# How the Other Half Lives/Appendix

How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis
Appendix: Statistics Bearing on the Tenement Problem

## Appendix: Statistics Bearing on the Tenement Problem

Statistics of population were left out of the text in the hope that the results of this year's census would be available as a basis for calculation before the book went to press. They are now at hand, but the correctness is disputed. The statisticians of the Health Department claim that New York's population has been underestimated a hundred thousand at least, and they appear to have the best of the argument. A re-count is called for, and the printer will not wait. Such statistics as follow have been based on the Health Department estimates, except where the census source is given. The extent of the quarrel of official figures may be judged from this one fact, that the ordinarily conservative and careful calculations of the sanitary Bureau make the death-rate of New York, in 1889, 25.19 for the thousand of a population of 1,575,073, while the census would make it 26.76 in a population of 1,482,273.

 Population of New York, 1880 (census) 1,206,299 Population of London, 1881 (census) 3,816,483 Population of Philadelphia, 1880 (census) 846,980 Population of Brooklyn, 1880 (census) 566,689 Population of Boston, 1880 (census) 362,535 Population of New York, 1889 (estimated) 1,575,073 Population of London, 1889 (estimated) 4,351,738 Population of Philadelphia, 1889 (estimated) 1,040,245 Population of Brooklyn, 1889 (estimated) 814,505 Population of Boston, 1889 (estimated) 420,000 Population of New York under five years of age, in 1880 140,327 Population of New York under five years of age, in 1889 (estimated) 182,770 Population of tenements in New York in 1869[1] (census). 468,492 Population of tenements in New York in 1888[2] (census). 1,093,701 Population of tenements in New York in 1888 under five years of age 143,243 Population of New York in 1880 (census) 1,206,299 Population of Manhattan Island in 1880 (census) 1,164,673 Population of Tenth Ward in 1880 (census) 47,554 Population of Eleventh Ward in 1880 (census) 68,778 Population of Thirteenth Ward in 1880 (census) 37,797 Population of New York in 1890 (census) 1,513,501 Population of Manhattan Island in 1890 (census) 1,440,101 Population of Tenth Ward in 1890 (census) 57,514 Population of Eleventh Ward in 1890 (census) 75,708 Population of Thirteenth Ward in 1890 (census) 45,882 Number of acres in New York City 24,890 Number of acres in Manhattan Island 12,673 Number of acres in Tenth Ward 110 Number of acres in Eleventh Ward 196 Number of acres in Thirteenth Ward 107 Density of population per acre in 1880, New York City 48.4 Density of population per acre in 1880, Manhattan Island 92.6 Density of population per acre in 1880, Tenth Ward 432.3 Density of population per acre in 1880, Eleventh Ward 350.9 Density of population per acre in 1880, Thirteenth Ward 353.2 Density of population per acre in 1890, New York City (census) 60.08 Density of population per acre in 1890, Manhattan Island (census) 114.53 Density of population per acre in 1890, Tenth Ward (census) 522.00 Density of population per acre in 1890, Eleventh Ward (census) 386.00 Density of population per acre in 1890, Thirteenth Ward (census) 428.8 Density of population to the square mile in 1880, New York City (census) 30,976 Density of population to the square mile in 1880, Manhattan Island (census) 41,264 Density of population to the square mile in 1880, Tenth Ward (census) 276,672 Density of population to the square mile in 1880, Eleventh Ward (census) 224,576 Density of population to the square mile in 1880, Thirteenth Ward (census) 226,048 Density of population to the square mile in 1890, New York City (census) 38,451 Density of population to the square mile in 1890, Manhattan Island (census) 73,299 Density of population to the square mile in 1890, Tenth Ward (census) 334,080 Density of population to the square mile in 1890, Eleventh Ward (census) 246,040 Density of population to the square mile in 1890, Thirteenth Ward (census) 274,432 Number of persons to a dwelling in New York, 1880 (census) 16.37 Number of persons to a dwelling in London, 1881 (census) 7.9 Number of persons to a dwelling in Philadelphia, 1880 (census) 5.79 Number of persons to a dwelling in Brooklyn, 1880 (census) 9.11 Number of persons to a dwelling in Boston, 1880 (census) 8.26 Number of deaths in New York, 1880 31,937 Number of deaths in London, 1881 81,431 Number of deaths in Philadelphia, 1880 17,711 Number of deaths in Brooklyn, 1880 13,222 Number of deaths in Boston, 1880 8,612 Death-rate of New York, 1880 26.47 Death-rate of London, 1881 21.3 Death-rate of Philadelphia, 1880 20.91 Death-rate of Brooklyn, 1880 23.33 Death-rate of Boston, 1880 23.75 Number of deaths in New York, 1889 39,679 Number of deaths in London, 1889 75,683 Number of deaths in Philadelphia, 1889 20,536 Number of deaths in Brooklyn, 1889 18,288 Number of deaths in Boston, 1889 10,259 Death-rate of New York, 1889 25.19 Death-rate of London, 1889 17.4 Death-rate of Philadelphia, 1889 19.7 Death-rate of Brooklyn, 1889 22.5 Death-rate of Boston, 1889 24.42

For every person who dies there are always two disabled by illness, so that there was a regular average of 79,358 New Yorkers on the sick-list at any moment last year. It is usual to count 28 cases of sickness the year round for every death, and this would give a total for the year 1889 of 1,111,082 of illness of all sorts.

 Number of deaths in tenements in New York, 1869 13,285 Number of deaths in tenements in New York, 1888 24,842 Death-rate in tenements in New York, 1869 28.35 Death-rate in tenements in New York, 1888 22.71

This is exclusive of deaths in institutions, properly referable to the tenements in most cases. The adult death-rate is found to decrease in the large tenements of newer construction. The child mortality increases, reaching 104.04 per cent. of 1,000 living in houses containing between 60 and 80 tenants. From this point it decreases with the adult death rate.

 Number of deaths in prisons, New York, 1889 85 Number of deaths in hospitals, New York, 1889 6,102 Number of deaths in lunatic asylums, New York, 1889 448 Number of deaths in institutions for children, New York, 1889 522 Number of deaths in homes for aged, New York, 1889 238 Number of deaths in almshouse, New York, 1889 424 Number of deaths in other institutions, New York, 1889 162 Number of burials in city cemetery (paupers), New York, 1889 3,815 Percentage of such burials on total 9.64 Number of tenants weeded out of overcrowded tenements, New York, 1889 1,246 Number of tenants weeded out of overcrowded tenements, in first half of 1890[3] 1,068 Number of sick poor visited by summer corps of doctors, New York, 1890 16,501
 Males. Females. Arrests made by the police in 1889 62,274 19,926 Number of arrests for drunkenness and disorderly conduct 20,253 8,981 Number of arrests for disorderly conduct 10,953 7,477 Number of arrests for assault and battery 4,534 497 Number of arrests for theft 4,399 721 Number of arrests for robbery 247 10 Number of arrests for vagrancy 1,686 947 Prisoners unable to read or write 2,399 1,281 Number of lost children found in the streets, 1889 2,968 Number of sick and destitute cared for, 1889 2,753 Found sick in the streets 1,211 Number of pawnshops in city, 1889 110 Number of cheap lodging-houses, 1889 270 Number of saloons, 1889 7,884
 Immigrants landed at Castle Garden in 20 years, ending with 1889 5,335,396 Immigrants landed at Castle Garden in 1889 349,233 Immigrants from England landed at Castle Garden in 1889 46,214 Immigrants from Scotland landed at Castle Garden in 1889 11,415 Immigrants from Ireland landed at Castle Garden in 1889 43,090 Immigrants from Germany landed at Castle Garden in 1889 75,458
 1883. 1884. 1885. 1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. Italy 25,485 14,076 16,033 29,312 44,274 43,927 28,810 Russia 7,577 12,432 16,578 23,987 33,203 33,052 31,329 Poland 7,577 12,432 16,578 23,987 33,203 33,052 31,329 Hungary 13,160 15,797 11,129 18,135 17,719 12,905 15,678 Bohemia 4,877 7,093 6,697 4,222 6,449 3,982 5,412
 Number of tenements in New York, December 1, 1888 32,390 Number built from June 1, 1888, to August 1, 1890 3,733 Rear tenements in existence, August 1, 1890 2,630 Total number of tenements, August 1, 1890 37,316 Estimated population of tenements, August 1, 1890 1,250,000 Estimated number of children under five years in tenements, 1890 163,712

Corner tenements may cover all of the lot, except 4 feet at the rear. Tenements in the block may only cover seventy-eight per cent. of the lot. They must have a rear yard 10 feet wide, and air shafts or open courts equal to twelve per cent of the lot.

Tenements or apartment houses must not be built over 70 feet high in streets 60 feet wide. Tenements or apartment houses must not be built over 80 feet high in streets wider than 60 feet.

1. In 1869 a tenament was a house occupied by four families or more.
2. In 1888 a tenament was a house occupied by three families or more.
3. These figures represent less than two hundred of the worst tenements below Houston Street.