[ A ] - [ B ] - [ C ] - [ D ] - [ E ] - [ F ] - [ G ] - [ H ] - [ I ] - [ J ] - [ K ] - [ L ] - [ M ] - [ N ] - [ O ] - [ P ] - [ Q ] - [ R ] - [ S ] - [ T ] - [ U ] - [ V ] - [ W ] - [ X ] - [ Y ] - [ Z ]
WORDS AND PHRASES
"Utque novis facilis signatur cera figuris,
Nec manet ut fuerat, nec formas servat easdem,
Sed tamen ipsa eadem est; VOCEM sic semper eandem
Esse, sed in varias doceo migrare figuras."
Ovid. Metamorph. xv. 169-172 (adapt.).
"Haec, si displicui, fuerint solatia nobis:
Haec fuerint nobis praemia, si placui."
Martialis, Epigr. II. xci.
A GLOSSARY OF COLLOQUIAL
ANGLO-INDIAN WORDS AND
PHRASES, AND OF KINDRED
TERMS, ETYMOLOGICAL, HISTORICAL,
BY COL. HENRY YULE, R.E., C.B.
AND A. C. BURNELL, Ph.D., C.I.E.
NEW EDITION EDITED BY
WILLIAM CROOKE, B.A.
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET
[Dedication to Sir George Udny Yule, C.B., K.C.S.I.]
G. U. Y.
FRATRI OPTIMO DILECTISSIMO
HOC TRIUM FERME LUSTRORUM
OBLECTAMENTUM ET SOLATIUM
NEC PARVI LABORIS OPUS
The objects and scope of this work are explained in the Introductory Remarks which follow the Preface. Here it is desired to say a few words as to its history.
The book originated in a correspondence between the present writer, who was living at Palermo, and the late lamented Arthur Burnell, of the Madras Civil Service, one of the most eminent of modern Indian scholars, who during the course of our communications was filling judicial offices in Southern and Western India, chiefly at Tanjore. We had then met only once—at the India Library; but he took a kindly interest in work that engaged me, and this led to an exchange of letters, which went on after his return to India. About 1872—I cannot find his earliest reference to the subject—he mentioned that he was contemplating a vocabulary of Anglo-Indian words, and had made some collections with that view. In reply it was stated that I likewise had long been taking note of such words, and that a notion similar to his own had also been at various times floating in my mind. And I proposed that we should combine our labours.
I had not, in fact, the linguistic acquirements needful for carrying through such an undertaking alone; but I had gone through an amount of reading that would largely help in instances and illustrations, and had also a strong natural taste for the kind of work.
This was the beginning of the portly double-columned edifice which now presents itself, the completion of which my friend has not lived to see. It was built up from our joint contributions till his untimely death in 1882, and since then almost daily additions have continued to be made to the material and to the structure. The subject, indeed, had taken so comprehensive a shape, that it was becoming difficult to say where its limits lay, or why it shouldever end, except for the old reason which had received such poignant illustration: Ars longa, vita brevis. And so it has been wound up at last.
The work has been so long the companion of my horae subsicivae, a thread running through the joys and sorrows of so many years, in the search for material first, and then in their handling and adjustment to the edifice—for their careful building up has been part of my duty from the beginning, and the whole of the matter has, I suppose, been written and re-written with my own hand at least four times—and the work has been one of so much interest to dear friends, of whom not a few are no longer here to welcome its appearance in print, that I can hardly speak of the work except as mine.
Indeed, in bulk, nearly seven-eighths of it is so. But Burnell contributed so much of value, so much of the essential; buying, in the search for illustration, numerous rare and costly books which were not otherwise accessible to him in India; setting me, by his example, on lines of research with which I should have else possibly remained unacquainted; writing letters with such fulness, frequency, and interest on the details of the work up to the summer of his death; that the measure of bulk in contribution is no gauge of his share in the result.
In the Life of Frank Buckland occur some words in relation to the church-bells of Ross, in Herefordshire, which may with some aptness illustrate our mutual relation to the book:
John Kyrle's was the most precious part of the metal run into the mould, but the shaping of the mould and the larger part of the material came from the labour of another hand.
At an early period of our joint work Burnell sent me a fragment of an essay on the words which formed our subject, intended as the basis of an introduction. As it stands, this is too incomplete to print, but I have made use of it to some extent, and given some extracts from it in the Introduction now put forward.
The alternative title (Hobson-Jobson) which has been given to this book (not without the expressed assent of my collaborator), doubtless requires explanation.
A valued friend of the present writer many years ago published a book, of great acumen and considerable originality, which he called Three Essays, with no Author's name; and the resulting amount of circulation was such as might have been expected. It was remarked at the time by another friend that if the volume had been entitled A Book, by a Chap, it would have found a much larger body of readers. It seemed to me that A Glossary or A Vocabulary would be equally unattractive, and that it ought to have an alternative title at least a little more characteristic. If the reader will turn to Hobson-Jobson in the Glossary itself, he will find that phrase, though now rare and moribund, to be a typical and delightful example of that class of Anglo-Indian argot which consists of Oriental words highly assimilated, perhaps by vulgar lips, to the English vernacular; whilst it is the more fitted to our book, conveying, as it may, a veiled intimation of dual authorship. At any rate, there it is; and at this period my feeling has come to be that such is the book's name, nor could it well have been anything else.
In carrying through the work I have sought to supplement my own deficiencies from the most competent sources to which friendship afforded access. Sir Joseph Hooker has most kindly examined almost every one of the proof-sheets for articles dealing with plants, correcting their errors, and enriching them with notes of his own. Another friend, Professor Robertson Smith, has done the like for words of Semitic origin, and to him I owe a variety of interesting references to the words treated of, in regard to their occurrence, under some cognate form, in the Scriptures. In the early part of the book the Rev. George Moule (now Bishop of Ningpo), then in England, was good enough to revise those articles which bore on expressions used in China (not the first time that his generous aid had been given to work of mine). Among other friends who have been ever ready with assistance I may mention Dr. Reinhold Rost, of the India Library; General Robert Maclagan, R.E.; Sir George Birdwood, C.S.I.; Major-General R. H. Keatinge, V.C., C.S.I.; Professor Terrien de la Couperie; and Mr. E. Colborne Baber, at present Consul-General in Corea. Dr. J. A. H. Murray, editor of the great English Dictionary, has also been most kind and courteous in the interchange of communications, a circumstance which will account for a few cases in which the passages cited in both works are the same.
My first endeavour in preparing this work has been to make it accurate; my next to make it—even though a Glossary—interesting. In a work intersecting so many fields, only a fool could imagine that he had not fallen into many mistakes; but these when pointed out, may be amended. If I have missed the other object of endeavour, I fear there is little to be hoped for from a second edition.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
The twofold hope expressed in the closing sentence of Sir Henry Yule's Preface to the original Edition of this book has been amply justified. More recent research and discoveries have, of course, brought to light a good deal of information which was not accessible to him, but the general accuracy of what he wrote has never been seriously impugned—while those who have studied the pages of Hobson-Jobson have agreed in classing it as unique among similar works of reference, a volume which combines interest and amusement with instruction, in a manner which few other Dictionaries, if any, have done.
In this edition of the Anglo-Indian Glossary the original text has been reprinted, any additions made by the Editor being marked by square brackets. No attempt has been made to extend the vocabulary, the new articles being either such as were accidentally omitted in the first edition, or a few relating to words which seemed to correspond with the general scope of the work. Some new quotations have been added, and some of those included in the original edition have been verified and new references given. An index to words occurring in the quotations has been prepared.
I have to acknowledge valuable assistance from many friends. Mr. W. W. Skeat has read the articles on Malay words, and has supplied many notes. Col. Sir R. Temple has permitted me to use several of his papers on Anglo-Indian words, and has kindly sent me advance sheets of that portion of the Analytical Index to the first edition by Mr. C. Partridge, which is being published in the Indian Antiquary. Mr. R. S. Whiteway has given me numerous extracts from Portuguese writers; Mr. W. Foster, quotations from unpublished records in the India Office; Mr. W. Irvine, notes on the later Moghul period. For valuable suggestions and information on disputed points I am indebted to Mr. H. Beveridge, Sir G. Birdwood, Mr. J. Brandt, Prof. E. G. Browne, Mr. M. Longworth Dames, Mr. G. R. Dampier, Mr. Donald Ferguson, Mr. C. T. Gardner, the late Mr. E. J. W. Gibb, Prof. H. A. Giles, Dr. G. A. Grierson, Mr. T. M. Horsfall, Mr. L. W. King, Mr. J. L. Myres, Mr. J. Platt, jun., Prof. G. U. Pope, Mr. V. A. Smith, Mr. C. H. Tawney, and Mr. J. Weir.
|Dedication to Sir George Yule, C.B., K.C.S.I.||v|
|Preface to Second Edition||xi|
|Note A. to do.||xxiii|
|Note B. "||xxv|
|Nota Bene—in the Use of the Glossary—|
|(A) Regarding Dates of Quotations||xxvi|
|(B) Regarding Transliteration||xxvi|
|Fuller Titles of Books quoted in the Glossary||xxvii|
Words of Indian origin have been insinuating themselves into English ever since the end of the reign of Elizabeth and the beginning of that of King James, when such terms as calico, chintz, and gingham had already effected a lodgment in English warehouses and shops, and were lying in wait for entrance into English literature. Such outlandish guests grew more frequent 120 years ago, when, soon after the middle of last century, the numbers of Englishmen in the Indian services, civil and military, expanded with the great acquisition of dominion then made by the Company; and we meet them in vastly greater abundance now.
Vocabularies of Indian and other foreign words, in use among Europeans in the East, have not unfrequently been printed. Several of the old travellers have attached the like to their narratives; whilst the prolonged excitement created in England, a hundred years since, by the impeachment of Hastings and kindred matters, led to the publication of several glossaries as independent works; and a good many others have been published in later days. At the end of this Introduction will be found a list of those which have come under my notice, and this might no doubt be largely added to.
Of modern Glossaries, such as have been the result of serious labour, all, or nearly all, have been of a kind purely technical, intended to facilitate the comprehension of official documents by the explanation of terms used in the Revenue department, or in other branches of Indian administration. The most notable examples are (of brief and occasional character), the Glossary appended to the famous Fifth Report of the Select Committee of 1812, which was compiled by Sir Charles Wilkins; and (of a far more vast and comprehensive sort), the late Professor Horace Hayman Wilson's Glossary of Judicial and Revenue Terms (4to, 1855) which leaves far behind every other attempt in that kind.
That kind is, however, not ours, as a momentary comparison of a page or two in each Glossary would suffice to show. Our work indeed, in the long course of its compilation, has gone through some modification and enlargement of scope; but hardly such as in any degree to affect its distinctive character, in which something has been aimed at differing in form from any work known to us. In its original conception it was intended to deal with all that class of words which, not in general pertaining to the technicalities of administration, recur constantly in the daily intercourse of the English in India, either as expressing ideas really not provided for byour mother-tongue, or supposed by the speakers (often quite erroneously) to express something not capable of just denotation by any English term. A certain percentage of such words have been carried to England by the constant reflux to their native shore of Anglo-Indians, who in some degree imbue with their notions and phraseology the circles from which they had gone forth. This effect has been still more promoted by the currency of a vast mass of literature, of all qualities and for all ages, dealing with Indian subjects; as well as by the regular appearance, for many years past, of Indian correspondence in English newspapers, insomuch that a considerable number of the expressions in question have not only become familiar in sound to English ears, but have become naturalised in the English language, and are meeting with ample recognition in the great Dictionary edited by Dr. Murray at Oxford.
Of words that seem to have been admitted to full franchise, we may give examples in curry, toddy, veranda, cheroot, loot, nabob, teapoy, sepoy, cowry; and of others familiar enough to the English ear, though hardly yet received into citizenship, compound, batta, pucka, chowry, baboo, mahout, aya, nautch, first-chop, competition-wallah, griffin, &c. But beyond these two classes of words, received within the last century or so, and gradually, into half or whole recognition, there are a good many others, long since fully assimilated, which really originated in the adoption of an Indian word, or the modification of an Indian proper name. Such words are the three quoted at the beginning of these remarks, chintz, calico, gingham, also shawl, bamboo, pagoda, typhoon, monsoon, mandarin, palanquin, &c., and I may mention among further examples which may perhaps surprise my readers, the names of three of the boats of a man-of-war, viz. the cutter, the jolly-boat, and the dingy, as all (probably) of Indian origin. Even phrases of a different character—slang indeed, but slang generally supposed to be vernacular as well as vulgar—e.g. 'that is the cheese'; or supposed to be vernacular and profane—e.g. 'I don't care a dam'—are in reality, however vulgar they may be, neither vernacular nor profane, but phrases turning upon innocent Hindustani vocables.
We proposed also, in our Glossary, to deal with a selection of those administrative terms, which are in such familiar and quotidian use as to form part of the common Anglo-Indian stock, and to trace all (so far as possible) to their true origin—a matter on which, in regard to many of the words, those who hourly use them are profoundly ignorant—and to follow them down by quotation from their earliest occurrence in literature.
A particular class of words are those indigenous terms which have been adopted in scientific nomenclature, botanical and zoological. On these Mr. Burnell remarks:—
"The first Indian botanical names were chiefly introduced by Garcia de Orta (Colloquios, printed at Goa in 1563), C. d'Acosta (Tractado, Burgos, 1578), and Rhede van Drakenstein (Hortus Malabaricus, Amsterdam, 1682). The Malay names were chiefly introduced by Rumphius (HerbariumAmboinense, completed before 1700, but not published till 1741). The Indian zoological terms were chiefly due to Dr. F. Buchanan, at the beginning of this century. Most of the N. Indian botanical words were introduced by Roxburgh."
It has been already intimated that, as the work proceeded, its scope expanded somewhat, and its authors found it expedient to introduce and trace many words of Asiatic origin which have disappeared from colloquial use, or perhaps never entered it, but which occur in old writers on the East. We also judged that it would add to the interest of the work, were we to investigate and make out the pedigree of a variety of geographical names which are or have been in familiar use in books on the Indies; take as examples Bombay, Madras, Guardafui, Malabar, Moluccas, Zanzibar, Pegu, Sumatra, Quilon, Seychelles, Ceylon, Java, Ava, Japan, Doab, Punjab, &c., illustrating these, like every other class of word, by quotations given in chronological series.
Other divagations still from the original project will probably present themselves to those who turn over the pages of the work, in which we have been tempted to introduce sundry subjects which may seem hardly to come within the scope of such a glossary.
The words with which we have to do, taking the most extensive view of the field, are in fact organic remains deposited under the various currents of external influence that have washed the shores of India during twenty centuries and more. Rejecting that derivation of elephant which would connect it with the Ophir trade of Solomon, we find no existing Western term traceable to that episode of communication; but the Greek and Roman commerce of the later centuries has left its fossils on both sides, testifying to the intercourse that once subsisted. Agallochum, carbasus, camphor, sandal, musk, nard, pepper (, from Skt. pippali, 'long pepper'), ginger (, see under Ginger), lac, costus, opal, malabathrum or folium indicum, beryl, sugar (, from Skt. sarkara, Prak. sakkara), rice (, but see s.v.), were products or names, introduced from India to the Greek and Roman world, to which may be added a few terms of a different character, such as , (śramaṇas, or Buddhist ascetics), (logs of teak and shīsham), the (rafts) of the Periplus (see Jangar in Gloss.); whilst dīnāra, dramma, perhaps kastīra ('tin,' ), kastūrī ('musk,' , properly a different, though analogous animal product), and a very few more, have remained in Indian literature as testimony to the same intercourse.
The trade and conquests of the Arabs both brought foreign words to India and picked up and carried westward, in form more or less corrupted, words of Indian origin, some of which have in one way or other become part of the heritage of all succeeding foreigners in the East. Among terms which are familiar items in the Anglo-Indian colloquial, but which had, in some shape or other, found their way at an early date into use on the shores of the Mediterranean, we may instance bazaar, cazee, hummaul, brinjaul, gingely, safflower, grab, maramut, dewaun (dogana, douane, &c.). Of others which are found in medieval literature, either West-Asiatic or European, and which still have a place in Anglo-Indian or English vocabulary, we may mention amber-gris, chank, junk, jogy, kincob, kedgeree, fanam, calay, bankshall, mudiliar, tindal, cranny.
 The natives in contact with the Portuguese learned a bastard variety of the language of the latter, which became the lingua franca of intercourse, not only between European and native, but occasionally between Europeans of different nationalities. This Indo-Portuguese dialect continued to serve such purposes down to a late period in the last century, and has in some localities survived down nearly to our own day. The number of people in India claiming to be of Portuguese descent was, in the 17th century, very large. Bernier, about 1660, says:—The conquests and long occupation of the Portuguese, who by the year 1540 had established themselves in all the chief ports of India and the East, have, as might have been expected, bequeathed a large number of expressions to the European nations who have followed, and in great part superseded them. We find instances of missionaries and others at an early date who had acquired a knowledge of Indian languages, but these were exceptional.
"For he (Sultan Shujā', Aurangzeb's brother) much courted all those Portugal Fathers, Missionaries, that are in that Province.... And they were indeed capable to serve him, it being certain that in the kingdom of Bengale there are to be found not less than eight or nine thousand families of Franguis, Portugals, and these either Natives or Mesticks." (Bernier, E.T. of 1684, p. 27.)
A. Hamilton, whose experience belonged chiefly to the end of the same century, though his book was not published till 1727, states:—
"Along the Sea-coasts the Portuguese have left a Vestige of their Language, tho' much corrupted, yet it is the Language that most Europeans learn first to qualify them for a general Converse with one another, as well as with the different inhabitants of India." (Preface, p. xii.)
Lockyer, who published 16 years before Hamilton, also says:—
"This they (the Portugueze) may justly boast, they have established a kind of Lingua Franca in all the Sea Ports in India, of great use to other Europeans, who would find it difficult in many places to be well understood without it." (An Account of the Trade in India, 1711, p. 286.)
The early Lutheran Missionaries in the South, who went out for the S.P.C.K., all seem to have begun by learning Portuguese, and in their diaries speak of preaching occasionally in Portuguese. The foundation of this lingua franca was the Portuguese of the beginning of the 16th century; but it must have soon degenerated, for by the beginning of the last century it had lost nearly all trace of inflexion.
It may from these remarks be easily understood how a large number of  A few examples of Hindustani words borrowed from the Portuguese are chābī ('a key'), bāola ('a portmanteau'), bāltī ('a bucket'), martol ('a hammer'), tauliya ('a towel,' Port. toalha), sābūn ('soap'), bāsan ('plate' from Port. bacia), līlām and nīlām ('an auction'), besides a number of terms used by Lascars on board ship.our Anglo-Indian colloquialisms, even if eventually traceable to native sources (and especially to Mahratti, or Dravidian originals) have come to us through a Portuguese medium, and often bear traces of having passed through that alembic. Not a few of these are familiar all over India, but the number current in the South is larger still. Some other Portuguese words also, though they can hardly be said to be recognized elements in the Anglo-Indian colloquial, have been introduced either into Hindustani generally, or into that shade of it which is in use among natives in habitual contact with Europeans. Of words which are essentially Portuguese, among Anglo-Indian colloquialisms, persistent or obsolete, we may quote goglet, gram, plantain, muster, caste, peon, padre, mistry or maistry, almyra, aya, cobra, mosquito, pomfret, cameez, palmyra, still in general use; picotta, rolong, pial, fogass, margosa, preserved in the South; batel, brab, foras, oart, vellard in Bombay; joss, compradore, linguist in the ports of China; and among more or less obsolete terms, Moor, for a Mahommedan, still surviving under the modified form Moorman, in Madras and Ceylon; Gentoo, still partially kept up, I believe, at Madras in application to the Telugu language, mustees, castees, bandeja ('a tray'), Kittysol ('an umbrella,' and this survived ten years ago in the Calcutta customs tariff), cuspadore ('a spittoon'), and covid ('a cubit or ell'). Words of native origin which bear the mark of having come to us through the Portuguese may be illustrated by such as palanquin, mandarin, mangelin (a small weight for pearls, &c.), monsoon, typhoon, mango, mangosteen, jack-fruit, batta, curry, chop, congee, coir, cutch, catamaran, cassanar, nabob, avadavat, betel, areca, benzoin, corge, copra.
The Dutch language has not contributed much to our store. The Dutch and the English arrived in the Indies contemporaneously, and though both inherited from the Portuguese, we have not been the heirs of the Dutch to any great extent, except in Ceylon, and even there Portuguese vocables had already occupied the colloquial ground. Petersilly, the word in general use in English families for 'parsley,' appears to be Dutch. An example from Ceylon that occurs to memory is burgher. The Dutch admitted people of mixt descent to a kind of citizenship, and these were distinguished from the pure natives by this term, which survives. Burgher in Bengal means 'a rafter,' properly bargā. A word spelt and pronounced in the same way had again a curiously different application in Madras, where it was a corruption of Vaḍagar, the name given to a tribe in the Nilgherry hills;—to say nothing of Scotland, where Burghers and Antiburghers were Northern tribes (veluti Gog et Magog!) which have long been condensed into elements of the United Presbyterian Church——!
Southern India has contributed to the Anglo-Indian stock words that are in hourly use also from Calcutta to Peshawur (some of them already noted under another cleavage), e.g. betel, mango, jack, cheroot, mungoose, pariah, bandicoot, teak, patcharee, chatty, catechu, tope ('a grove'), curry, mulligatawny, congee. Mamooty (a digging tool) is familiar in certain branches of theservice, owing to its having long had a place in the nomenclature of the Ordnance department. It is Tamil, manvĕtti, 'earth-cutter.' Of some very familiar words the origin remains either dubious, or matter only for conjecture. Examples are hackery (which arose apparently in Bombay), florican, topaz.
As to Hindustani words adopted into the Anglo-Indian colloquial the subject is almost too wide and loose for much remark. The habit of introducing these in English conversation and writing seems to prevail more largely in the Bengal Presidency than in any other, and especially more than in Madras, where the variety of different vernaculars in use has tended to make their acquisition by the English less universal than is in the north that of Hindustani, which is so much easier to learn, and also to make the use in former days of Portuguese, and now of English, by natives in contact with foreigners, and of French about the French settlements, very much more common than it is elsewhere. It is this bad habit of interlarding English with Hindustani phrases which has so often excited the just wrath of high English officials, not accustomed to it from their youth, and which (e.g.) drew forth in orders the humorous indignation of Sir Charles Napier.
One peculiarity in this use we may notice, which doubtless exemplifies some obscure linguistic law. Hindustani verbs which are thus used are habitually adopted into the quasi-English by converting the imperative into an infinitive. Thus to bunow, to lugow, to foozilow, to puckarow, to dumbcow, to sumjow, and so on, almost ad libitum, are formed as we have indicated.
It is curious to note that several of our most common adoptions are due to what may be most especially called the Oordoo (Urdū) or 'Camp' language, being terms which the hosts of Chinghiz brought from the steppes of North Eastern Asia—e.g. "The old Bukshee is an awful bahadur, but he keeps a first-rate bobachee." That is a sentence which might easily have passed without remark at an Anglo-Indian mess-table thirty years ago—perhaps might be heard still. Each of the outlandish terms embraced in it came from the depths of Mongolia in the thirteenth century. Chick (in the sense of a cane-blind), daroga, oordoo itself, are other examples.
With the gradual assumption of administration after the middle of last century, we adopted into partial colloquial use an immense number of terms, very many of them Persian or Arabic, belonging to technicalities of revenue and other departments, and largely borrowed from our Mahommedan predecessors. Malay has contributed some of our most familiar expressions, owing partly to the ceaseless rovings among the Eastern coasts of the Portuguese, through whom a part of these reached us, and partly doubtless to the fact that our early dealings and the sites of our early factories lay much more on the shores of the Eastern Archipelago than on those of Continental India. Paddy, godown, compound, bankshall, rattan, durian, a-muck, prow, and cadjan, junk, crease, are some of these. It is true that several of them may be traced eventually to Indian originals, but it seems not the less certain that we got them through the Malay, just as we got words already indicated through the Portuguese.
We used to have a very few words in French form, such as boutique and mort-de-chien. But these two are really distortions of Portuguese words.
A few words from China have settled on the Indian shores and been adopted by Anglo-India, but most of them are, I think, names of fruits orother products which have been imported, such as loquot, leechee, chow-chow, cumquat, ginseng, &c. and (recently) jinrickshaw. For it must be noted that a considerable proportion of words much used in Chinese ports, and often ascribed to a Chinese origin, such as mandarin, junk, chop, pagoda, and (as I believe) typhoon (though this is a word much debated) are not Chinese at all, but words of Indian languages, or of Malay, which have been precipitated in Chinese waters during the flux and reflux of foreign trade.
Within my own earliest memory Spanish dollars were current in England at a specified value if they bore a stamp from the English mint. And similarly there are certain English words, often obsolete in Europe, which have received in India currency with a special stamp of meaning; whilst in other cases our language has formed in India new compounds applicable to new objects or shades of meaning. To one or other of these classes belong outcry, buggy, home, interloper, rogue (-elephant), tiffin, furlough, elk, roundel ('an umbrella,' obsolete), pish-pash, earth-oil, hog-deer, flying-fox, garden-house, musk-rat, nor-wester, iron-wood, long-drawers, barking-deer, custard-apple, grass-cutter, &c.
Other terms again are corruptions, more or less violent, of Oriental words and phrases which have put on an English mask. Such are maund, fool's rack, bearer, cot, boy, belly-band, Penang-lawyer, buckshaw, goddess (in the Malay region, representing Malay gādīs, 'a maiden'), compound, college-pheasant, chopper, summer-head, eagle-wood, jackass-copal, bobbery, Upper Roger (used in a correspondence given by Dalrymple, for Yuva Raja, the 'Young King,' or Caesar, of Indo-Chinese monarchies), Isle-o'-Bats (for Allahābād or Ilahābāz as the natives often call it), hobson-jobson (see Preface), St. John's. The last proper name has at least three applications. There is "St. John's" in Guzerat, viz. Sanjān, the landing-place of the Parsee immigration in the 8th century; there is another "St. John's" which is a corruption of Shang-Chuang, the name of that island off the southern coast of China whence the pure and ardent spirit of Francis Xavier fled to a better world: there is the group of "St. John's Islands" near Singapore, the chief of which is properly Pulo-Sikajang.
Yet again we have hybrids and corruptions of English fully accepted and adopted as Hindustani by the natives with whom we have to do, such as simkin, port-shrāb, brandy-pānī, apīl, rasīd, tumlet (a tumbler), gilās ('glass,' for drinking vessels of sorts), rail-ghārī, lumber-dār, jail-khāna, bottle-khāna, buggy-khāna, 'et omne quod exit in' khāna, including gymkhāna, a very modern concoction (q.v.), and many more.
Taking our subject as a whole, however considerable the philological interest attaching to it, there is no disputing the truth of a remark with which Burnell's fragments of intended introduction concludes, and the application of which goes beyond the limit of those words which can be considered to have 'accrued as additions to the English language': "Considering the long intercourse with India, it is noteworthy that the additions which have thus accrued to the English language are, from the intellectual standpoint, of no intrinsic value. Nearly all the borrowed words refer to material facts, or to peculiar customs and stages of society, and, though a few of them furnish allusions to the penny-a-liner, they do not represent new ideas."
It is singular how often, in tracing to their origin words that come within the field of our research, we light upon an absolute dilemma, or bifurcation, i.e. on two or more sources of almost equal probability, and in themselvesentirely diverse. In such cases it may be that, though the use of the word originated from one of the sources, the existence of the other has invigorated that use, and contributed to its eventual diffusion.
An example of this is boy, in its application to a native servant. To this application have contributed both the old English use of boy (analogous to that of puer, garçon, Knabe) for a camp-servant, or for a slave, and the Hindī-Marāṭhī bhoi, the name of a caste which has furnished palanquin and umbrella-bearers to many generations of Europeans in India. The habitual use of the word by the Portuguese, for many years before any English influence had touched the shores of India (e.g. bóy de sombrero, bóy d'aguoa, bóy de palanquy), shows that the earliest source was the Indian one.
Cooly, in its application to a carrier of burdens, or performer of inferior labour, is another example. The most probable origin of this is from a nomen gentile, that of the Kolīs, a hill-people of Guzerat and the Western Ghats (compare the origin of slave). But the matter is perplexed by other facts which it is difficult to connect with this. Thus, in S. India, there is a Tamil word kūli, in common use, signifying 'daily hire or wages,' which H. H. Wilson regards as the true origin of the word which we call cooly. Again, both in Oriental and Osmali Turkish, kol is a word for a slave, and in the latter also there is kūleh, 'a male slave, a bondsman.' Khol is, in Tibetan also, a word for a slave or servant.
Tank, for a reservoir of water, we are apt to derive without hesitation, from stagnum, whence Sp. estanc, old Fr. estang, old Eng. and Lowland Scotch stank, Port. tanque, till we find that the word is regarded by the Portuguese themselves as Indian, and that there is excellent testimony to the existence of tānkā in Guzerat and Rajputana as an indigenous word, and with a plausible Sanskrit etymology.
Veranda has been confidently derived by some etymologists (among others by M. Defréméry, a distinguished scholar) from the Pers. barāmada, 'a projection,' a balcony; an etymology which is indeed hardly a possible one, but has been treated by Mr. Beames (who was evidently unacquainted with the facts that do make it hardly possible) with inappropriate derision, he giving as the unquestionable original a Sanskrit word baraṇḍa, 'a portico.' On this Burnell has observed that the word does not belong to the older Sanskrit, but is only found in comparatively modern works. Be that as it may, it need not be doubted that the word veranda, as used in England and France, was imported from India, i.e. from the usage of Europeans in India; but it is still more certain that either in the same sense, or in one closely allied, the word existed, quite independent of either Sanskrit or Persian, in Portuguese and Spanish, and the manner in which it occurs in the very earliest narrative of the Portuguese adventure to India (Roteiro do Viagem de Vasco da Gama, written by one of the expedition of 1497), confirmed by the Hispano-Arabic vocabulary of Pedro de Alcalà, printed in 1505, preclude the possibility of its having been adopted by the Portuguese from intercourse with India.
Mangrove, John Crawfurd tells us, has been adopted from the Malay manggi-manggi, applied to trees of the genus Rhizophora. But we learn from Oviedo, writing early in the sixteenth century, that the name mangle was applied by the natives of the Spanish Main to trees of the same, or a kindred genus, on the coast of S. America, which same mangle is undoubtedly the parent of the French manglier, and not improbably therefore of the English form mangrove.
The words bearer, mate, cotwal, partake of this kind of dual or doubtful ancestry, as may be seen by reference to them in the Glossary.
Before concluding, a word should be said as to the orthography used in the Glossary.
My intention has been to give the headings of the articles under the most usual of the popular, or, if you will, vulgar quasi-English spellings, whilst the Oriental words, from which the headings are derived or corrupted, are set forth under precise transliteration, the system of which is given in a following "Nota Bene." When using the words and names in the course of discursive elucidation, I fear I have not been consistent in sticking either always to the popular or always to the scientific spelling, and I can the better understand why a German critic of a book of mine, once upon a time, remarked upon the etwas schwankende yulische Orthographie. Indeed it is difficult, it never will for me be possible, in a book for popular use, to adhere to one system in this matter without the assumption of an ill-fitting and repulsive pedantry. Even in regard to Indian proper names, in which I once advocated adhesion, with a small number of exceptions, to scientific precision in transliteration, I feel much more inclined than formerly to sympathise with my friends Sir William Muir and General Maclagan, who have always favoured a large and liberal recognition of popular spelling in such names. And when I see other good and able friends following the scientific Will-o'-the-Wisp into such bogs as the use in English composition of sipáhí and jangal, and verandah—nay, I have not only heard of bagí, but have recently seen it—instead of the good English words 'sepoy,' and 'jungle,' 'veranda,' and 'buggy,' my dread of pedantic usage becomes the greater.
For the spelling of Mahratta, Mahratti, I suppose I must apologize (though something is to be said for it), Marāṭhī having established itself as orthodox.
NOTE A.—LIST OF GLOSSARIES.
1. Appended to the Roteiro de Vasco da Gama (see Book-list, p. xliii.) is a Vocabulary of 138 Portuguese words with their corresponding word in the Lingua de Calicut, i.e. in Malayālam.
2. Appended to the Voyages, &c., du Sieur de la Boullaye-le-Gouz (Book-list, p. xxxii.), is an Explication de plusieurs mots dont l'intelligence est nécessaire au Lecteur (pp. 27).
3. Fryer's New Account (Book-list, p. xxxiv.) has an Index Explanatory, including Proper Names, Names of Things, and Names of Persons (12 pages).
4. "Indian Vocabulary, to which is prefixed the Forms of Impeachment." 12mo. Stockdale, 1788 (pp. 136).
5. "An Indian Glossary, consisting of some Thousand Words and Forms commonly used in the East Indies ... extremely serviceable in assisting Strangers to acquire with Ease and Quickness the Language of that Country." By T. T. Robarts, Lieut., &c., of the 3rd Regt. Native Infantry, E.I. Printed for Murray & Highley, Fleet Street, 1800. 12mo. (not paged).
6. "A Dictionary of Mohammedan Law, Bengal Revenue Terms, Shanscrit, Hindoo, and other words used in the East Indies, with full explanations, the leading word used in each article being printed in a new Nustaluk Type," &c. By S. Rousseau. London, 1802. 12mo. (pp. lxiv—287). Also 2nd ed. 1805.
xxxiv.), by Sir Charles Wilkins. This is dated in the preface "E. I. House, 1813." The copy used is a Parliamentary reprint, dated 1830.7. Glossary prepared for the Fifth Report (see Book-list, p.
8. The Folio compilation of the Bengal Regulations, published in 1828-29, contains in each volume a Glossarial Index, based chiefly upon the Glossary of Sir C. Wilkins.
9. In 1842 a preliminary "Glossary of Indian Terms," drawn up at the E. I. House by Prof. H. H. Wilson, 4to, unpublished, with a blank column on each page "for Suggestions and Additions," was circulated in India, intended as a basis for a comprehensive official Glossary. In this one the words are entered in the vulgar spelling, as they occur in the documents.
10. The only important result of the circulation of No. 9. was "Supplement to the Glossary of Indian Terms, A—J." By H. M. Elliot, Esq., Bengal Civil Service. Agra, 1845. 8vo. (pp. 447).
This remarkable work has been revised, re-arranged, and re-edited, with additions from Elliot's notes and other sources, by Mr. John Beames, of the Bengal Civil Service, under the title of "Memoirs on the Folk-Lore and Distribution of the Races of the North-Western Provinces of India, being an amplified edition of" (the above). 2 vols. 8vo. Trübner, 1869.
11. To "Morley's Analytical Digest of all the Reported Cases Decided in the Supreme Courts of Judicature in India," Vol. I., 1850, there is appended a "Glossary of Native Terms used in the Text" (pp. 20).
12. In "Wanderings of a Pilgrim" (Book-list, p. xlvi.), there is a Glossary of some considerable extent (pp. 10 in double columns).
13. "The Zillah Dictionary in the Roman character, explaining the Various Words used in Business in India." By Charles Philip Brown, of the Madras Civil Service, &c. Madras, 1852. Imp. 8vo. (pp. 132).
14. "A Glossary of Judicial and Revenue Terms, and of Useful Words occurring in Official Documents, relating to the Administration of the Government of British India, from the Arabic, Persian, Hindústání, Sanskrit, Hindí, Bengálí, Uriyá, Maráṭhí, Guzaráthí, Telugu, Karnáta, Támil, Malayálam, and other languages. By H. H. Wilson, M.A., F.R.S., Boden Professor, &c." London, 1855. 4to. (pp. 585, besides copious Index).
15. A useful folio Glossary published by Government at Calcutta between 1860 and 1870, has been used by me and is quoted in the present Gloss. as "Calcutta Glossary." But I have not been able to trace it again so as to give the proper title.
16. Ceylonese Vocabulary. See Book-list, p. xxxi.
17. "Kachahri Technicalities, or A Glossary of Terms, Rural, Official, and General, in Daily Use in the Courts of Law, and in Illustration of the Tenures, Customs, Arts, and Manufactures of Hindustan." By Patrick Carnegy, Commissioner of Rai Bareli, Oudh. 8vo. 2nd ed. Allahabad, 1877 (pp. 361).
18. "A Glossary of Indian Terms, containing many of the most important and Useful Indian Words. Designed for the Use of Officers of Revenue and Judicial Practitioners and Students." Madras, 1877. 8vo. (pp. 255).
19. "A Glossary of Reference on Subjects connected with the Far East" (China and Japan). By H. A. Giles. Hong-Kong, 1878, 8vo. (pp. 182).
20. "Glossary of Vernacular Terms used in Official Correspondence in the Province of Assam." Shillong, 1879. (Pamphlet).
21. "Anglo-Indian Dictionary. A Glossary of such Indian Terms used in English, and such English or other non-Indian terms as have obtained special meanings in India." By George Clifford Whitworth, Bombay Civil Service. London, 8vo, 1885 (pp. xv.—350).
Also the following minor Glossaries contained in Books of Travel or History:—
22. In "Cambridge's Account of the War in India," 1761 (Book-list, p. xxx.); 23. In "Grose's Voyage," 1772 (Book-list, p. xxxv.); 24. In Carraccioli's "Life of Clive" (Book-list, p. xxx.); 25. In "Bp. Heber's Narrative" (Book-list, p. xxxvi.); 26. In Herklot's "Qanoon-e-Islam" (Book-list, p. xxxv.); [27. In "Verelst's View of Bengal," 1772; 28. "The Malayan Words in English," by C. P. G. Scott, reprinted from the Journal of the American Oriental Society: New Haven, 1897; 29. "Manual of the Administration of the Madras Presidency," Vol. III. Glossary, Madras, 1893. The name of the author of this, the most valuable book of the kind recently published in India, does not appear upon the title-page. It is believed to be the work of C. D. Macleane; 30. A useful Glossary of Malayālam words will be found in Logan, "Manual of Malabar."]
NOTE B.—THE INDO-PORTUGUESE PATOIS
(By A. C. Burnell.)
The phonetic changes of Indo-Portuguese are few. F is substituted for p; whilst the accent varies according to the race of the speaker. The vocabulary varies, as regards the introduction of native Indian terms, from the same cause.
Grammatically, this dialect is very singular:
2. In the plural, s is rarely added; generally, the plural is the same as the singular.
3. The genitive is expressed by de, which is not combined with the article—e.g. conforme de o tempo (Mat. ii. 16); Depois de o morte (Id. ii. 19).
4. The definite article is unchanged in the plural: como o discipulos (Acts, ix. 19).
5. The pronouns still preserve some inflexions: Eu, mi; nos, nossotros; minha, nossos, &c.; tu, ti, vossotros; tua, vossos; Elle, ella, ellotros, elles, sua, suas, lo, la.
6. The verb substantive is (present) tem, (past) timha, and (subjunctive) seja.7. Verbs are conjugated by adding, for the present, te to the only form, viz., the infinitive, which loses its final r. Thus, te falla; te faze; te vi. The past is formed by adding ja—e.g. ja falla; ja olha. The future is formed by adding ser. To express the infinitive, per is added to the Portuguese infinitive deprived of its r.
IN THE USE OF THE GLOSSARY
(A.) The dates attached to quotations are not always quite consistent. In beginning the compilation, the dates given were those of the publication quoted; but as the date of the composition, or of the use of the word in question, is often much earlier than the date of the book or the edition in which it appears, the system was changed, and, where possible, the date given is that of the actual use of the word. But obvious doubts may sometimes rise on this point.
The dates of publication of the works quoted will be found, if required, from the Book List, following this Nota bene.
(B.) The system of transliteration used is substantially the same as that modification of Sir William Jones's which is used in Shakespear's Hindustani Dictionary. But—
The first of the three Sanskrit sibilants is expressed by (ś), and, as in Wilson's Glossary, no distinction is marked between the Indian aspirated k, g, and the Arabic gutturals kh, gh. Also, in words transliterated from Arabic, the sixteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet is expressed by (ṭ). This is the same type that is used for the cerebral Indian (ṭ). Though it can hardly give rise to any confusion, it would have been better to mark them by distinct types. The fact is, that it was wished at first to make as few demands as possible for distinct types, and, having begun so, change could not be made.
The fourth letter of the Arabic alphabet is in several cases represented by (th) when Arabic use is in question. In Hindustani it is pronounced as (s).
Also, in some of Mr. Burnell's transliterations from S. Indian languages, he has used (R) for the peculiar Tamil hard (r), elsewhere (r), and (γ) for the Tamil and Malayālam (k) when preceded and followed by a vowel.
LIST OF FULLER TITLES OF BOOKS
QUOTED IN THE GLOSSARY
Abel-Rémusat. Nouveaux Mélanges Asiatiques. 2 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1829.
Abreu, A. de. Desc. de Malaca, from the Parnaso Portuguez.
Abulghazi. H. des Mogols et des Tatares, par Aboul Ghazi, with French transl. by Baron Desmaisons. 2 vols. 8vo. St. Petersb., 1871.
Academy, The. A Weekly Review, &c. London.
Acosta, Christ. Tractado de las Drogas y Medecinas de las Indias Orientales. 4to. Burgos, 1578.
—— E. Hist. Rerum a Soc. Jesu in Oriente gestarum. Paris, 1572.
—— Joseph de. Natural and Moral History of the Indies, E.T. of Edward Grimstone, 1604. Edited for Hak. Soc. by C. Markham. 2 vols. 1880.
Adams, Francis. Names of all Minerals, Plants, and Animals described by the Greek authors, &c. (Being a Suppl. to Dunbar's Greek Lexicon.)
Aelian. Claudii Aeliani, De Natura Animalium, Libri XVII.
Āīn. Āīn-i-Akbarī, The, by Abul Fazl 'Allami, tr. from the orig. Persian by H. Blochmann, M.A. Calcutta. 1873. Vol. i.; [vols. ii. and iii. translated by Col. H. S. Jarrett; Calcutta, 1891-94].
—— (Orig.). The same. Edited in the original Persian by H. Blochmann, M.A. 2 vols. 4to. Calcutta, 1872. Both these were printed by the Asiatic Society of Bengal.
Aitchison, C. U. Collection of Treaties, Engagements, and Sunnuds relating to India and Neighbouring Countries, 8 vols. 8vo. Revised ed., Calcutta, 1876-78.
Ajaib-al-Hind. See Merveilles.
Albirûnî. Chronology of Ancient Nations E.T. by Dr. C. E. Sachau (Or. Transl. Fund). 4to. 1879.
Alcalà, Fray Pedro de. Vocabulista Arauigo en letra Castellana. Salamanca, 1505.
Ali Baba, Sir. Twenty-one Days in India, being the Tour of (by G. Aberigh Mackay). London, 1880.
[Ali, Mrs Meer Hassan, Observations on the Mussulmauns of India. 2 vols. London, 1832.
[Allardyce, A. The City of Sunshine. Edinburgh. 3 vols. 1877.
[Allen, B. C. Monograph on the Silk Cloths of Assam. Shillong, 1899.]
Amari. I Diplomi Arabi del R. Archivio Fiorentino. 4to. Firenze, 1863.
Anderson, Philip, A.M. The English in Western India, &c. 2nd ed. Revised. 1856.
Andriesz, G. Beschrijving der Reyzen. 4to. Amsterdam, 1670.
Angria Tulagee. Authentic and Faithful History of that Arch-Pyrate. London, 1756.
Annaes Maritimos. 4 vols. 8vo. Lisbon, 1840-44.
Anquetil du Perron. Le Zendavesta. 3 vols. Discours Preliminaire, &c. (in first vol.). 1771.
Aragon, Chronicle of King James of. E.T. by the late John Forster, M.P. 2 vols. imp. 8vo. [London, 1883.]
Arbuthnot, Sir A. Memoir of Sir T. Munro, prefixed to ed. of his Minutes. 2 vols. 1881.
Arch. Port. Or. Archivo Portuguez Oriental. A valuable and interesting collection published at Nova Goa, 1857 seqq.
Archivio Storico Italiano.
Arnold, Edwin. The Light of Asia (as told in Verse by an Indian Buddhist). 1879.
Assemani, Joseph Simonius, Syrus Maronita. Bibliotheca Orientalis Clementino-Vaticana. 3 vols. in 4, folio. Romae, 1719-1728.
Ayeen Akbery. By this spelling are distinguished quotations from the tr. of Francis Gladwin, first published at Calcutta in 1783. Most of the quotations are from the London edition, 2 vols. 4to. 1800.
Baber. Memoirs of Zehir-ed-din Muhammed Baber, Emperor of Hindustan.... Translated partly by the late John Leyden, Esq., M.D., partly by William Erskine, Esq., &c. London and Edinb., 4to. 1826.
Baboo and other Tales, descriptive of Society in India. Smith & Elder. London, 1834. (By Augustus Prinsep, B.C.S., a brother of James and H. Thoby Prinsep.)
Bacon, T. First Impressions of Hindustan. 2 vols. 1837.
Baden Powell. Punjab Handbook, vol. ii. Manufactures and Arts. Lahore, 1872.
Bailey, Nathan. Diction. Britannicum, or a more Compleat Universal Etymol. English Dict. &c. The whole Revis'd and Improv'd by N. B., . Folio. 1730.
Baillie, N. B. E. Digest of Moohummudan Law applied by British Courts in India. 2 vols. 1865-69.
Baker, Mem. of Gen. Sir W. E., R.E., K.C.B. Privately printed. 1882.
Balbi, Gasparo. Viaggio dell' Indie Orientali. 12mo. Venetia, 1590.
Baldaeus, P. Of this writer Burnell used the Dutch ed., Naauwkeurige Beschryvinge van Malabar en Choromandel, folio, 1672, and —— Ceylon, folio, 1672.
Baldelli-Boni. Storia del Milione. 2 vols. Firenze, 1827.
Baldwin, Capt. J. H. Large and Small Game of Bengal and the N.W. Provinces of India. 1876.
Balfour, Dr. E. Cyclopaedia of India. [3rd ed. London, 1885.]
[Ball, J. D. Things Chinese, being Notes on various Subjects connected with China. 3rd ed. London, 1900.
Ball, V. Jungle Life in India, or the Journeys and Journals of an Indian Geologist. London, 1880.]
Banarus, Narrative of Insurrection at, in 1781. 4to. Calcutta, 1782. Reprinted at Roorkee, 1853.
Bányan Tree, The. A Poem. Printed for private circulation. Calcutta, 1856.
Barbaro, Iosafa. Viaggio alla Tana, &c. In Ramusio, tom. ii. Also E.T. by W. Thomas, Clerk of Council to King Edward VI., embraced in Travels to Tana and Persia, Hak. Soc., 1873.
Barbier de Méynard, Dictionnaire Géogr. Hist. et Littér. de la Perse, &c. Extrait ... de Yaqout. Par C. B. de M. Large 8vo. Paris, 1861.
Barbosa. A Description of the Coasts of E. Africa and Malabar in the beginning of the 16th century. By Duarte Barbosa. Transl. &c., by Hon. H. E. J. Stanley. Hak. Soc., 1866.
—— Lisbon Ed. Livro de Duarte Barbosa. Being No. VII. in Collecção de Noticias para a Historia e Geografia, &c. Publ. pela Academia Real das Sciencias, tomo ii. Lisboa, 1812.
—— Also in tom. ii. of Ramusio.
Barretto. Relation de la Province de Malabar. Fr. tr. 8vo. Paris, 1646.
Barros, João de. Decadas de Asia, Dos feitos que os Portuguezes fizeram na Conquista e Descubrimento das Terras e Mares do Oriente.
The first Decad was originally printed in 1552, the 2nd in 1553, the 3rd in 1563, the 4th as completed by Lavanha in 1613 (Barbosa-Machado, Bibl. Lusit. ii. pp. 606-607, as corrected by Figanière, Bibliogr. Hist. Port. p. 169). A. B.In some of Burnell's quotations he uses the 2nd ed. of Decs. i. to iii. (1628), and the 1st ed. of Dec. iv. (1613). In these there is apparently no division into chapters, and I have transferred the references to the edition of 1778, from which all my own quotations are made, whenever I could identify the passages, having myself no convenient access to the older editions.
Barth, A. Les Religions de l'Inde. Paris, 1879.
Bastian, Adolf, Dr. Die Völker des Oestlichen Asien, Studien und Reisen. 8vo. Leipzig, 1866—Jena, 1871.
Beale, Rev. Samuel. Travels of Fah-hian and Sung-yun, Buddhist Pilgrims from China to India. Sm. 8vo. 1869.
Beames, John. Comparative Grammar of the Modern Aryan Languages of India, &c. 3 vols. 8vo. 1872-79.
—— See also in List of Glossaries.
Beatson, Lt.-Col. A. View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun. 4to. London, 1800.
[Belcher, Capt. Sir E. Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Samarang, during the years 1843-46, employed surveying the Islands of the Eastern Archipelago. 2 vols. London, 1846.]
Bellew, H. W. Journal of a Political Mission to Afghanistan in 1857 under Major Lumsden. 8vo. 1862.
—— [The Races of Afghanistan, being A Brief Account of the Principal Nations inhabiting that Country. Calcutta and London, 1880.]
Belon, Pierre, du Mans. Les Observations de Plvsievrs Singularités et Choses memorables, trouuées en Grece, Asie, Iudée, Egypte, Arabie, &c. Sm. 4to. Paris, 1554.
Bengal, Descriptive Ethnology of, by Col. E. T. Dalton. Folio. Calcutta, 1872.
Bengal Annual, or Literary Keepsake, 1831-32.
Bengal Obituary. Calcutta, 1848. This was I believe an extended edition of De Rozario's 'Complete Monumental Register,' Calcutta, 1815. But I have not been able to recover trace of the book.
Benzoni, Girolamo. The Travels of, (1542-56), orig. Venice, 1572. Tr. and ed. by Admiral W. H. Smyth, Hak. Soc. 1857.
[Berncastle, J. Voyage to China, including a Visit to the Bombay Presidency. 2 vols. London, 1850.]
Beschi, Padre. See Gooroo Paramarttan.
[Beveridge, H. The District of Bakarganj, its History and Statistics. London, 1876.]
Bhotan and the History of the Dooar War. By Surgeon Rennie, M.D. 1866.
Bird's Guzerat. The Political and Statistical History of Guzerat, transl. from the Persian of Ali Mohammed Khan. Or. Tr. Fund. 8vo. 1835.
Bird, Isabella (now Mrs. Bishop). The Golden Chersonese, and the Way Thither. 1883.
Bird's Japan. Unbeaten Tracks in J. by Isabella B. 2 vols. 1880.
Birdwood (Sir) George, C.S.I., M.D. The Industrial Arts of India. 1880.
[—— Report on The Old Records of the India Office, with Supplementary Note and Appendices. Second Reprint. London, 1891.
[—— and Foster, W. The First Letter Book of the East India Company, 1600-19. London, 1893.]
[Blacker, Lt.-Col. V. Memoir of the British Army in India in 1817-19. 2 vols. London, 1821.
[Blanford, W. T. The Fauna of British India: Mammalia. London, 1888-91.
Blumentritt, Ferd. Vocabular einzelner Ausdrücke und Redensarten, welche dem Spanischen der Philippinschen Inseln eigenthümlich sind. Druck von Dr. Karl Pickert in Leitmeritz. 1882.
Bluteau, Padre D. Raphael. Vocabulario Portuguez Latino, Aulico, Anatomico, Architectonico, (and so on to Zoologico) ... Lisboa, 1712-21. 8 vols. folio, with 2 vols. of Supplemento, 1727-28.
Bocarro. Decada 13 da Historia da India, composta por Antonio B. (Published by the Royal Academy of Lisbon). 1876.
Bocarro. Detailed Report (Portuguese) upon the Portuguese Forts and Settlements in India, MS. transcript in India Office. Geog. Dept. from B.M. Sloane MSS. No. 197, fol. 172 seqq. Date 1644.
Bocharti Hierozoicon. In vol. i. of Opera Omnia, 3 vols. folio. Lugd. Bat. 1712.
Bock, Carl. Temples and Elephants. 1884.
Bogle. See Markham's Tibet.
Boileau, A. H. E. (Bengal Engineers). Tour through the Western States of Rajwara in 1835. 4to. Calcutta, 1837.
Boldensele, Gulielmus de. Itinerarium in the Thesaurus of Canisius, 1604. v. pt. ii. p. 95, also in ed. of same by Basnage, 1725, iv. 337; and by C. L. Grotefend in Zeitschrift des Histor. Vereins für Nieder Sachsen, Jahrgang 1852. Hannover, 1855.
Bole Pongis, by H. M. Parker. 2 vols. 8vo. 1851.
Bombay. A Description of the Port and Island of, and Hist. Account of the Transactions between the English and Portuguese concerning it, from the year 1661 to the present time. 12mo. Printed in the year 1724.
[Bond, E. A. Speeches of the Manager and Counsel in the Trial of Warren Hastings. 4 vols. London, 1859-61.]
Bongarsii, Gesta Dei der Francos. Folio. Hanoviae, 1611.
Bontius, Jacobi B. Hist. Natural et Medic. Indiae Orientalis Libri Sex. Printed with Piso, q.v.
[Bose, S. C. The Hindoos as they are: A Description of the Manners, Customs, and Inner Life of Hindoo Society in Bengal. Calcutta, 1881.
Bosquejo das Possessões, &c. See p. 809b.
[Boswell, J. A. C. Manual of the Nellore District. Madras, 1887.]
Botelho, Simão. Tombo do Estado da India. 1554. Forming a part of the Subsidios, q.v.
Bourchier, Col. (Sir George). Eight Months' Campaign against the Bengal Sepoy Army. 8vo. London, 1858.
Bowring, Sir John. The Kingdom and People of Siam. 2 vols. 8vo. 1857.
Boyd, Hugh. The Indian Observer, with Life, Letters, &c. By L. D. Campbell. London, 1798.
Briggs, H. Cities of Gujarashtra; their Topography and History Illustrated. 4to. Bombay, 1849.
Brigg's Firishta. H. of the Rise of the Mahomedan Power in India. Translated from the Orig. Persian of Mahomed Kasim Firishta. By John Briggs, Lieut.-Col. Madras Army. 4 vols. 8vo. 1829.
[Brinckman, A. The Rifle in Cashmere: A Narrative of Shooting Expeditions. London, 1862.]
Brooks, T. Weights, Measures, Exchanges, &c., in East India. Small 4to. 1752.
Broome, Capt. Arthur. Hist. of the Rise and Progress of the Bengal Army. 8vo. 1850. Only vol. i. published.
Broughton, T. D. Letters written in a Mahratta Camp during the year 1809. 4to. 1813. [New ed. London, 1892.]
Bruce's Annals. Annals of the Honourable E. India Company. (1600-1707-8.) By John Bruce, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 3 vols. 4to. 1810.
Brugsch Bey (Dr. Henry). Hist. of Egypt under the Pharaohs from the Monuments. E.T. 2nd ed. 2 vols. 1881.
Buchanan, Claudius, D.D. Christian Researches in Asia. 11th ed. 1819. Originally pubd. 1811.
Buchanan Hamilton, Fr. The Fishes of the Ganges River and its Branches. Oblong folio. Edinburgh, 1822.
[—— Also see Eastern India.
[Buchanan, Dr. Francis (afterwards Hamilton). A Journey ... through ... Mysore, Canara and Malabar ... &c. 3 vols. 4to. 1807.]
Burckhardt, J. L. See p. 315a.
Burke, The Writings and Correspondence of the Rt. Hon. Edmund. 8 vols. 8vo. London, 1852.
Burman, The: His Life and Notions. By Shway Yoe. 2 vols. 1882.
Burnes, Alexander. Travels into Bokhara. 3 vols. 2nd ed. 1835.
[Burnes, J. A Visit to the Court of Scinde. London, 1831.]
Burnouf, Eugène. Introduction à l'Histoire du Bouddhisme Indien. (Vol. i. alone published.) 4to. 1844.
Burton, Capt. R. F. Pilgrimage to El Medina and Mecca. 3 vols. 1855-56.
[—— Memorial Edition. 2 vols. London, 1893.]
—— Scinde, or the Unhappy Valley. 2 vols. 1851.
—— Sind Revisited. 2 vols. 1877.
—— Camoens. Os Lusiadas, Englished by R. F. Burton. 2 vols. 1880. And 2 vols. of Life and Commentary, 1881.
—— Goa and the Blue Mountains. 1851.
[—— The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, translated from the Arabic by Capt. Sir R. F. Burton, edited by L. C. Smithers. 12 vols. London, 1894.]
Busbequii, A. Gislenii. Omnia quae extant. Amstelod. Elzevir. 1660.
[Busteed, H. E. Echoes of Old Calcutta. 3rd ed. Calcutta, 1857.
[Buyers, Rev. W. Recollections of Northern India. London, 1848.]
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Caldwell, Rev. Dr. (afterwards Bishop). A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South Indian Family of Languages. 2nd ed. Revd. and Enlarged, 1875.
Caldwell, Right Rev. Bishop. Pol. and Gen. History of the District of Tinnevelly. Madras, 1881.
——, Dr. R. (now Bishop). Lectures on Tinnevelly Missions. 12mo. London, 1857.
Ca' Masser. Relazione di Lionardo in Archivio Storico Italiano, q.v.
Cambridge, R. Owen. An Account of the War in India between the English and French, on the Coast of Coromandel (1750-1760). 4to. 1761.
Cameron, J. Our Tropical Possessions in Malayan India. 1865.
Camões, Luiz de. Os Lusiadas. Folio ed. of 1720, and Paris ed., 8vo., of 1847 are those used.
[Campbell, Maj.-Gen. John. A Personal Narrative of Thirteen Years' Service among the Wild Tribes of Khondistan. London, 1864.
[Campbell, Col. W. The Old Forest Ranger. London, 1853.]
Capmany, Ant. Memorias Hist. sobre la Marina, Comercio, y Artes de Barcelona. 4 vols. 4to. Madrid, 1779.
Cardim, T. Relation de la Province du Japon, du Malabar, &c. (trad. du Portug.). Tournay, 1645.
[Carey, W. H. The Good Old Days of Honble. John Company. 2 vols. Simla, 1882.]
Carletti, Francesco. Ragionamenti di—Fiorentino, sopra le cose da lui vedute ne' suoi Viaggi, &c. (1594-1606). First published in Firenze, 1701. 2 vols. in 12mo.
Carnegy, Patrick. See List of Glossaries.
Carpini, Joannes de Plano. Hist. Mongalorum, ed. by D'Avezac, in Recueil de Voyages et de Mémoires de la Soc. de Géographie, tom. iv. 1837.
Carraccioli, C. Life of Lord Clive. 4 vols. 8vo. No date (c. 1785).
Castanheda, Fernão Lopez de. Historia do descobrimento e conquista da India.
Castanheda was the first writer on Indian affairs (Barbosa Machado, Bibl. Lusit., ii. p. 30. See also Figanière, Bibliographia Hist. Port., pp. 165-167).He went to Goa in 1528, and died in Portugal in 1559.
Castañeda. The First Booke of the Historie of the Discouerie and Conquest of the East Indias.... Transld. into English by N. L.(itchfield), Gentleman. 4to. London, 1582.
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[Catrou, F. F. A History of the Mogul Dynasty in India. London, 1826.]
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[Chamberlain, B. H. Things Japanese, being Notes on Various Subjects connected with Japan. 3rd ed. London, 1898.]
Chardin, Voyages en Perse. Several editions are quoted, e.g. Amsterdam, 4 vols. 4to, 1735; by Langlès, 10 vols. 8vo. 1811.
Charnock's Hist. of Marine Architecture. 2 vols. 1801.
Charters, &c., of the East India Company (a vol. in India Office without date).
Chaudoir, Baron Stan. Aperçu sur les Monnaies Russes, &c. 4to. St. Pétersbourg, 1836-37.
[Chevers, N. A. A Manual of Medical Jurisprudence for India. Calcutta, 1870.]
Childers, R. A Dictionary of the Pali Language. 1875.
Chitty, S. C. The Ceylon Gazetteer. Ceylon, 1834.
Chow Chow, being Selections from a Journal kept in India, &c., by Viscountess Falkland. 2 vols. 1857.
Cieza de Leon, Travels of Pedro. Ed. by C. Markham. Hak. Soc. 1864.
Clarke, Capt. H. W., R.E. Translation of the Sikandar Nāma of Nizāmī. London, 1881.
Clavijo. Itineraire de l'Ambassade Espagnole à Samarcande, in 1403-1406 (original Spanish, with Russian version by I. Sreznevevsky). St. Petersburg, 1881.
—— Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de, to the Court of Timour. E.T. by C. Markham. Hak. Soc. 1859.
Cleghorn, Dr. Hugh. Forests and Gardens of S. India. 8vo. 1861.
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Cobarruvias, Tesoro de la Lengua Castellana o Española, compvesto per el Licenciado Don Sebastian de. Folio. Madrid, 1611.
Cocks, Richard. Diary of ——, Cape-Merchant in the English Factory at Japan (first published from the original MS. in the B. M. and Admiralty). Edited by Edward Maunde Thompson, 2 vols. Hak. Soc. 1883.
Cogan. See Pinto.
Colebrooke, Life of, forming the first vol. of the collection of his Essays, by his son, Sir E. Colebrooke. 1873.
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Collingwood, C. Rambles of a Naturalist on Shores and Waters of the China Sea. 8vo. 1868.
Colomb, Capt. R.N. Slave-catching in the Indian Ocean. 8vo. 1873.
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Competition-wallah, Letters of a (by G. O. Trevelyan). 1864.
Complete Hist. of the War in India (Tract). 1761.
Conti, Nicolo. See Poggius; also see India in the XVth Century.
[Cooper, T. T. The Mishmee Hills, an Account of a Journey made in an Attempt to penetrate Thibet from Assam, to open out new Routes for Commerce. London, 1873.]
Cordiner, Rev. J. A. Description of Ceylon, &c. 2 vols. 4to. 1807.
Cornwallis, Correspondence of Charles, First Marquis. Edited by C. Ross. 3 vols. 1859.
Correa, Gaspar, Lendas da India por. This most valuable, interesting, and detailed chronicle of Portuguese India was not published till in our own day it was issued by the Royal Academy of Lisbon—4 vols. in 7, in 4to, 1858-1864. The author went to India apparently with Jorge de Mello in 1512, and at an early date began to make notes for his history. The latest year that he mentions as having in it written a part of his history is 1561. The date of his death is not known.
Coryat, T. Crudities. Reprinted from the ed. of 1611. 3 vols. 8vo. 1776.
Couto, Diogo de. The edition of the Decadas da Asia quoted habitually is that of 1778 (see Barros). The 4th Decade (Couto's first) was published first in 1602, fol.; the 5th, 1612; the 6th, 1614; the 7th, 1616; the 8th, 1673; 5 books of the 12th, Paris, 1645. The 9th was first published in an edition issued in 1736; and 120 pp. of the 10th (when, is not clear). But the whole of the 10th, in ten books, is included in the publication of 1778. The 11th was lost, and a substitute by the editor is given in the ed. of 1778. Couto died 10th Dec. 1616.
—— Dialogo do Soldado Pratico (written in 1611, printed at Lisbon under the title Observações, &c., 1790).
Cowley, Abraham. His Six Books of Plants. In Works, folio ed. of 1700.
Crawfurd, John. Descriptive Dict. of the Indian Islands and adjacent countries. 8vo. 1856.
—— Malay Dictionary, A Grammar and Dict. of the Malay Language. Vol. i. Dissertation and Grammar. Vol. ii. Dictionary. London, 1852.
—— Journal of an Embassy to Siam and Cochin China. 2nd ed. 2 vols. 1838. (First ed. 4to, 1828.)
—— Journal of an Embassy to the Court of Ava in 1827. 4to. 1829.
[Crooke, W. The Popular Religion and Folk-lore of Northern India. 1st ed. 1 vol. Allahabad, 1893; 2nd ed. 2 vols. London, 1896.
[—— The Tribes and Castes of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh, 4 vols. Calcutta, 1896.]
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Cunningham, Major Alex., B.E. Ladak, Physical, Statistical, and Historical. 8vo. 1854.
Cunningham, M.-Gen., R.E., C.S.I. (the same). Reports of the Archaeological Survey of India. Vol. i., Simla, 1871. Vol. xix., Calcutta, 1885.
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D'Acunha, Dr. Gerson. Contributions to the Hist. of Indo-Portuguese Numismatics. 4 fascic. Bombay, 1880 seqq.
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—— Commentaries, transl. and edited by Walter de Grey Birch. Hak. Soc. 4 vols. 1875-1884.
Dalrymple, A. The Oriental Repertory (originally published in numbers, 1791-97), then at the expense of the E.I. Co. 2 vols. 4to. 1808.
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—— De Bello Cambaico.
Dampier's Voyages. (Collection including sundry others). 4 vols. 8vo. London, 1729.
[Danvers, F. C., and Foster, W. Letters received by the E.I. Co. from its Servants in the East. 4 vols. London, 1896-1900.]
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—— The Zendavesta. (Sacred Books of the East, vol. iv.) 1880.
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[Davy, J. An Account of the Interior of Ceylon. London, 1821.]
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De Gubernatis, Angelo. Storia dei Viaggiatori Italiani nelle Indie Orientali. Livorno, 1875. 12mo. There was a previous issue containing much less matter.
De la Boullaye-le-Gouz, Voyages et Observations du Seigneur, Gentilhomme Angevin. Sm. 4to. Paris, 1653, and 2nd ed. 1657.
De la Loubère. Historical Relation of Siam by M. E.T. 2 vols. folio in one. 1693.
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[—— From the O.E. Tr. of 1664, by G. Havers. 2 vols. ed. by E. Grey. Hak. Soc. 1891.]
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[Dennys, N.B. Descriptive Dictionary of British Malaya. London, 1894.]
De Orta, Garcia. See Garcia.
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Diccionario della Lengua Castellana compuesto por l'Academia Real. 6 vols. folio. Madrid, 1726-1739.
Dicty. of Words used in the East Indies. 2nd ed. 1805. (List of Glossaries, No. 6.).
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Dilemma, The. (A novel, by Col. G. Chesney, R.E.) 3 vols. 1875.
Dipavanso. The Dipavamso: edited and translated by H. Oldenberg. London, 1879.
Diplomi Arabi. See Amari.
Dirom. Narrative of the Campaign in India which terminated the War with Tippoo Sultan in 1792. 4to. 1793.
D'Ohsson, Baron C. Hist. des Mongols. La Haye et Amsterdam. 1834. 4 vols.
Dom Manuel of Portugal, Letter of. Reprint of old Italian version, by A. Burnell. 1881.
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Dostoyeffski. 1881. See p. 833b.
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[Douglas, J. Bombay and Western India. 2 vols. London, 1893.]
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—— Oosterlingen. Verklarende Lijst der Nederlandsche Woorden die mit het Arabsch, Hebreeuwsch, Chaldeeuwsch, Perzisch, en Turksch afkomstig zijn, door R. Dozy. S' Gravenhage, 1867. (Tract.)
—— Supplément aux Dictionnaires Arabes. 2 vols. 4to.
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[Egerton, Hon. W. An Illustrated Handbook of Indian Arms, being a Classified and Descriptive Catalogue of the Arms exhibited at the India Museum. London, 1880.]
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Elphinstone, The Hon. Mount-Stewart. Account of the Kingdom of Caubool. New edition. 2 vols. 8vo. 1839.
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—— E.T. by Capt. J. Stevens. 3 vols. 8vo. 1695.
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[Ferrier, J. P. Caravan Journeys in Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, and Beloochistan. London, 1856.]
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—— Briggs's. See Briggs.
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[—— The Textile Manufactures and the Costumes of the People of India. London, 1866.]
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—— Voyage to New Guinea and the Moluccas from Balambangan, 1774-76. 4to. 1779.
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[—— The Persian Adventurer. 3 vols. London, 1830.]
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——. See List of Glossaries.
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—— See Munro.
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Gooroo Pararmattan, written in Tamil by P. Beschi; E.T. by Babington. 4to. 1822.
Gouvea, A. de. Iornada do Arcebispo de Goa, D. Frey Aleixo de Menezes ... quando foy as Serras de Malabar, &c. Sm. folio. Coimbra, 1606.
[Gover, C. E. The Folk-Songs of Southern India. Madras, 1871.]
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[Growse, F. S. Mathurá, a District Memoir. 3rd ed. Allahabad, 1883.]
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—— in England. Ed. in 1 vol. 1835 and 1850. Originally pubd. 1828. 2 vols.
Hakluyt. The references to this name are, with a very few exceptions, to the reprint, with many additions, in 5 vols. 4to. 1807.
Halhed, N. B. Code of Gentoo Laws. 4to. London, 1776.
Hall, Fitz Edward. Modern English, 1873.
Hamilton, Alexander, Captain. A New Account of the East Indies.
Hamilton, Walter. Hindustan. Geographical, Statistical, and Historical Description of Hindustan and the Adjacent Countries. 2 vols. 4to. London, 1820.
Hammer-Purgstall, Joseph. Geschichte der Goldenen Horde. 8vo. Pesth, 1840.
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[Harcourt, Capt. A. F. P. The Himalayan Districts of Kooloo, Lahoul, and Spiti. London, 1871.]
Hardy, Revd. Spence. Manual of Buddhism in its Modern Development.
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[Hoey, W. A Monograph on Trade and Manufactures in Northern India, Lucknow. 1880.]
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[Hoole, E. Madras, Mysore, and the South of India, or a Personal Narrative of a Mission to those Countries from 1820 to 1828. London, 1844.]
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Houtman. Voyage. See Spielbergen. I believe this is in the same collection.
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[Hügel, Baron Charles. Travels in Kashmir and the Panjab, with notes by Major T. B. Jervis. London, 1845.
[Hughes, T. P. A Dictionary of Islam. London, 1885.]
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[Ibbetson, D. C. J. Outlines of Panjab Ethnography. Calcutta, 1883.]
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Indian Antiquary, The, a Journal of Oriental Research. 4to. Bombay, 1872, and succeeding years till now.
Indian Vocabulary. See List of Glossaries.
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—— (English Translation.) 2 vols. 1834.
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—— Mammals. The Mammals of India, A Nat. Hist. of all the Animals known to inhabit Continental India. By T. C. Jerdon, Surgeon-Major Madras Army. London, 1874.
[Johnson, D. Sketches of Field Sports as followed by the Natives of India. London, 1822.]
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Julien, Stanislas. See Pèlerins.
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—— Am. Exot. Amœnitatum Exoticarum ... Fasciculi V. ... Auctore Engelberto Kæmpfero, D. Sm. 4to. Lemgoviæ, 1712.
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[Kipling, J. L. Beast and Man in India, a Popular Sketch of Indian Animals in their Relations with the People. London, 1892.]
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—— Do., ed. 1 vol. 8vo. 1860.
—— Arabian Nights, 3 vols. 8vo. 1841.
[Le Fanu, H. Manual of the Salem District. 2 vols. Madras, 1883.]
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[Leman, G. D. Manual of the Ganjam District. Madras, 1882.]
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Letters from Madras during the years 1836-1839. By a Lady. [Julia Charlotte Maitland.] 1843.
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[—— The Wild Races of South-Eastern India. London, 1870.]
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Linschoten. Most of the quotations are from the old English version: Iohn Hvighen van Linschoten, his Discours of Voyages into Ye Easte and Weste Indies. Printed at London by Iohn Wolfe, 1598—either from the black-letter folio, or from the reprint for the Hak. Soc. (2 vols. 1885), edited by Mr. Burnell and Mr. P. Tiele. If not specified, they are from the former.
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[Lloyd, Sir W. Gerard. Capt. A. A Narrative of a Journey from Caunpoor to the Boorendo Pass in the Himalaya Mountains. 2 vols. London, 1840.]
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[Logan, W. Malabar. 3 vols. Madras, 1887-91.]
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—— Transl. of the Periplus Maris Erythraei, and of Arrian's Voyage of Nearchus. 1879.
—— Ancient India as described by Ktesias the Knidian. 1882.
—— Ancient India as described by Ptolemy. 1885.
[—— The Invasion of India by Alexander the Great. New ed. London, 1896.]
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[—— Life in the Mission, the Camp, and the Zenáná, or Six Years in India. 2nd ed. London, 1854.]
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[Maclagan, E. D. Monograph on the Gold and Silver Works of the Punjab. Lahore, 1890.]
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[McMahon, Lieut.-Col. A. R. The Karens of the Golden Chersonese. London, 1876.]
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—— also Selectarum Epistolarum ex India Libri IV. Folio. (Hist. first pubd. at Florence, 1588).
Maine, Sir Henry S. Village Communities. 3rd ed. 1876.
—— Early History of Institutions. 1875.
Makrizi. Hist. des Sultans Mamlouks de l'Egypte par ... trad. par M. Quatremère. (Or. Transl. Fund). 2 vols. 4to. 1837-1842.
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—— Hist. of Persia. 2 vols. 4to. 1815. [New ed. 2 vols. 1829.]
—— Life of Robert, Lord Clive. 3 vols. 1836.
Malcolm's Anecdotes of the Manners and Customs of London during the 18th Century. 4 to. 1808.
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Manual ou Breue Instructção que serue por Uso D'as Crianças, que Aprendem Ler, e comêçam rezar nas Escholas Portuguezas, que são em India Oriental; e especialmente na Costa dos Malabaros que se chama Coromandel. Anno 1713.
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—— Clavijo. Narr. of Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de C. to the Court of Timour (1403-6). Tra. and Ed. by C. R. M. Hak. Soc. 1859.
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[—— A Memoir of the Indian Surveys. 2nd ed. London, 1878.]
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—— History of Sumatra. 2nd ed. 4to. 1784; 3rd ed. 4to. 1811.
—— Dictionary of the Malayan Language. In two Parts. 4to. 1812.
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[Mason, F. Burmah, its People and Natural Productions. Rangoon, 1860.
[Maspero, G. The Dawn of Civilisation. Egypt and Chaldaea. Ed. by A. H. Sayce. London, 1894.]
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[Mateer, S. The Land of Charity: A Descriptive Account of Travancore and its People. London, 1871.]
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[Mayne, J. D. A Treatise on Hindu Law and Custom. 2nd ed. Madras, 1880.]
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Miles. See Hydur Ali and Tipú.
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Minto, Life of Gilbert Elliot, by Countess of Minto. 3 vols. 1874.
Mirat-i-Ahmedi. See Bird's Guzerat.
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[Morier, J. A Journey through Persia, Armenia and Asia Minor, to Constantinople, in the years 1808 and 1809. London, 1812.]
Morton, Life of Leyden. See Leyden.
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[Mukharji, T. N. Art-Manufactures of India. Calcutta, 1888.]
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—— Hibbert Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as illustrated by the Religions of India. 1878.
[Mundy, Gen. G. C. Pen and Pencil Sketches in India. 3rd ed. London, 1858.]
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—— His Minutes, &c., edited by Sir A. Arbuthnot, with a Memoir. 2 vols. 8vo. 1881.
Munro, Capt. Innes. Narrative of Military Operations against the French, Dutch, and Hyder Ally Cawn, 1780-84. 4to. 1789.
Munro, Surgeon Gen., C.B. Reminiscences of Military Service with the 93rd Highlanders. 1883. (An admirable book of its kind.)
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[Neale, F. A. Narrative of a Residence at the Capital of the Kingdom of Siam, with a Description of the Manners, Customs, and Laws of the modern Siamese. London, 1852.
[N.E.D. A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles: founded mainly on the Materials collected by the Philological Society: edited by J. H. Murray and H. Bradley. 5 vols. Oxford. 1888-1902.]
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Niebuhr, Carsten. Voyage en Arabie, &c. 2 vols. 4to. Amsterdam, 1774.
—— Desc. de l'Arabie, 4to. Amsterdam, 1774.
Nieuhof, Joan. Zee- en Lantreize. 2 vols. folio. 1682.
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Notes and Extracts from the Govt. Records in Fort St. George (1670-1681). Parts I., II., III. Madras, 1871-73.
N. & E. Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Bibliothèque du Roi (and afterwards Nationale, Impériale, Royale, &c.). 4to. Paris, 1787, et seqq.
Notices of Madras and Cuddalore in the Last Century, from the Journals and Letters of the Earlier Missionaries (Germans) of the S.P.C.K. Small 8vo. 1858. A very interesting little work.
Novus orbis Regionum ac Insularum Veteribus Incognitarum, &c. Basiliae apud Io. Hervagium. 1555, folio. Orig. ed., 1537.
Nunes, A. Livro dos Pesos da Ymdia, e assy Medidas e Moedas. 1554. Contained in Subsidios, q.v.
Oakfield, or Fellowship in the East. By W. D. Arnold, late 58th Reg. B.N.I. 2 vols. 2nd ed. 1854. The 1st ed. was apparently of the same year.
Observer, The Indian. See Boyd.
[Oliphant, L. Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission to China and Japan in the years 1857-8-9. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1859.
[Oppert, G. The Original Inhabitants of Bharatavarṣa or India. Westminster, 1893.
[Oriental Sporting Magazine, June 1828 to June 1833, reprint. 2 vols. London, 1873.]
Orme, Robert. Historical Fragments of the Mogul Empire, &c. This was first published by Mr. Orme in 1782. But a more complete ed. with sketch of his life,&c., was issued after his death. 4to. 1805.
—— Hist. of the Military Transactions of the British Nation in Indostan. 3 vols. 4 to. The dates of editions are as follows: Vol. I., 1763; 2nd ed., 1773; 3rd ed., 1781. Vol. II. (in two Sections commonly called Vols. II. and III.), 1778. Posthumous edition of the complete work, 1805. These all in 4to. Reprint at Madras, large 8vo. 1861-62.
Osbeck. A Voyage to China and the E. Indies. Tr. by J. R. Forster. 2 vols. 1771.
Osborne, Hon. W. G. Court and Camp of Runjeet Singh. 8vo. 1840.
Ousely, Sir William. Travels in Various Countries of the East. 3 vols. 4to. 1819-23.
Ovington, Rev. F. A Voyage to Suratt in the year 1689. London, 1696.
[Owen, Capt. W. F. W. Narrative of Voyages to explore the Shores of Africa, Arabia, and Madagascar. 2 vols. London, 1833.]
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Pallegoix, Monseigneur. Description du Royaume Thai ou Siam. 2 vols. 1854.
[Palmer, Rev. A. S. Folk-etymology. London, 1882.]
Pandurang Hari, or Memoirs of a Hindoo, originally published by Whitaker. 3 vols. 1826. The author was Mr. Hockley of the Bo. C.S. of whom little is known. The quotations are partly from the reissue by H. S. King & Co. in 1873, with a preface by Sir Bartle Frere, 2 vols. small 8vo.; but Burnell's apparently from a 1-vol. issue in 1877. [See 4 Ser. N. & Q. xi. 439, 527. The quotations have now been given from the ed. of 1873.]
Panjab Notes and Queries, a monthly Periodical, ed. by Capt. R. C. Temple. 1883 seqq. [Continued as "North Indian Notes and Queries," ed. by W. Crooke. 5 vols. 1891-96.]
Paolino, Fra P. da S. Bartolomeo. Viaggio alle Indiè Orientali. 4to. Roma, 1796.
Paolino, E.T. by J. R. Forster. 8vo. 1800.
[Pearce, N. Life and Adventures in Abyssinia, ed. J. J. Halls. 2 vols. London, 1831.]
Pegolotti, Fr. Balducci. La Pratica di Mercatura, written c. 1343; publd. by Gian Francisco Pagnini del Ventura of Volterra in his work Della Decima, &c. Lisbone e Lucca (really Florence), 1765-66. 4 vols. 4to. Of this work it constitutes the 3rd volume. Extracts translated in Cathay and the Way Thither, q.v. The 5th volume is a similar work by G. Uzzano, written c. 1440.
Pèlerins Bouddhistes, by Stanislas, Julien. Vol. I. Vie et Voyages de Hiouen Thsang. Vols. II. and III. Mémoires des Contrées Occidentales. Paris. 1857.
[Pelly, Col. Sir L. The Miracle Play of Hasan and Husain, collected from Oral Tradition, ed. A. N. Wollaston. 2 vols. London, 1879.]
Pemberton, Major R. B. Report on the Eastern Frontier of British India. 8vo. Calcutta, 1835.
Pennant's (T.) View of Hindoostan, India extra Gangem, China, and Japan. 4 vols. 4to. 1798-1800.
Percival, R. An Account of the Island of Ceylon. 2 vols. 1833.
Peregrinatoris Medii Aevi Quatuor. Recensuit J. C. M. Laurent. Lipsiae. 1864.
Peregrine Pultuney. A Novel. 3 vols. 1844. (Said to be written by the late Sir John Kaye.)
Periplus Maris Erythraei (I have used sometimes C. Müller in the Geog. Graeci Minores, and sometimes the edition of B. Fabricius, Leipzig, 1883).
Petis de la Croix. Hist. de Timur-bec, &c. 4 vols. 12mo. Delf. 1723.
Philalethes, The Boscawen's Voyage to Bombay. 1750.
Philippi, R.P.F., de Sanctma. Trinitate, Itinerarium Orientale, &c. 1652.
Phillips, Sir Richard. A Million of Facts. Ed. 1837. This Million of Facts contains innumerable absurdities.
Phillips, Mr. An Account of the Religion, Manners, and the Learning of the People of Malabar. 16mo. London, 1717.
Pictet, Adolphe. Les Origines Indo-Européenes. 2 vols. imp. 8vo. 1859-1863.
Pigafetta, and other contemporary Writers. The first Voyage round the World by Magellan, translated from the accounts of ——. By Lord Stanley of Alderley. Hak. Soc. 1874.
Pilot, The English, by Thornton. Part III. Folio. 1711.
Pinto, Fernam Mendez. Peregrinação de —— por elle escrita, &c. Folio. Originally published at Lisbon, 1614.
Pinto (Cogan's). The Voyages and Adventures of Fernand Mendez P., A Portugal, &c. Done into English by H. C. Gent. Folio. London, 1653.
Pioneer & Pioneer Mail. (Daily and Weekly Newspapers published at Allahabad.)
Piso, Gulielmus, de Indiae utriusque Re Naturali et Medicâ. Folio. Amsterdam, 1658. See Bontius, whose book is attached.
[Platts, J. T. A Dictionary of Urdū, Classical Hindī, and English. London, 1884.]
Playfair, G. Taleef-i-Shereef, or Indian Materia Medica. Tr. from the original by. Calcutta, 1883.
Poggius De Varietate Fortunae. The quotations under this reference are from the reprint of what pertains to the travels of Nicolo Conti in Dr. Friedr. Kuntsmann's Die Kenntniss Indiens. München. 1863.
Pollok, Lt.-Col. Sport in British Burmah, Assam, and the Jynteah Hills. 2 vols. 1879.
Polo, The Book of Ser Marco, the Venetian. Newly Tr. and Ed. by Colonel Henry Yule, C.B. In 2 vols. 1871. 2nd ed., revised, with new matter and many new Illustrations. 1875.
Price, Joseph. Tracts. 3 vols. 8vo. 1783.
Pridham, C. An Hist., Pol. and Stat. Ac. of Ceylon and its Dependencies. 2 vols. 8vo. 1849.
Primor e Honra da Vida Soldadesca no estado da India. Fr. A. Freyre (1580). Lisbon, 1630.
Pringle (Mrs.) M.A. A Journey in East Africa. 1880.
[Pringle, A. T. Selections from the Consultations of the Agent, Governor, and Council of Fort St. George, 1681. 4th Series. Madras, 1893.
—— The Diary and Consultation Book of the Agent, Governor, and Council of Fort St. George. 1st Series, 1682-85. 4 vols. (in progress). Madras, 1894-95.]
Prinsep's Essays. Essays on Indian Antiquities of the late James Prinsep ... to which are added his Useful Tables ed. ... by Edward Thomas. 2 vols. 8vo. 1858.
Prinsep, H. T. Hist. of Political and Military Transactions in India, during the Adm. of the Marquess of Hastings. 2 vols. 1825.
Propagation of the Gospel in the East. In Three Parts. Ed. of 1718. An English Translation of the letters of the first Protestant Missionaries Ziegenbalg and Plutscho.
Prosper Alpinus. Hist. Aegypt. Naturalis et Rerum Aegyptiarum Libri. 3 vols. sm. 4to. Lugd. Bat. 1755.
Punjab Plants, comprising Botanical and Vernacular Names and Uses, by J. L. Stewart. Lahore, 1869.
Punjaub Trade Report. Report on the Trade and Resources of the Countries on the N.W. Boundary of British India. By R. H. Davies, Sec. to Govt. Punjab. Lahore, 1862.
Purchas, his Pilgrimes, &c. 4 vols. folio. 1625-26. The Pilgrimage is often bound as Vol. V. It is really a separate work.
—— His Pilgrimage, or Relations of the World, &c. The 4th ed. folio. 1625. The 1st ed. is of 1614.
Pyrard de Laval, François. Discours du Voyage des Français aux Indes Orientales, 1615-16. 2 pts. in 1 vol. 1619 in 2 vols. 12mo. Also published, 2 vols. 4to in 1679 as Voyage de Franc. Pyrard de Laval. This is most frequently quoted.
Qanoon-e-Islam. See Herklots.
Raffles' Hist. of Java. [2nd. ed. 2 vols. London, 1830.]
[Raikes, C. Notes on the North-Western Provinces of India. London, 1852.
[Rájendralála Mitra, Indo-Aryans. Contributions towards the Elucidation of their Ancient and Mediæval History. 2 vols. London, 1881.]
Raleigh, Sir W. The Discourse of the Empire of Guiana. Ed. by Sir R. Schomburgk. Hak. Soc. 1850.
Ramāyana of Tulsi Dās. Translated by F. Growse. 1878. [Revised ed. 1 vol. Allahabad, 1883.]
Ramusio, G. B. Delle Navigationi e Viaggi. 3 vols. folio, in Venetia. The editions used by me are Vol. I., 1613; Vol. II., 1606; Vol. III., 1556; except a few quotations from C. Federici, which are from Vol. III. of 1606, in the B. M.
Rashiduddin, in Quatremère, Histoire des Mongols de la Perse, par Raschid-el-din, trad. &c., par M. Quatremère. Atlas folio. 1836.
Râs Mâlâ, or Hindoo Annals of the Province of Goozerat. By Alex. Kinloch Forbes, H.E.I.C.C.S. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1856.
Rates and Valuatioun of Merchandize (Scotland). Published by the Treasury. Edinb. 1867.
Ravenshaw, J. H. Gaur, its Ruins and Inscriptions. 4to. 1878.
Raverty, Major H. G. Ṭabaḳāt-i-Nāṣiri, E.T. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1881.
Rawlinson's Herodotus. 4 vols. 8vo. 4th edition. 1880.
Ray, Mr. John. A Collection of Curious Travels and Voyages. In Two Parts (includes Rauwolff). The second edition. 2 vols. 1705.
—— Historia Plantarum. Folio. See p. 957a.
—— Synopsis Methodica Animalium Quadrupedum et Serpentini Generis, &c. Auctore Joanne Raio, F.R.S. Londini, 1693.
Raynal, Abbé W. F. Histoire Philosophique et Politique des Etablissements des Européens dans les deux Indes. (First published, Amsterdam, 1770. 4 vols. First English translation by J. Justamond, London, 1776.) There were an immense number of editions of the original, with modifications, and a second English version by the same Justamond in 6 vols. 1798.
Reformer, A True. (By Col. George Chesney, R.E.). 3 vols. 1873.
Regulations for the Hon. Company's Troops on the Coast of Coromandel, by M.-Gen. Sir A. Campbell, K.B., &c. &c. Madras, 1787.
Reinaud. Fragmens sur l'Inde, in Journ. Asiatique, Ser. IV. tom. iv.
—— See Relation.
—— Mémoire sur l'Inde. 4to. 1849.
Relation des Voyages faites par les Arabes et les Persans ... trad., &c., par M. Reinaud. 2 sm. vols. Paris, 1845.
Rennell, Major James. Memoir of a Map of Hindoostan, or the Mogul Empire. 3rd edition. 4to. 1793.
Resende, Garcia de. Chron. del Rey dom João II. Folio. Evora, 1554.
[Revelations, the, of an Orderly. By Paunchkouree Khan. Benares, 1866.]
Rhede, H., van Drakenstein. Hortus Malabaricus. 6 vols. folio. Amstelod. 1686.
Rhys Davids. Buddhism. S.P.C.K. No date (more shame to S.P.C.K.).
Ribeiro, J. Fadalidade Historica. (1685.) First published recently.
[Rice, B. L. Gazetteer of Mysore. 2 vols. London, 1897.
[Riddell, Dr. R. Indian Domestic Economy. 7th ed. Calcutta, 1871.
[Risley, H. H. The Tribes and Castes of Bengal. 2 vols. Calcutta, 1891.]
Ritter, Carl. Erdkunde. 19 vols. in 21. Berlin, 1822-1859.
Robinson, Philip. See Garden, in My Indian.
Rochon, Abbé. See p. 816a.
[Roe, Sir T. Embassy to the Court of the Great Mogul, 1615-19. Ed. by W. Foster. Hak. Soc. 2 vols. 1899.]
Roebuck, T. An English and Hindoostanee Naval Dictionary. 12mo. Calcutta, 1811. See Small.
Rogerius, Abr. De open Deure tot het Verborgen Hyedendom. 4to. Leyden, 1651.
Roger, Abraham. La Porte Ouverte ... ou la Vraye Representation, &c. 4to. Amsterdam, 1670.
Roteiro da Viagem de Vasco da Gama em MCCCCXCVII. 2a edição. Lisboa, 1861. The 1st ed. was published in 1838. The work is inscribed to Alvaro Velho. See Figanière, Bibliog. Hist. Port. p. 159. (Note by A.B.).
—— See De Castro.
Rousset Léon. A Travers la Chine. 8vo. Paris, 1878.
[Row, T. V. Manual of Tanjore District. Madras, 1883.]
Royle, J. F., M.D. An Essay on the Antiquity of Hindoo Medicine. 8vo. 1837.
—— Illustrations of the Botany and other branches of Nat. History of the Himalayas, and of the Floras of Cashmere. 2 vols. folio. 1839.
Rubruk, Wilhelmus de. Itinerarium in Recueil de Voyages et de Mémoires de la Soc. de Géographie. Tom. iv. 1837.
Rumphius (Geo. Everard Rumphf.). Herbarium Amboinense. 7 vols. folio. Amstelod. 1741. (He died in 1693.)
Russell, Patrick. An Account of Indian Snakes collected on the coast of Coromandel. 2 vols. folio. 1803.
Rycaut, Sir Paul. Present State of the Ottoman Empire. Folio, 1687. Appended to ed. of Knollys' Hist. of the Turks.
Saar, Johann Jacob, Ost-Indianische Funfzehen-Jährige Kriegs-Dienste (&c.). (1644-1659.) Folio. Nürnberg, 1672.
Sacy, Silvestre de. Relation de l'Egypte. See Abdallatif.
—— Chrestomathie Arabe. 2de Ed. 3 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1826-27.
Sadik Isfahani, The Geographical Works of. Translated by J. C. from original Persian MSS., &c. Oriental Translation Fund, 1832.
Sainsbury, W. Noel. Calendar of State Papers, East Indies. Vol. I., 1862 (1513-1616); Vol. II., 1870 (1617-1621); Vol. III., 1878 (1622-1624); Vol. IV., 1884 (1625-1629). An admirable work.
Sanang Setzen. Geschichte der Ost-Mongolen ... von Ssanang Ssetzen Chungtaidschi der Ordus aus dem Mongol ... von Isaac Jacob Schmidt. 4to. St. Petersburg, 1829.
[Sanderson, G. P. Thirteen Years among the Wild Beasts of India, 3rd ed. London, 1882.]
Sangermano, Rev. Father. A description of the Burmese Empire. Translated by W. Tandy, D.D. (Or. Transl. Fund). 4to. Rome, 1833.
San Roman, Fray A. Historia General de la India Oriental. Folio. Valladolid, 1603.
Sassetti, Lettere, contained in De Gubernatis, q.v.
Saty. Rev. The Saturday Review, London weekly newspaper.
Schiltberger, Johann. The Bondage and Travels of. Tr. by Capt. J. Buchan Telfer, R.N. Hak. Soc. 1879.
Schouten, Wouter. Oost-Indische Voyagie, &c. t'Amsterdam, 1676.
[Schrader, O. Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan Peoples. Tr. by F. B. Jevons. London, 1890.]
Schulzen, Walter. Ost-Indische Reise-Beschreibung. Folio. Amsterdam, 1676. See Schouten.
Schuyler, Eugene. Turkistan. 2 vols. 8vo. 1876.
[Scott, J. G. and J. P. Hardiman. Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States. 5 vols. Rangoon, 1900.]
Scrafton, Luke. Reflexions on the Government of Hindostan, with a Sketch of the Hist. of Bengal. 1770.
Seely, Capt. J. B. The Wonders of Ellora. 8vo. 1824.
Seir Mutaqherin, or a View of Modern Times, being a History of India from the year 1118 to 1195 of the Hedjirah. From the Persian of Gholam Hussain Khan. 2 vols. in 3. 4to. Calcutta, 1789.
Seton-Karr, W. S., and Hugh Sandeman. Selections from Calcutta Gazettes (1784-1823). 5 vols. 8vo. (The 4th and 5th by H. S.) Calcutta, 1864-1869.
Shaw, Robert. Visits to High Tartary, Yarkand, and Kâshghâr, 1871.
Shaw, Dr. T. Travels or Observations relating to several Parts of Barbary and the Levant. 2nd ed. 1757. (Orig. ed. is of 1738).
Shelvocke's Voyage. A V. round the World, by the Way of the Great South Sea, Perform'd in the Years 1719, 20, 21, 22. By Capt. George S. London, 1726.
Sherring, Revd., M.A. Hindu Tribes and Castes. 3 vols. 4to. Calcutta, 1872-81.
Sherwood, Mrs. Stories from the Church Catechism. Ed. 1873. This work was originally published about 1817, but I cannot trace the exact date. It is almost unique as giving some view of the life of the non-commissioned ranks of a British regiment in India, though of course much is changed since its date.
Sherwood, Mrs., The Life of, chiefly Autobiographical. 1857.
Shipp, John. Memoirs of the Extraordinary Military Career of ... written by Himself. 2nd ed. (First ed., 1829). 3 vols. 8vo. 1830.
Sibree, Revd. J. The Great African Island. 1880.
Sidi 'Ali. The Mohit, by S. A. Kapudan. Exts. translated by Joseph v. Hammer, in J. As. Soc. Bengal, Vols. III. & V.
—— Relation des Voyages de, nommé ordinairement Katibi Roumi, trad. sur la version allemande de M. Diez par M. Moris in Journal Asiatique, Ser. I. tom. ix.
[—— The Travels and Adventures of the Turkish Admiral. Trans. by A. Vambéry. London, 1899.]
Sigoli, Simone. Viaggio al Monte Sinai. See Frescobaldi.
Simpkin. See Letters.
[Skeat, W. W. Malay Magic, being an Introduction to the Folklore and Popular Religion of the Malay Peninsula. 8vo. London, 1900.
[Skinner, Capt. T. Excursions in India, including a Walk over the Himalaya Mountains to the Sources of the Jumna and the Ganges, 2nd ed. 2 vols. London, 1833.]
Skinner, Lt.-Col. James, Military Memoirs of. Ed. by J. B. Fraser. 2 vols. 1851.
Sleeman, Lt.-Col. (Sir Wm.). Ramaseeana and Vocabulary of the Peculiar Language of the Thugs. 8vo. Calcutta, 1836.
—— Rambles and Recollections of an Indian Official. 2 vols. large 8vo. 1844. An excellent book. [New ed. in 2 vols., by V. A. Smith, in Constable's Oriental Miscellany. London, 1893.]
[—— A Journey through the Kingdom of Oudh in 1849-50. 2 vols. London, 1858.]
Small, Rev. G. A Laskari Dictionary. 12mo., 1882 (being an enlarged ed. of Roebuck, q.v.).
Smith, R. Bosworth. Life of Lord Lawrence. 2 vols. 8vo. 1883.
Smith, Major L. F. Sketch of the Regular Corps in the service of Native Princes. 4to. Tract. Calcutta, N.D. London. 1805.
[Society in India, by an Indian Officer. 2 vols. London, 1841.
Society, Manners, Tales, and Fictions of India. 3 vols. London, 1844.]
Solvyns, F. B. Les Hindous. 4 vols, folio. Paris, 1808.
Sonnerat. Voyages aux Indes Orientales et à la Chine. 2 vols. 4to. 1781. Also 3 vols. 8vo. 1782.
Sousa, P. Francesco de. Oriente Conquistado a Jesus Christo pelos Padres da Corapanha de Jesus. Folio. Lisbon. 1710. Reprint of Pt. I., at Bombay, 1881.
Southey, R. Curse of Kehama. 1810. In Collected Works.
Spielbergen van Waerwijck, Voyage of. (Four Voyages to the E. Indies from 1594 to 1604, in Dutch.) 1646.
Sprenger, Prof. Aloys. Die Post und Reise-Routen des Orients. 8vo. Leipzig, 1864.
[Stanford Dictionary, the, of Anglicised Words and Phrases, by C. A. M. Fennell. Cambridge, 1892.]
Stanley's Vasco da Gama. See Correa.
Staunton, Sir G. Authentic Account of Lord Macartney's Embassy to the Emperor of China. 2 vols. 4to. 1797.
Stavorinus. Voyage to the E. Indies. Tr. from Dutch by S. H. Wilcocke. 3 vols. 1798.
Stedman, J. G. Narrative of a Five Years' Expedition against the Revolted Negroes in Surinam. 2 vols. 4to. 1806.
Stephen, Sir James F. Story of Nuncomar and Impey. 2 vols. 1885.
Stokes, M. Indian Fairy Tales. Calcutta, 1879.
Strangford, Viscount, Select Writings of. 2 vols. 8vo. 1869.
St. Pierre, B. de. La Chaumière Indienne. 1791.
[Stuart, H. A. See Sturrock, J.
[Sturrock, J. and Stuart, H. A. Manual of S. Canara. 2 vols. Madras, 1894-95.]
Subsidios para a Historia da India Portugueza. (Published by the Royal Academy of Lisbon.) Lisbon, 1878.
Sulivan, Capt. G. L., R.A. Dhow Chasing in Zanzibar Waters, and on the Eastern Coast of Africa. 1873.
Surgeon's Daughter. By Sir Walter Scott. 1827. Reference by chapter.
Symes, Major Michael. Account of an Embassy to the Kingdom of Ava, in the year 1795. 4to. 1800.
Taranatha's Geschichte des Buddhismus in India. Germ. Tr. by A. Schiefner. St. Petersburg, 1869.
Tavernier, J. B. Les Six Voyages en Turquie, en Perse, et aux Indes. 2 vols. 4to. Paris, 1676.
—— E.T., which is generally that quoted, being contained in Collections of Travels, &c.; being the Travels of Monsieur Tavernier, Bernier, and other great men. In 2 vols, folio. London, 1684. [Ed. by V. A. Ball. 2 vols. London, 1889.]
Taylor, Col. Meadows. Story of My Life. 8vo. (1877). 2nd ed. 1878.
[Taylor, J. A Descriptive and Historical Account of the Cotton Manufacture of Dacca, in Bengal. London, 1851.]
Teignmouth, Mem. of Life of John Lord, by his Son, Lord Teignmouth. 2 vols. 1843.
Teixeira, P. Pedro. Relaciones ... de los Reyes de Persia, de los Reyes de Harmuz, y de un Viage dende la India Oriental hasta Italia por terra (all three separately paged). En Amberes, 1610.
Tennent, Sir Emerson. See Emerson.
Tenreiro, Antonio. Itinerario ... como da India veo por terra a estes Reynos. Orig. ed. Coimbra, 1560. Edition quoted (by Burnell) seems to be of Lisbon, 1762.
Terry. A Voyage to East India, &c. Observed by Edward Terry, then Chaplain to the Right Hon. Sir Thomas Row, Knt., Lord Ambassador to the Great Mogul. Reprint, 1777. Ed. 1655.
—— An issue without the Author's name, printed at the end of the E.T. of the Travels of Sig. Pietro della Valle into East India, &c. 1665.
—— Also a part in Purchas, Vol. II.
Thevenot, Melchizedek. (Collection). Relations de divers Voyages Curieux. 2nd ed. 2 vols. folio. 1696.
Thevenot, J. de. Voyages en Europe, Asie et Afrique. 2nd ed. 5 vols. 12mo. 1727.
Thevet, André. Cosmographie Universelle. Folio. Paris, 1575.
Thevet. Les Singularitez de la France Antarticque, autrement nommée Amerique. Paris, 1558.
Thomas, H. S. The Rod in India. 8vo, Mangalore, 1873.
Thomas, Edward. Chronicles of the Pathán Kings of Dehli. 8vo. 1871.
Thomson, Dr. T. Western Himalaya and Tibet. 8vo. London, 1852.
Thomson, J. The Straits of Malacca, Indo-China, and China. 8vo. 1875.
Thornhill, Mark. Personal Adventures, &c., in the Mutiny. 8vo. 1884.
[—— Haunts and Hobbies of an Indian Official. London, 1899.]
Thunberg, C. P., M.D. Travels in Europe, Africa, and Asia, made between the years 1770 and 1779. E.T. 4 vols. 8vo. 1799.
Timour, Institutes of. E.T. by Joseph White. 4to. Oxford, 1783.
Timur, Autobiographical Memoirs of. E.T. by Major C. Stewart (Or. Tr. Fund). 4to. 1830.
Tippoo Sultan, Select Letters of. E.T. by Col. W. Kirkpatrick. 4to. 1811.
Tipú Sultán, Hist. of, by Hussein Ali Khan Kirmani. E.T. by Miles. (Or. Tr. Fund.) 8 vo. 1864.
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Tohfut-ul-Mujahideen (Hist. of the Mahomedans in Malabar). Trd. by Lieut. M. J. Rowlandson. (Or. Tr. Fund.) 8vo. 1833. (Very badly edited.)
Tom Cringle's Log. Ed. 1863. (Originally published in Blackwood, c. 1830-31.)
Tombo do Estado da India. See Subsidios and Botelho.
Tr. Lit. Soc. Bo. Transactions of the Literary Society of Bombay. 3 vols. 4to. London, 1819-23.
Trevelyan, G. O. See Competition-Wallah and Dawk-Bungalow.
Tribes on My Frontier. Bombay, 1883.
Trigautius. De Christiana Expeditione apud Sinas. 4to. Lugduni, 1616.
Turnour's (Hon. George) Mahawanso. The M. in Roman characters with the translation subjoined, &c. (Only one vol. published.) 4to. Ceylon, 1837.
Tylor, E. B. Primitive Culture. 2 vols. 8vo. 1871.
[—— Anahuac; or Mexico and the Mexicans, Ancient and Modern. London, 1861.]
Tyr, Guillaume de, et ses Continuateurs—Texte du XIII. Siècle—par M. Paulin. Paris. 2 vols. large 8vo. 1879-80.
[Tytler, A. F. Considerations on the Present Political State of India. 2 vols. London, 1815.]
Uzzano, G. A book of Pratica della Mercatura of 1440, which forms the 4th vol. of Della Decima. See Pegolotti.
Valentia, Lord. Voyages and Travels to India, &c. 1802-1806. 3 vols. 4to. 1809.
Valentijn. Oud en Niew Oost-Indien. 6 vols. folio—often bound in 8 or 9. Amsterdam, 1624-6.
[Vámbéry, A. Sketches of Central Asia. Additional Chapters on my Travels, Adventures, and on the Ethnology of Central Asia. London, 1868.]
Van Braam Houckgeist (Embassy to China), E.T. London, 1798.
Van den Broecke, Pieter. Reysen naer Oost Indien, &c. Amsterdam, edns. 1620? 1634, 1646, 1648.
Vander Lith. See Merveilles.
Vanity Fair, a Novel without a Hero, Thackeray's. This is usually quoted by chapter. If by page, it is from ed. 1867. 2 vols. 8vo.
Vansittart, H. A Narrative of the Transactions in Bengal, 1760-1764. 3 vols. 8vo. 1766.
Van Twist, Jehan; Gewesen Overhooft van de Nederlandsche comtooren Amadabat, Cambaya, Brodera, en Broitchia, Generall Beschrijvinge van Indien, &c. t'Amsteledam, 1648.
Varthema, Lodovico di. The Travels of. Tr. from the orig. Italian Edition of 1510 by T. Winter Jones, F.S.A., and edited, &c., by George Percy Badger. Hak. Soc. 1863.
"We have also used the second edition of the original (?) Italian text (12mo. Venice, 1517). A third edition appeared at Milan in 1523 (4to.), and a fourth at Venice in 1535. This interesting Journal was translated into English by Eden in 1576 (8vo.), and Purchas (ii. pp. 1483-1494) gives an abridgement; it is thus one of the most important sources."Neither Mr. Winter Jones nor my friend Dr. Badger, in editing Varthema, seem to have been aware of the disparagement cast on his veracity in the famous Colloquios of Garcia de Orta (f. 29v. and f. 30). These affect his statements as to his voyages in the further East; and deny his ever having gone beyond Calicut and Cochin; a thesis which it would not be difficult to demonstrate out of his own narrative.
[Verelst, H. A View of the Rise, Progress, and Present State of the English Government in Bengal, including a Reply to the Misrepresentations of Mr. Bolts, and other Writers. London, 1772.]
Vermeulen, Genet. Oost Indische Voyage. 1677.
Vigne, G. Travels in Kashmir, Ladakh, &c. 2 vols. 8vo. 1842.
Vincenzo Maria. Il Viaggio all' Indie orientalí del P. ... Procuratore Generale de' Carmelitani Scalzi. Folio. Roma, 1672.
Vitriaci, Jacobi (Jacques de Vitry). Hist. Jherosolym. See Bongars.
Vocabulista in Arabico. (Edited by C. Schiaparelli.) Firenze, 1871.
Voigt. Hortus Suburbanus Calcuttensis. 8vo. Calcutta, 1845.
Von Harff, Arnold. Pilgerfahrt des Ritters (1496-1499). From MSS. Cöln, 1860.
Voyage to the East Indies in 1747 and 1748.... Interspersed with many useful and curious Observations and Anecdotes. 8vo. London, 1762.
Vüllers, J. A. Lexicon Persico-Latinum. 2 vols. and Suppt. Bonnae ad Rhenum. 1855-67.
Wallace, A. R. The Malay Archipelago. 7th ed. 1880.
[Wallace, Lieut. Fifteen Years in India, or Sketches of a Soldier's Life. London, 1822.]
Wanderings of a Pilgrim in Search of the Picturesque (by Fanny Parkes). 2 vols. imp. 8vo. 1850.
Ward, W. A View of the History, Literature, and Religion of the Hindoos. 3rd ed. 4 vols. 8vo. London, 1817-1820.
Waring, E. J. The Tropical Resident at Home, &c. 8vo. 1866.
Wassaf, Geschichte Wassafs, Persisch herausgegeben, und Deutsch übersetzt, von Joseph Hammer-Purgstall. 4to. Wien, 1856.
Watreman, W. The Fardle of Facions. London, 1555. Also reprinted in the Hakluyt of 1807.
[Watt, G. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India. 10 vols. Calcutta, 1889-93.]
Wellington Despatches. The Edn. quoted is usually that of 1837.
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—— Early Records of British India. Calcutta, 1878. 2nd ed. 1879.
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[Wilkinson, R. J. A Malay-English Dictionary. Part I. Singapore, 1901.]
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|32||b.—||Apollo Bunder. Mr. S. M. Edwardes (History of Bombay, Town and Island, Census Report, 1901, p. 17) derives this name from 'Pallav Bandar,' 'the Harbour of Clustering Shoots.'|
|274||a.—||Crease. 1817. "the Portuguese commander requested permission to see the Cross which Janiere wore...."—Rev. R. Fellowes, History of Ceylon, chap. v. quoted in 9 ser. N. & Q. I. 85.|
|276||b.—||For "Porus" read "Portus."|
|380||b.—||For "It is probable that what that geographer ..." read "It is probable from what ..."|
|499||b.—||The reference to Bao was accidentally omitted. The word is Peguan bā (pronounced bā-a), "a monastery." The quotation from Sangermano (p. 88) runs: "There is not any village, however small, that has not one or more large wooden houses, which are a species of convent, by the Portuguese in India called Bao."|
|511||a.—||For "Adawlvt" read "Adawlat."|
|565||a.—||Mr. Edwardes (op. cit. p. 5) derives Mazagong from Skt. matsya-grāma, "fish-village," due to "the pungent odour of the fish, which its earliest inhabitants caught, dried and ate."|
|655||b.—||For "Steven's" read "Stevens'."|
|678||a.—||Mr. Edwardes (op. cit. p. 15) derives Parell from padel, "the Tree-Trumpet Flower" (Bignonia suaveolens).|
|816||a.—||For "shā-bāsh" read "shāh-bāsh."|
|858||b.—||For "Sowar" read "Sonar, a goldsmith."|
|1784.—||"Each temperate day|
With health glides away,
No Triffings our forenoons profane."
—Memoirs of the Late War in Asia, by An Officer of
Colonel Baillie's Detachment, ii. Appendix, p. 293.
|1802.—"I suffered a very large library to be useless whence I might have extracted that which would have been of more service to me than running about to Tiffins and noisy parties."—Metcalfe, to J. W. Sherer, in Kaye, Life of Lord Metcalfe, I. 81.|
- The dedication was sent for press on 6th January; on the 13th, G. U. Y. departed to his rest.
- Three of the mottoes that face the title were also sent by him.
- See Note A. at end of Introduction.
- Professor Wilson's work may perhaps bear re-editing, but can hardly, for its purpose, be superseded. The late eminent Telugu scholar, Mr. C. P. Brown, interleaved, with criticisms and addenda, a copy of Wilson, which is now in the India Library. I have gone through it, and borrowed a few notes, with acknowledgment by the initials C. P. B. The amount of improvement does not strike me as important.
- Nautch, it may be urged, is admitted to full franchise, being used by so eminent a writer as Mr. Browning. But the fact that his use is entirely misuse, seems to justify the classification in the text (see Gloss., s.v.). A like remark applies to compound. See for the tremendous fiasco made in its intended use by a most intelligent lady novelist, the last quotation s.v. in Gloss.
- Gloss., s.v. (note p. 659, col. a), contains quotations from the Vulgate of the passage in Canticles iii. 9, regarding King Solomon's ferculum of Lebanon cedar. I have to thank an old friend for pointing out that the word palanquin has, in this passage, received solemn sanction by its introduction into the Revised Version.
- See these words in Gloss.
- See this word in Gloss.
- See A. Weber, in Indian Antiquary, ii. 143 seqq. Most of the other Greek words, which he traces in Sanskrit, are astronomical terms derived from books.
- Varthema, at the very beginning of the 16th century, shows some acquaintance with Malayālam, and introduces pieces of conversation in that language. Before the end of the 16th century, printing had been introduced at other places besides Goa, and by the beginning of the 17th, several books in Indian languages had been printed at Goa, Cochin, and Ambalakkāḍu.—(A. B.)
- "At Point de Galle, in 1860, I found it in common use, and also, somewhat later, at Calecut."—(A. B.)
- See "Notices of Madras and Cuddalore, &c., by the earlier Missionaries." Longman, 1858, passim. See also Manual, &c. in Book-List, infra p. xxxix. Dr. Carey, writing from Serampore as late as 1800, says that the children of Europeans by native women, whether children of English, French, Dutch, or Danes, were all called Portuguese. Smith's Life of Carey, 152.
- See Note B. at end of Introductory Remarks. "Mr. Beames remarked some time ago that most of the names of places in South India are greatly disfigured in the forms used by Europeans. This is because we have adopted the Portuguese orthography. Only in this way it can be explained how Kollaḍam has become Coleroon, Solamaṇdalam, Coromandel, and Tuttukkuḍi, Tuticorin." (A. B.) Mr. Burnell was so impressed with the excessive corruption of S. Indian names, that he would hardly ever willingly venture any explanation of them, considering the matter all too uncertain.
- The nasal termination given to many Indian words, when adopted into European use, as in palanquin, mandarin, &c., must be attributed mainly to the Portuguese; but it cannot be entirely due to them. For we find the nasal termination of Achīn, in Mahommedan writers (see p. 3), and that of Cochin before the Portuguese time (see p. 225), whilst the conversion of Pasei, in Sumatra, into Pacem, as the Portuguese call it, is already indicated in the Basma of Marco Polo.
- The first five examples will be found in Gloss. Banāo, is imperative of banā-nā, 'to fabricate'; lagāo of lagā-nā, 'to lay alongside,' &c.; sumjhāo, of samjhā-nā, 'to cause to understand,' &c.
- This is in the Bombay ordnance nomenclature for a large umbrella. It represents the Port. sombrero!
- Mr. Skeat's Etym. Dict. does not contain mangrove. [It will be found in his Concise Etymological Dict. ed. 1901.]
- 'Buggy' of course is not an Oriental word at all, except as adopted from us by Orientals. I call sepoy, jungle, and veranda, good English words; and so I regard them, just as good as alligator, or hurricane, or canoe, or Jerusalem artichoke, or cheroot. What would my friends think of spelling these in English books as alagarto, and huracan, and canoa, and girasole, and shuruṭṭu?
- Unfortunately, the translators of the Indo-Portuguese New Testament have, as much as possible, preserved the Portuguese orthography.
- [In note "Luncheons."]