103
Kills Drupada, 109

Killed by Drupada' s son, 109
Drupada conquered by Drona, 103

King of the Panchalas, 104
Alliance of, with the five Pandava
princes, 105

Killed by Drona, 109

Duhshanta, father of Bharata, 132

Durga, goddess, 76

Duhsasana killed by Bhima, 109

Duryodhana, son of Dhritarashtra, 102

Fights with Bhima, 102
Publicly insults Draupadi, 107
Flight of, from Bhima, and subsequent

return to him, 110

E

Eightfold path, Buddhist, 304-305

Emancipation, final, according to Ve-
dauta philosophy, 272
Epic period, municipal government in,
143
Equality, legal, unknown in ancient
India, 220
Ethical ideal in Brahmanic period, 145-
146
Evidence, kinds of, recognized by San-
khya philosophy, 255

Evil, true nature of, 216

Exile of Rama, 120
Of Pandava princes, 103, 107

F

False evidence, 222

Famine unknown in India, 217

Fire, various offerings to, 5

Sacred, kept burning in every house-
hold, 52, 150
Sacrificial, 76
Ordeal of, criminals tried by, 155-156

Names of, 170

Five Pandava princes, 100-101

Flood, Hindu tradition of, 166-167

Food, vegetable, 21

Animal, 22

In Brahmanic period, 147-148

Foreigners explained as castes, 232

Forest hermits in the Brahmanic period,
144

Fourfold wisdom, Buddhist, 304-306

Future life, hymn on, 59-60

G

Gambling match of Yudhishthira, 107

Gandharva marriage, 238

Ganges, river, 97, 126

Valley of, reached by the Hindus, 82

Exploration of shores of, 97
Gautama, see also Buddha

Buddha, 3
Haridrumata, a Vedic teacher, 139-141

Founder of the Nyaya philosophy, 262

Gayatri, the, 70

Genus, in Buddhism, 266
In Vaisesika philosophy, 266

Geometry, 192, 194

Godavari, a river of ancient India, 120

Gods of the Rig- Veda still worshipped in
Brahmanic and Epic times, 169

Gosala, founder of sect of Ajivakas, 328

Government, 9

Grammar, science of, in India, 193

Greek knowledge of India, 197-198, 204-
207

Grain, names of, in Rig- Veda, 21

Grihya Sutras, regulations concerning

domestic rites, 190
Value of, for knowledge of Hindu life,

191, 244

Gujarat, Hinduized, 203

H

Hanuman, commander-in-chief of the

non-Aryan army, 121

Restores Sita to Rama, 121

Haoma, Iranian name for Soma, 24

Hastinapura, capital of the Kurus, 100

Ruins of, said to be near Delhi, 100
Social life of, in the Brahmanic period,

149

Harvests, two annually in India, 218

Hercules, identified with Krishna, 207

Hermit life, in the Brahmanic period, 85,
86

Hermits, rules for, 241, 242

Hetairism, 7

Hindu Aryans, a united body in the Vedic

Age, 136
Civilization, age of, 1
Civilization, expansion of, 112
Literature, ancient, 2
Pantheon adopted and modified by

Buddha, 308-309

Religion, cardinal principle of, 179
Religion, explanation of, by Rig-Veda,
11
Villages, manage their own affairs, 160
Women, Sita model of, 125
World, Panchalas and Kurus centre of,

99
Hindus, Vedic, character of, 4

Vedic, settlement of, on Indus, 4
Agriculture among, 13
Separation of, from the Iranians, 24
Effect of climate of Ganges valley on,
83
Gradual enervation of, 83
Cremation among, 165
Ancestor-worship among, 166
Advance of civilization among, 133
Rules of, to regulate domestic and so-
cial duties, 143
Spread of civilization among, 198-200
As described by Megasthenes, 124-215

Food and clothing of, 216
Home, early Aryan, controversy concern-
ing, 6

Horatoi (Saurashtras), Hindu nation, 206

Horse, sacrifice of a, 22, 23, 24, 163

Sacrificial, captured by Rama's sons
and his subsequent recognition of

them, 125

Horses, 16

Hospitality, 145, 150, 241

Hotris, Vedic priests, duties of, 86, 88

Household worship, 50

Householders, students as, 145
Forty sacraments of, 242-243
Hymn to the rivers, historical significance

of, 49
Recounting Indra's slaying of Vritra,
66-67
Relating to the storm-myth of Indra,

69-70
Hymns, sung by professional priests, 5

Certain families proficient in compos-
ing, 77
Of the Vedas still repeated as texts in

Brahmanic and Epic times, 169

I

Idols, unknown in the Vedic period, 5, 52

India, oldest records of, 1

Political life, decadence of, 3
History, value of, 3-4
Early civilization centred in, 6

Buddhism state religion of, 319
Indian tribes, number one hundred and
eighteen, 215

Inido-Iranians in Asia, 9

Indra, 33-35

Hymn to, 32-33
First among Vedic gods, 63
Slays Vritra, 65
Storm-myth of, 67
An Aditya, 69

As leader, 69
Indrajit, son of Ravana, 122

Killed by Lakshmana and revived by a

powerful medicine, 122

Indraprastha, city in ancient India, 106

Indus, sacred river of the Panjab, 49, 126

Industries, 7

Inheritance, law of, 68, 227-229

Initiation into religious life, 239-241
Age of, varies in different castes, 247

Inscriptions on Jain statues, 326

Intellect, in Nyaya philosophy, 263

Interest, six forms of, according to Gau-
tama, 226-237
Internecine wars of the Kurus, 83
Wars of the Panchalas, 83

Invocation of the bright gods, 5

Iranians, separation of, from the Hindus,
24
Irrigation in the Panjab, 15

Reference to, in the tenth book of the
Rig-Veda, 17

In ancient India, 217

Isari, Hindu tribe, 205

Isa Upanishad, extract from, 176

J

Jabala, mother of Satyakama, 139-140

Jaimini, founder of the Purva Mimamsa

philosophy, 269

Outline of sutras of, 269
Jainism, a religion of India, 323

Coaeval with Buddhism, 325

Approximation to Buddhism, 326
Jains, division of, into two sects, 324

Refrain from killing animals, 327
Monastic order of, 327
Beliefs of, 333

Sacred books of, 333
Janaka, king of the Videhas, 114

In the Ramayana, 117
Quotation from Brihadaranyaka Upani-

shad relating to, 152

Janamejaya, son of Parikshit, 132

Japan, Buddhism in, in the sixth century
A. D., 280

Java, Buddhist missionaries visit, 321

Jnatrika Kshatriyas, Hindu clan, 323

Judicial procedure still crude in Brah-
manic and Epic periods, 166
Jumna, a river, 96, 126
Exploration of shores of, 97
Justice officially administered in the
Brahmanic period, 143

K

Kaikeyi, queen of Dasaratba, 119

Kali, goddess, 76

Kalidasa, poetry of, 8

Kalingoi, army of, 206

Kalpa sutra, 191

Kampilya, capital of the Panchalas, 104

Social life in, in the Brahmanic period,

149
Kanada, founder of the Vaisesika phi-
losophy, 264

Kanchi, capital of the Cholas, 186

Kanishka, early Buddhist monarch, 321

Extent of territory of, 321

Council of, 322
Kapila, founder of the Sankhya philos-
ophy, 8, 263
Kapilavastu, capital of the Sakyas, 285
Buddha's return to, 292, 296, 297
Kama knighted to fight with Arjuna, 103

Fights with Arjuna, 110

Killed by Arjuna, 110

Kashmir, 321

Kasis, a nation of ancient India, 82, 112,
143, 284
Kasyapa, conversion to Buddhism of three

brothers named, 291

A Brahman, 316
Katha Upanishad, extract from, concern-
ing Nachiketas, 181-183

Kausalya, queen of Dasaratha, 119

Kavasha, father of Tura, 132
Legend of, 139

Kena Upanishad, extract from, 175-176

Kimbila, a convert to Buddhism, 293

Kingdoms, Hindu, account of, in the Ai-
tareya Brahmana, 125-126
Kings, customs relating to coronation of,

in the Rig- Veda, 41-42
Performing religious rites, 77
Invested by priests at the coronation
ceremony, 132
Palaces of, centre of life in the Brah-
inanic and Epic times, 160
Rules for, regarding subjects, 208-209

Occupations of, 212-213

Koliyans, Hindu clan, 285

Kosalas, 119

A nation of ancient India, 112

Capital of, changed to Sravasti, 284
Krishna, a leader of the aborigines, 34

Chief of the Yadavas of Gujarat, 106
Entirely human in the Upanishads, 170
Dvaipayaua Vyasa, reputed author of

the Mahabharata, 120

Krita age, 135, 136

Kshatriya caste, 136

Kshatriyas, 3

Religious speculations of, 85, 114

Occupations of, 232, 233
Kshema, queen of Bimbisara, admitted to
the order of Buddhist nuns, 296
Kumarila, argument of, 167-168
Bhatta, Hindu philosopher, 269
Kundagrama identified with Buddhist
Kotigrama, 323

Kuru country divided, 106-106

Kurukshetra, battle of, 109

Kurus, known also as Bharatas, a Hindu

nation, 84, 100
Entry into the Doab, 83
Provenience of, a mooted question, 98
And Panchalas centre of the Hindu

world, 99

Kusa, son of Sita and Rama, 123

Kusinagara, place of Buddha's death, 301

Kutsa, a warrior, 33

L

Lakshmana, son of Sumitra, 119

Accompanies his half-brother Rama

into exile, 120

Lakshmi, 76

Lalita Vistara, poem of the Northern
Buddhists, 280

Lanka besieged by a non-Aryan army, 122

Lava, son of Sita and Rama, 123

Law as laid down in the Brihadaranyaka

Upanishad, 155
Of property, 225
Of inheritance, 227-229
Varied in severity according to castes,
220, 221
Agrarian, passage from Apastamba on,
223
Agrarian, passage from Gautama on,
223-224

Usury, of ancient India, 226
Learning, branches of, in the Brahmanic
and Epic periods, 167-168
Legends, development of Puranic, from
poets of the Rig- Veda, 25

Lichchhavis, nation of ancient India, 284

Literature, ancient Hindu, 2
Brahmana, 88

Lord of the Field, hymn to, 13-14

Lunar asterisms, enumerated, 167

M

Madhava, legend of king, 113

Magadha, Hinduized, 184

Kingdom of, 284

Jain council of, 226

Magadhas, explained as a caste, 231

Mahabharata, Sanskrit epic, 83

Description of Kuru-Panchala war in, 98

Lessons of the, 111

A work of later ages, 136

Maha Rahula Sutta, preached, 827

Mahavira, son of Siddhartha of Kunda-

grama, 323
Founder of Jainism, 323, 324
Entered the Holy Order at the age of
twenty-eight, 324

Death of, 324

Mahinda, son of Asoka, 320

Maitreyi, discussion of, with Yajnavalkya,
151-162

Malwa, Hindu kingdom, 126

Man, as protector and head of the family, 7

Manu, legend of, in Satapatha Brahmana,
166-167
Manufactures, commencement of, 7

Allusions to, in Rig- Veda, 26-27
In Brahmanic and Epic periods, 150
Of ancient India known to the Greeks,

218

Mara, an evil spirit, 289

Maritime travel not forbidden in ancient
India, 50
Marriage, not compulsory in Vedic India,

54
Vedic ceremony of, 55-57
Of students, 145
Among blood relations prohibited, 164
Eight varieties of, 238-239
Among kinsfolk prohibited by Vasish-
tha and Apastamba, 239
Among kinsfolk permitted by Baudha-
yana, 239
Of widows, 239

Ritual of, 244-246

Maruts, storm gods, legend of, 72

Mathura (Madura), capital of the Pan-
dyas, 207

Matriarchy, no trace of, in India, 7

Matter, in Hindu philosophy, 267

Meat, eating of, 8, 60

Megasthenes' account of India, 204, 205-

207, 210-212, 214, 219, 234, 235
Takes up residence in India, 204
Subdivides the philosophers into Brah-

inans and Sramans, 236
Metals, in ancient India, 9, 218

In the Rig-Veda, 26

Knowledge of, in Brahmanic times, 147

Metre, science of, 192

Mihintale, seat of an Indian monastery,
320
Mind, according to Sankhya philosophy,
264-265
Mithila, social life in, in Brahmanic pe-
riod, 149

Mitra, an Aditya, 69

Modo-Galingoi (Madhya-Kalingas), Hindu
tribe, 205

Moggali, father of Tissa, 319

Moggallana, convert to Buddhism, 292

Monastery, Indian, at Mihintale, 320

Money, in the Rig-Veda, 19-20

Monotheism, 172-173
In the Rig- Veda, 80-81
Moon, regulation of sacrificial rites by
position of, 157

Morning hymn to the sun, 70

Municipal government in the Brahmanic
and Epic periods, 141

N

Nachiketas, story of, 181-183

Nagasena, a renowned Buddhist teacher,
321

Nakula, one of the Pandava princes, 102

Narada, 132

Nature, according to Sankhya philosophy,
254

Nearchos, a Greek historian, 216

Nirvana, parallel to, in Sankhya philoso-

phy, 267
Meaning of, 307-308

Gained by breaking the ten fetters, 308

Nomadic life among the Aryans, 8

Non-existence, category of, in Vaisesika
philosophy, 266
Northern Buddhism, the form prevailing

in Nepal and Tibet, China, and Japan,

280, 319

O

Occult power, gained by Yoga, 260

Ocean, churning of, 25

Order of Buddhist nuns founded, 296

Orissa, Hinduized, 203

P

Paisacha marriage, 239

Palace, description of, in the sutras, 208

Pauchala kingdom, the, in 1400 B. c., 99

Panchalas, a nation of ancient India, 82

Provenience of, a mooted question, 98
Entry into the Doab, 83
Settlement of, near the modern Kanouj,
98
And Kurus, centre of the Hindu world,

99
Pandava princes, five, 104-105

Princes, exhibition of skill in the use of
arms, 104
Princes, the five, wed Draupadi, 109

Princes, slaves of Duryodhana, 107
Pandavas, refuse to fight with Kama, 103

First exile of, 103
House of the, burnt, 104

Disguised as Brahmans, 104

Alliance of, with Drupada, 106
Military campaigns of, 106
Believed to have invaded Bengal and
Ceylon, 110
Second exile of, 107
In thirteenth year of exile take service
under the king of Virata, 108
Send an envoy to Hastinapura to claim
back their kingdom, 109

Go to Hastinapura, 110

Pandoi (Pandyas), Hindu nation, 206

Pandu, grandson of Santanu, 100

Pandya, a Hindu kingdom, 203

Pandyas, kingdom of, 185

History of, 206-207

Panini, Sanskrit grammarian, 193
Panjab, Aryan settlements in, 4

Irrigation by means of wells in, 15
Seven rivers of the, 49

Colonized by Aryans, 97
Pantheon, Hindu, adopted and modified
by Buddha, 308-309

Parasurama, legend of, 117

Parikshit, father of Janamejaya, 132

Parishads, schools, 144

Parthalis, capital of the Kalingoi, 205

Particularity, category of, in Vaisesika
philosophy, 266
Parvana, a rite performed on new and full
moon days, 248

Parvata, 132

Pasturage in Early India, 17

Pataliputra (Patna), metropolis of India

for nearly a thousand years, 299
Capital of the Prachyas, 204

Council at, 819
Patanjali, founder of Yoga philosophy,
257-258

Paulkasas, explained as a caste, 231

Philosophic period, summary of, 273

Philosophy, its debt to the Kshatriya

caste, 85
Six schools of Hindu, 194-195
Mimamsa, 268
Purva Mimamsa, 268-270
Uttara Mimamsa, 268-269
Nyaya, 262-264
Sankhya, 254-267, 268, 271
Vaisesika 264-266, 271
Vedanta, 195, 268-273

Yoga, 268-261, 271

Phonetics, science of, 192

Pindapitri-yajna, sacrifice to departed

ancestors, 162

Ceremony of, 166-166
Pitakas, sacred books of the Buddhists,

281-282
Date of, 281
Said to have been reduced to writing

about 88 B. c., 321

Plants of ancient India, 217

Political life, decadence of, in India, 3

Polygamy, 164

Allowed among kings and rich people

in Vedic times, 67

Polyandry unknown in ancient India, 164

Prachyas, the most powerful nation in

the fourth century B. c., 204

Boundary of, 205-206

Prajapati, his part in creation, 167-168

Prajapatya marriage, 239

Pratisakhyas, 192

Pregnancy, rites of, 246

Priestly caste, rise of the, 83-84

Priests, professional, 6, 77

Studied nature, 78
Divisions of, 86-87
Sacrificial duties, 86
And kings become separate castes in
the Epic Age, 136
And soldiers mingle and intermarry

with the people, 150

Prisni, the storm cloud, 72

Problems, in Nyaya philosophy, 263

Proof, in Nyaya philosophy, 262-263

Puranic legends, development of, from the
myths of the Big- Veda, 26

Purusha, 176

Pushan, an Aditya, 69

Hymn to, 17-18

Sun-god of the shepherds, 70

Pushpamitra, king of Kashmir, 321

Q

Qualities, seventeen, in Vaisesika philos-
ophy, 266

R

Rahula, a convert to Buddhism, 293

Son of Buddha, admitted to the order,

297

Rajagriha, Council of, 318

Rajasuya, imperial coronation sacrifice,
163
Rajputana, a desert, 126
Described by Megasthenes, 206
Rama, son of Kausalya, 119

An incarnation of Vishnu, 116
A recrudescence of Indra, 116
Wins Sita at a svayamvara, 119
Husband of Sita, 116
Goes into exile, 120
Preparations of, for the recovery of
Sita, 121
Alliance of, with non-Aryan tribes, 121
Kills Vali, 121
Exiles Sita, 123

Kills Ravana, 123

Return to Ayodhya and ascends the
throne, 123
Celebrates the Asvamedha sacrifice, 124
Sons of, capture the sacrificial horse,
126

Ideal Hindu man, 126
Ramayana, the second great epic of India,

83, 116
Value of, 116
Decline in warlike spirit in, 117
Characters of heroes of, 118
A means of moral education to the
Hindus, 126

A work of later ages, 136
Ravana, the demon-king of Lanka, 120

Steals Sita, 121

Killed by Rama, 123
Religion, Hindu, explanation of, by the

Rig- Veda, 11
Of the Rig- Veda, 62-81
Kshatriyas speculate on, 85
Vedic, decline of, 86

Later, essence of the, 86
Religious discussions in Brahmanic and

Epic times, 144

Life, initiation into, 229-241

Revealed literature, 86

Right of way, passage from Vasishtha,
on, 224-225
Rig- Veda, earliest date of, 1

Composition of, 10
Composers of, 11
Divisions of, 11
Tenth book of, 12
Wells in, 16
Commerce in, 18
Voyages in, 20
Money in, 20
Grains named in, 21
Metals in, 26
Allusions to aborigines in, 81
Weapons in, 39, 41, 42
Coronation customs in, 41-42
Religion of, 62, 81
Preservation of, by youths of priestly
houses, 78
Monotheism in, 80-81
Brahmanas of, 92-93
Aranyakas of, 94
Astronomy in, 166-167
Translations from, 13-14, 15, 17-18, 19,
20, 26, 29, 31, 32-35, 38-42, 44-46,
62-63, 56-67, 58, 59-60, 61, 63, 64,

66, 66-68, 70, 73-74, 75-76, 78-81
Rishis, Vedic bards, 76

Not a separate class, 60-51

As warriors, 77

Rivers, hymns to, in the Rig-Veda, 44-46

Robbers, allusion to aboriginal, in the
Rig-Veda, 31
Royal caste, rise of, 135
Courts, the seats of learning, 143
Rudra, father of the Maruts, one of the

Hindu Triad, 11, 72
Development of, as a deity, 169
Not yet identified with Siva in the

Brahmanas, 169
Rules, prohibitory, of Buddhism, 312-
313

S

Sacred books of the Jains, 327

Sacred fire in the household, 62, 160

Sacraments inferior to virtue, 244

Sacrifice, increasing importance of, 86

Importance of, in Brahmanic and Epic
periods, 169
Human, no reference to, in Rig-Veda,
160-161
Human, in ancillary Vedic literature,
161-162

Performed by professional priests, 6
Sacrifices, accompanied by gifts in Brah-

manic and Epic periods, 159

Seven Paka, 191
Sacrificial fire, 6

Rites regulated by the position of the
moon, 157

Fire, setting up of the, 163

Sadanira, a river, 113

Sahadeva, one of the five Pandava princes,
102
Sakai, a tribe of the fourth century B.C.,
215
Sakyaputriya Sramans, a sect founded by
Gautama, 236-279

Sakyas, a clan, 285

Sale-transaction, a verse on, 19

Salvation, doctrine of, from the Brihad-
aranyaka Upanishad, 181
Sama- Veda, compilation of, 86-86

Duplicate verses found in the Rig- Veda,
89
Selections from Rig- Veda set to music,
89

Brahmanas of, 93
Sankaracharya, a Hindu philosopher,
167, 269
Santanu, king of Hastinapura, 109
Father of Bhishma, 100

Saranyu, the dawn, 73

Sarasvati, sacred river of the Panjab, 49,

97

Goddess of speech, 75-76

Sariputra, a convert to Buddhism, 292

Satapatha Brahmana, various strata in, 93

Satrughna, son of Sumitra, 119

Satyakama, story of, 139-140

Saurashtras, Hinduized, 185
Sautramani, sacrifice in expiation of an
overindulgence in Soma, 163

Savitri, a sun-god, 69-71

Schopenhauer, on Upanishads, 183

Self-defence, right of, 222

Settlements, Aryan, in the Panjab, 4

Settlers, Aryan, earliest home of, 50

Seven jewels of the Buddhist law, 306-307
Rivers of the Panjab, 49

Siam, Buddhism in, about 638 A. D., 321

Siddhartha, see Buddha

Sisupala of Chedi, killed by Krishna, 107

Sita, described as the daughter of Janaka,

116
Originally a goddess of the furrow, 116
Won by Rama at a svayainvara, 119
Accompanies Rama into exile, 120
Stolen by Havana, 121
Proof of purity required of, 123
Exiled by Rama, 123
Mythical character of, 126
Ideal Hindu woman, 125

Death of, 125

Skepticism, Hindu, 171

Sky, the most prominent object of wor-
ship in early India, 62
Social customs, had force of laws in an-
cient India, 99
Soldiers and priests mingle and inter-
marry with the people, 150
Soma, plant, 24

Juice, 24, 76
As a deity, 24
Celebrated in an entire book of the Rig-
Veda, 24
Mixed with milk, 25
Iranian name of, 24
Hymn to, 26
Indra's fondness for, 69
Hymn to, containing an allusion to the

future life, 73-74
Soul, according to Sankhya philosophy,

264-256

In Nyaya philosophy, 263
Nature of, according to Vedanta philos-
ophy, 271

Souls, transmigration of, 308

South Behar, 126

Southern Buddhism, the form prevailing
in Ceylon and Burma, 280, 319
Southern India from the writings of
Baudhayana, 202
Sraddha rite, a monthly offering to de-
parted ancestors, 248
Sramans, Hindu hermits, 279

Translation from Megasthenes concern-

ing, 235

Srautra Sutras, extant, 188

Sravani, a rite performed in the month of
Sravana, 249

Sravasti, new capital of the Kosalas, 284

Stone, uses of, for architectural pur-
poses, 28

Student life, termination of, 241, 247

Students, 186

In Brahmanic period, 144
Marriage of, 146

Duties as householders, 145, 247

Subhadhra, wife of Buddha, 285, 302

Substances, nine, in Vaisesika philoso-
phy, 265
Subtle body, according to Sankhya phi-
losophy, 266-267
Sudas, Vedic king, 37, 132
Hymns to, 38-39
Suddhodana, chief of the Sakyas and the
father of Buddha, 286
Sudra caste, 136

Rise of the, 84
Formed of aborigines, 138
Religious knowledge forbidden to, 234

Oppression of, 276
Sugriva, brother of Vali, 121

Wins Vali's kingdom and widow, 121

Marches his army to Lanka, 121

Suicides, 222

Sumitra, queen of Dasaratha, 119

Sunidha, chief minister of Ajatasatru,
299

Sunita, story of, 309-310

Supreme being, not recognized by San-

khya philosophy, 256
Being, in Yoga philosophy, 266
Being, in Nyaya philosophy, 263
Being, according to Vedanta philoso-
phy, 271, 272-273

Deity, Vishnu developed into, 70-71

Surya, a sun-god, 69

Sutras, character of, 185

Human compositions, 186
Schools of, 186

Classes of, 186
Sutta Pitaka, record of sayings and do-
ings of Gautama Buddha, 282
Sutlaj, river of the Panjab, 4, 97
Reached by the Hindus, 82

Suttee, supposed Vedic basis for, 61

Svayamvara, of Draupadi, 104

Svetaketu, story of, 174

Svetambaras, a sect of Jains, 323-324
Existence of, in first century A. D., 325

Syllogism, in Hindu philosophy, 264, 270

T

Taprobane, Greek name of Ceylon, 207

Taxes, 209-210
Some exempt from paying, 209
Teachers, individual, in Brahmanic period
144
Teaching of the Golden Mean, 290
Temples, unknown in the Vedic period, 6
Not mentioned in the Rig- Veda, 62, 76
Ten fetters, Buddhist, breaking of the,

307

Kings, battle of the, 37, 38

Theft, punishment of, 221

Tibet, Buddhism in, in the seventh cen-
tury A. D., 280

Tissa, son of Moggali, 319

Tonsure, ceremony of, 247

Towns, stone-built, 27

Plan of, in Brahmanic and Epic peri-

ods, 150
Transmigration of souls, 308

Doctrine of, 179
Extract concerning, in the Brihadaran-
yaka Upanishad, 179-180
According to Sankhya philosophy, 256-
267
In Nyaya philosophy, 263-264

According to Vedanta philosophy, 271
Travel, maritime, not forbidden in an-
cient India, 50

Treta age, 136

Triad of the Buddhists, 299

Tribes, chiefs of, as kings, 5

Five, of the Panjab, 50
Indian, number of, one hundred and

eighteen, 216

Trisaa, mother of Mahavira, 323

Tura, son of Kavasha, 132

Twice-born men, caste of, 136-137

U

Udgatris, Vedic priests, duties of, 87

Ugrasena, father of Yudhamsraushti,
132
Uma Haimavati, a female theologian,
170
Universal soul, doctrine of, in the Upan-
ishads, 172-176

Upali, convert to Buddhism, 293-295

Upanishads, 172

Compilation of, 85
Number and enumeration of principal,
96
Contain religious speculations of the
warrior caste, 114
Doctrines of, 172
Pantheism in, 173
Passage of Schopenhauer on, 183
Continued by Vedanta philosophy, 271

Basic concept of, 276
Uruvela, place of Buddha's residence for
six years, 289
Ushas, goddess of dawn, 75
Hymn to, in the Rig- Veda, 76-76

Uttara Kurus, 98

V

Vaidehas, Hindu nation, explained as a
caste, 231
Vaisali, capital of Lichchhavis, 284
Buddhist council at, 318-319
Vaisya caste, 136

Rise of the, 84
Undivided in Philosophic period, 232

Occupations of the, 232-233
Vali, king among the non-Aryans, 121

Brother of Sugriva, 121

Killed by Rama, 121
Valabhi, council of, records the scriptures

of the Svetambaras in writing about

467-67 A. D., 325
Valmiki, the reputed author of the Rama-

yana, 120

Instructor of Rama's sons, 124
Varanavata, place of exile of the Pandava
princes, 103
Varuna, Hindu deity, 20

The sky-god, 63
Three hymns to, 63-65

An Aditya, 69
Vasishtha, Hindu legislator, 132, 222

Dharmasastra of, translation from,

230-231
Vassakara, chief minister of Ajatasatru,
299
Vayu, god of air, 72

Puraua, describes the beginnings of the

caste system, 135

Vedangas, 192-193

Vedanta philosophy, 270-273

Vedas, compilation of, 86-86
Indexes of, 193-194
Vedic hymns, study of, 1-2

Period, 4
Religion, decline of, 86, 274
Age, Hindu Aryans a united body in,
136

Religion, reaction against, 274-276

Vegetable food, 21

Vibhishana, brother of Ravana, 122

Videhas, rise of kingdom of, 82, 112-114

Most prominent kingdom of Northern
India, 114

Court of the, 143

Vijaya, conquers Ceylon, 207

Vinaya Pitaka, record of minute rules
for Buddhist monks and nuns, 282
Virata, king of, taught by the Pandava
princes, 108
Vishnu, Hindu deity, 11

An Aditya, 69
Developed into a supreme deity, 70-71

Legends of, 170
Visvamitra, hymn of, 3
First a warrior, then a priest, 37

Hymn of, to the rivers, 49

Visvavara, woman of the Vedic period, 54

Vivasvat, the rising sun, 73

Voyages, no prohibition against, in the
Rig- Veda, 20

Vratyas, 171

Vrijjians, a Turanian tribe, 298

Vritra slain by Indra, 66

W

War, 8

With the aborigines, 30
Kuru-Panchala, 83, 100
Not stopped by advance of civilization,
100
Equipment, account of, by Arrian,
213-214

Laws of, among Hindus, 214-215

Warrior caste, rise of the, 84

Warriors, Vedic, 42-43

Water, manner of obtaining, for cultiva-
tion, 16

Wealth, in Brahmanic period, 146-150

Weapons, 8
Allusions to, in the Rig- Veda, 39, 41, 42

Weaving, 25

Widow-marriage, 61

Not prohibited in Brahmanic and Epic

periods, 154

Wives and husbands in Vedic sacrifices, 52

Women take part in Vedic sacrifices, 50,

62
Freedom of, in Vedic India, 53-55
Influence of, in ancient India, 100
Absolute seclusion of, unknown in an-
cient India, 150, 151
Privileges accorded to, 151
Hold honoured place in ancient India,

151, 153-154

Worship, household, 50

Writing known in India in the Philo-
sophic period, 216

Y

Yadavas, a Hindu nation, 206-207

Yajnavalkya, discussion of, with Mai-
treyi, 161-152
Yajur-Veda, compilation of, 85, 86, 89

Brahmanas of, 93
Aranyakas of, 94, 96
Account of coronation ceremony in,
132-133
Verse from, descriptive of kingly duty,
133

Burial customs in, 166
Yama, god of the heaven of the righteous,

68
God of the dead, 73
In the Puranas, 73
Stanzas concerning older conception

of, 73
Yaska, plan of, to reduce Vedic gods to
three, 71

Yasodhara, wife of Buddha, 292

Yavanas (Greeks) explained as a caste, 230

Yoga, meaning of the word, 258

Obstacles to, 268-259

Rules to attain to, 259-260

Yudhamsraushti, son of Ugrasena, 132

Yudhisthira, one of the five Pandava

prmces, 101
Appointed crown prince, 103
Coronation ceremony of, 106
Gambling match of, 106
Becomes king, 110
Celebrates the Asvamedha ceremony,
110
Said to have subdued every monarch in

Aryan India, 110

Yueh-chi, conquer Kashmir, 321