History of the Saracens/Tabular view
THE HISTORY OF THE SARACENS,
In continuation of Ockley.
DYNASTY OF THE OMMIADES.
(For Table of the previous Caliphs, see commencement of volume.)
6. Walid I. An. Hej. 86-96. a.d. 705-715.
- Musa reduces the Berbes in Africa, and subdues Mauritania and the whole northern coast. Victory of Catibah over the Turks. Conquest of Bokhara and Samarcand. Expedition into India. Conquest of Spain.
7. Soliman. An. Hej. 96-99. a.d. 715-717.
- Defeated before Constantinople, and died of grief.
8. Omar II. An. Hej. 99-101. a.d. 717-720.
- Endeavoured to reconcile the sects of Omar and Ali, and died of poison.
9. Yezid II. An. Hej. 101-105. a.d. 720-724.
- His generals successful, but he gives up his life to pleasure.
10. Hashem. An. Hej. 105-125. a.d. 724-743.
- Armenia, and the Khozens of the Caucasus, subdued. Charles Martel checks the conquests of the Arabs in the west. Rise of the Abassides.
11. Walid II. An. Hej. 125, 126. a.d. 743, 744.
- Of a voluptuous disposition, and slain in his palace by conspirators.
12. Yezid III. An. Hej. 126. a.d. 744.
- Reigned five months, and died of the plague.
13. Ibrahim. An. Hej. 126. a.d. 744.
- Deposed by Merwan after a reign of three months.
14. Merwan II. An. Hej. 127-132. a.d. 744-750.
- The Abassides make head in Khorassan, under the brothers Ibrahim and Abul-Abbas; and refuse to acknowledge Merwan. The latter, after being defeated on the banks of the Zab, flees into Egypt, whither he is followed by Abdallah, and, in another battle on the banks of the Nile, is defeated and slain.
DYNASTY OF THE ABASSIDES.
An. Hej. 132-656. a.d. 750-1258. Thirty-seven Caliphs.
1. Abul-Abbas. An. Hej. 132-136. a.d. 750-754.
- The fourth in descent from Abbas, the uncle of Mohammed.
2. Al Mansur. An. Hej.. 136-158. a.d. 754-775.
- Destroys the cities of Ctesiphon and Seleucis, and founds Bagdad, which becomes the seat of the caliphs and the centre of commerce. In these two reigns all the Ommiades are put to death except Abdarrhaman, who escapes, and founds the dynasty of the Ommiades in Spain, which is lost to the caliphate, a.d. 755.
3. Al Mardi. An. Hej. 158-169. a.d. 775-785.
- Expends 666,000 gold crowns in a pilgrimage to Mecca. Haroun Al Rashid pushes as far as Nicomedia, on the sea of Marmara, and compels the Empress Irene to pay a yearly tribute of 70,000 dinars in gold.
4. Al Hadi. An. Hej. 169, 170. a.d. 785, 786.
5. Haroun Al Rashid (“Aaron the Sage, ” —the celebrated hero of the Arabian Nights). An. Hej.. 170-193. a.d. 786-809.
- He was the friend and patron of learning-was always surrounded by “learned men, and never built a mosque without attaching a school to it. Haroun sends an embassy to Charlemagne: among the presents is an hydraulic clock. Defeats the Greeks, ravages Asia Minor, captures Cyprus, and compels Nicephorus to pay tribute.
- A flourishing period of Arabian astronomy, poetry, philosophy, architecture, and general literature.
- Dynasty of the Aglabites founded at Kairwan and Tunis, a.d. 800-941. Edrisites at Fez, a.d. 808-908.
6. Al Amin. An. Hej. 193-198. a.d. 809-813.
7. Al Mamun. An. Hej. 198-218. a.d. 813-833.
- Augustan period of Arabian literature. First dismemberment of the Arabian monarchy in the east. A band of Spanish Arabs take Crete. Euphemius invites the Saracens of Africa into Sicily—they take Palermo.
- Dynasty of the Taherites founded at Khorassan, a.d. 820-872.
8. Al Motassem. An. Hej. 218-227. a.d. 833-841.
- Builds Saumara, which he makes the seat of government. Wars with Theophilus—their savage character. Turkish captives formed into the body guards of the caliphs. Gradual decline of the caliphate.
9. Al Wathek. An. Hej. 227-232. a.d. 841-847.
10. Al Motawakkel. An. Hej. 232-247. a.d. 847-861.
- A persecutor of the Jews and Christians, whom he compels to wear broad belts of leather to distinguish them from Mussulmans.
- Motawakkel was a tyrant, and trusted to his Turkish guard, who subsequently murdered him, and placed his son on the throne. After this act of treason they disposed of the throne at their pleasure.
11. Al Mostanser. An. Hej. 247, 248. a.d. 861, 862.
12. Al Mostain. An. Hej. 248-252. a.d. 862-866.
13. Al Motaz. An. Hej. 252-255. a.d. 866-869.
14. Al Mohtadi. An. Hej. 255-256. a.d. 869-870.
15. Al Motamed. An. Hej. 256-279. a.d. 870-892.
- Re-establishes the capital at Bagdad, and reduces the strength and power of the Turkish guards.
- Taherites overthrown, and Saffarian dynasty founded, by Yakub Ebn Seis, in Persia, a.d. 872.
- Carmathians, or Karamites, in Eastern Arabia, a.d. 890-951. A set of fanatics who declare eternal war against the pomp of the court of Bagdad.
16. Al Motadhed. An. Hej. 279-289. a.d. 892-902.
- Turkistan independent under Ismail Samani, a.d. 892. He conquers Persia.
17. Al Moktafi. An. Hej. 289-295. a.d. 902-908.
- The caravan to Mecca plundered by the Karamites, and 20,000 pilgrims slain.
- Ismael Samani conquers Persia.
18. Al Moktader. An. Hej. 295-320. a.d. 908-932.
- A dissolute prince, who leaves the government to his ministers. The Karamites, under Taher, storm and plunder Mecca.
- Fatimites in Egypt, a.d. 908. Mohammed Al Mahdi, descended from Hosein, the son of Ali and Fatima, whence the race is called Fatimite, claims the caliphate in Western Africa, and subverts the Aglabite and Edrisite dynasties.
19. Al Kaher. An. Hej. 320-322. a.d. 932-934.
- Blinded and deposed.
- Insurrections in Persia end in the elevation of Imad Al Daulah, who founds the Buyide, or Deylimite Dynasty, a.d. 983-1056. Under their sway the language and genius of Persia revive.
20. Al Radhi. An. Hej. 322-329. a.d. 934-940.
- An annual tribute of 50,000 dinars paid to the Karamites. Radhi was the last caliph who was invested with any considerable spiritual or temporal power; “the last,” says Abulfeda, “who harangued the people from the pulpit, who passed the cheerful hours of leisure with men of learning and taste; whose expenses, resources, and treasures, whose table or magnificence, had any resemblance to those of the ancient caliphs.”
21. Al Motaki. An. Hej. 329-333. a.d. 940-944.
22. Al Mostakfi. An. Hej. 333, 334. a.d. 944, 945.
- Ahmed, the Buyide, establishes himself vizier of the caliph at Bagdad, and he and his descendants, under the title of Emir Al Omra, engross all political power.
23. Al Moti. An. Hej. 334-363. a.d. 945-974.
- Maiz Ad Din, fourth Fatimite caliph, subdues all Africa and Egypt, and builds Cairo, a.d. 958-972.
- Principality of Ghizni established, a.d. 961.
24. Al Tai. An. Hej. 363-381. a.d. 974-991. Deposed.
25. Al Kader. An. Hej.. 381-422. a.d. 991-1031.
- A just and pious prince. Mahmud, sultan of Ghizni, a.d. 997-1028, makes twelve expeditions into Hindustan, and enriches Ghizni with the spoil. Patronizes literature. Ferdusi, the Persian Homer, about a.d. 1020—Shahnameh of 60,000 distiches. Ghizni declines after a.d. 1032, and is confined to India; falls, 1183.
- Rise of the Seljukian Turks.
26. Al Kaim. An. Hej. 422-467. a.d. 1031-1075.
- Toghrel Beg, grandson of Seljuk, subdues and conquers Persia; takes Bagdad, marries the daughter of Al Kaim, and becomes Emir Al Omrah.
27. Al Moktadi. An. Hej. 467-487. a.d. 1075-1094.
- Rise of Hassan Jubah, of Nishapur (old man of the mountain): his followers, called Assassins, numerous in Persia and Syria.
- Seljuks in Syria, under Shah, capture Jerusalem; insult, rob, and oppress the Christian pilgrims—a cause of the Crusades. Melek dies, a.d. 1092; his kingdom is divided, and the Seljukian power declines.
28. Al Mortader. An. Hej. 487-512. a.d. 1094-1118.
- Egypt. Mustali, the eighth Fatimite caliph, takes Jerusalem, a.d. 1096. Loses it to the Crusaders, a.d. 1099. Godfrey of Bouillon elected king of Jerusalem, Bohemond, prince of Antioch, Joscelyn, prince of Edessa. Acre taken, a.d. 1104. Tripolis taken, a.d. 1109. Berytus and Sidon, a.d. 1111.
29. Al Mostarshed. An. Hej. 512-529. a.d. 1118-1135.
- Murdered by the Assassins.
30. Al Rashid. An. Hej. 529-530. a.d. 1135-1136.
- Defends Bagdad against the Turks, but is murdered by the Assassins.
31. Al Moktafi. An. Hej. 530-555. a.d. 1136-1160.
- Defeated and taken by the Ghuz, a rebellious tribe of Turks in Balkh. He is carried about in an iron cage. Escapes and dies at Mene, a.d. 1157.
- The Second Crusade, a.d. 1146.
32. Al Mostanjed. An. Hej. 555-566. a.d. 1160-1170.
- Great disorders in Persia; the governors of provinces assume independence, and contend with each other for supremacy.
33. Al Mostadhi. An. Hej. 566-575. a.d. 1170-1180.
- Proclaimed caliph in Egypt by Saladin.
- Saladin, sultan of Egypt, conquers Syria, Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Arabia.
34. Al Naser. An. Hej. 575-622. a.d. 1180-1225.
- The Assassins murder many eminent men, both Mohammedans and Christians.
- Saladin directs his attention against the Crusaders. Gains the victory of Tiberias, a.d. 1187. Captures Jerusalem, which leads to the Third Crusade, in which Richard Cœur de Lion, Philip Augustus, and Frederic Barbarossa engage. Richard defeats Saladin at Azotus, storms Jaffa, and concludes an honourable peace. Saladin dies, a.d. 1193; his dominions divided.
- Conquests of Jengiz Khan, a.d. 1206-1227, Khan of the Mongols.
35. Al Zaher. An. Hej. 622, 623. a.d. 1225, 1226. Reigns a few months.
36. Al Mostanser. An. Hej. 623-640. a.d. 1226-1240.
- Persia subject to the Mongols, but the native princes suffered to rule as feudatories.
37. Al Mostasem. An. Hej.. 640-656. a.d. 1240-1258.
- Houlakou, grandson of Jengiz Khan, enters Persia, and becomes sultan, a.d. 1256-1265. Destroys the last of the Assassins. Takes Bagdad (1,600,000 killed at its capture), and puts the caliph, Mostasem, to death, a.d. 1258. End of the Caliphate of Bagdad.
- The uncle of the last caliph went to Egypt, a.d. 1261, where the caliphate continued as a spiritual power till a.d. 1577.