History of Oregon Newspapers

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HISTORY OF
OREGON
NEWSPAPERS

by

GEORGE S. TURNBULL
Professor of Journalism,
University of Oregon




Binfords & Mort, Publishers

Portland, Oregon

Copyright, 1939, by Binfords & Mort

Printed in the United States of America


TO MARY LOU,

Whose understanding sympathy and helpfulness have been indispensable

PREFACE

THIS work, as many of my good friends know, has been a long time on the way. Some of the material here included was gathered as far back as 1923, not long after I had begun to edit Oregon Exchanges, a publication for Oregon newspaper folk, which was issued for 15 years by the University of Oregon School of Journalism and which was succeeded in 1932 by the present Oregon Publisher. Just when I discovered that I really was busy on this job I can't be sure. At one time Hal E. Hoss, Irl S. McSherry, and I discussed a plan to collaborate in writing Oregon's journalistic history. We were unable, because of adverse circumstances, to do this.

Dean Eric W. Allen of the School of Journalism urged me along at a time when the researching looked particularly tough. Mary Lou Burton Turnbull suggested I'd better get out this book instead of publishing an occasional monograph on phases of the sub ject. Arne G. Rae, while manager of the Oregon Newspaper Publishers Association, made bales of helpful newspaper clippings avail able. His successor, Harry S. Schenk, has been doing likewise, relieving me of a great deal of newspaper- reading.

George H. Himes, grand old man of Oregon printing, almost the sole remaining link with the old pioneer days of the territory, has been exceedingly helpful with first-hand information. Miss Nellie B. Pipes, of the Oregon Historical Society, daughter of the first president of the Oregon Editorial Association, has taken no end of trouble finding invaluable sources and bits of information, besides giving much helpful advice. Dean Alfred Powers of the General Extension Division of the Oregon State System of Higher Education, writer of history and fiction, has offered suggestion and encouragement. Professor Edmond S. Meany and Dr. L. H. Creer of the University of Washington history department gave useful help on background and methods. Dr. R. C. Clark of the University of Oregon history department has given much encouragement.

Oregon editors and publishers, present and past, have in so many cases given valuable aid at the expense of much time and trouble that it is not feasible to list them here. Some of this help is acknowledged in text and footnotes; let it be said here that this help is grate fully appreciated. To some others appreciation already has been ex pressed in person. Still others were of considerable assistance. Dorothy Dill (Mrs. Ralph Mason) helped put an alarmingly bulky and recalcitrant manuscript in shipshape for the printers! Minnie Lee, historical researcher and feature-writer, wrote that most attractive blurb for the publishers. N. W. Ayer & Co., Philadelphia, made their entire file of newspaper directories available for the copying of data. This copying was capably done by Charles M. Snyder of the University of Pennsylvania history department.

Others who aided in various ways are David Foulkes, for many years mechanical superintendent of the Oregonian; William A. Bowes, former secretary of Multnomah Typographical Union No. 58; Arthur Brock, old-time member of the union; Claire Warner Churchill; Robert C. Hall and S. Paasche of the University of Oregon Press; M. H. Douglass, University of Oregon librarian; helpful staff members of Portland, state, University, and historical society libraries; Roger Bailey, Gordon Connelly, Orval Etter, Ruth McClain, Inez King (Mrs. W. N. Herring), Margaret Veness, Lynnette Davis, Geneva Drum Manning, Ruth Gregg Case, Margaret Duniway, Jean Gulovson. I am sorry if I have neglected to mention some equally helpful friend.

Indispensable financial help in meeting necessary expenses incident to the research has been given by the General Research Council of the Oregon State System of Higher Education and is here gratefully acknowledged.

To bring this work within the reasonable limits set by the publishers it has been necessary to omit extended mention of some fairly interesting little papers, and some towns whose papers have not come down to the present are receiving only bare mention. The exclusively literary type of publication is not included in this history of news papers; for the literary publications the reader is referred to Alfred Powers' very valuable and interesting History of Oregon Literature.

Thanks again to all who have helped or wanted to help. I hope the readers will like the book.

George S. Turnbull.

University of Oregon,

Eugene, 1939

CONTENTS

I.

INTRODUCTION: General Summary
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
13

II.

THE PIONEER PERIOD.

The Spectator and Its Neighbors
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
24
Dryer and the Weekly Oregonian
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
55
Thurston, Bush, and the Statesman
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
74
The "Oregon Style"
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
81
Pioneer-Day Advertising
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
90
Early Journalism Statistics
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
105

THE STATEHOOD PERIOD.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
109
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
117
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
133
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
145
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
152
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
157
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
164
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
177
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
183
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
187
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
194
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
198

III.

JOURNALISM IN THE COUNTIES.
(Counties in chronological order of founding of their first newspapers)

1
Clackamas. 1846.
Oregon City. Birthplace
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
205
2
Washington. 1848.
The Old Mission Press. Hillsboro and Forest Grove
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
211
3
Multnomah. 1850. Mostly Portland.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
219
4
Marion. 1851.
Little Vox Populi Was First
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
220
5
Benton. 1853.
Oregon Statesman First. Avery and his "Ox"
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
225
6
Douglas. 1854.
Roseburg. Murder Mystery Built Paper
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
234
7
Jackson. 1855.
Jacksonville, Ashland, Medford. Stirring Journalism
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
246
8
Polk. 1856.
Little Eola Had First Paper. Dallas and Other Towns
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
261
9
Lane. 1856.
Eugene. Joaquin Miller, Pengra, Kincaid, Thompson
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
268
10
Wasco. 1859.
The Dalles, Army Officer First Editor
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
283
11
Linn. 1859.
Albany, Delazon Smith Pioneer Editor
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
290
12
Clatsop. 1864.
Astoria. Marine Gazette First. D. C. Ireland. O. W. Dunbar
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
301
13
Umatilla. 1865.
Pendleton and Neighbors. Jackson and the E. O.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
312
14
Yamhill. 1866.
Lafayette Led the Way, Then McMinnville
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
330
15
Grant. 1868.
Canyon City and the Whimsical Old City Journal
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
339
16
Union. 1868.
Hot Race for Lead. La Grande and Union
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
341
17
Baker. 1870.
Baker and Sumpter. Some Lively Times.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
352
18
Coos. 1873.
Marshfield and Neighbors. Press Origins Hazy
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
357
19
Lake. 1878.
Lakeview. Some Big Fire Stories.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
367
20
Curry. 1880.
Upton First Publisher. Gold Beach, Port Orford
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
372
21
Columbia. 1880.
St. Helens, Rainier, Clatskanie
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
377
22
Crook. 1880.
Prineville. Much Merging of Papers
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
384
23.
Lincoln. 1882.
Yaquina and the Editorial Association. Newport, Toledo
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
385
24.
Morrow.
Heppner and Its One Big Story
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
392
25.
Wallowa. 1884.
Enterprise, Wallowa, Joseph. Newspapers Shifted About
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
396
26.
Klamath. 1884.
Linkville. Klamath and Neighbors. Hot Newspaper Warfare
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
400
27.
Josephine. 1885.
Grants Pass. Courier Man Real Veteran
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
412
28.
Harney. 1885.
Burns. Early Byrds Still There
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
417
29.
Wheeler. 1885.
Fossil. Land Notices Attract Publisher
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
422
30.
Malheur. 1887.
Ontario and Vale. Some Lively Old-Timers
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
423
31.
Tillamook and Its Neighbors. Headlight Was First
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
429
32.
Hood River. 1889.
Cradlebaugh and the Glacier. The Pacemaking News
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
433
33.
Gilliam. 1891.
Arlington and Condon
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
436
34.
Sherman. 1891.
Moro, Wasco, Grass Valley. Shifting and Consolidation
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
438
35.
Deschutes. 1903.
Bend and Redmond. Log Hut Paper's First Home
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
441
36.
Jefferson. 1904.
Madras. Newspaper Born in a Tent
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
446


IV.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
448

Malone, Ireland, Hicks, and the Rest
Evolution of Newswriting

V.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
472

VI.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
477

VII.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
484

First Horserace Story Was Slow. Early Pugilism. Baseball Writing Grew. Pedestrianism. Criket. Billiards. Yachting. Football. Golf. Development of the Sports Editor.

VIII.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
523

IX.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
526


This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was legally published within the United States (or the United Nations Headquarters in New York subject to Section 7 of the United States Headquarters Agreement) before 1964, and copyright was not renewed.

For Class A renewals records (books only) published between 1923 and 1963, check the Stanford University Copyright Renewal Database.
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