Illustrations of Indian Botany, Vol. 1/Byttneriaceae
A large and very complex order, consisting almost entirely of tropical plants, and present- ing every variety of form of vegetation, from the slender creeping herb up to the most stately trees.
In their fructification different groops present so great variations in form that some Botanists have proposed dividing them into four or five distinct orders,but generally, as they all agree in hav- ing a valvate oestivation, 2-celled anthers, and similarity of sensible properties, it seems preferable to keep them together as a single order, distributed into sections, such as S/erculieae, Byttne- rieae, Hermqnnieae, Dombei/aceae, &c. To the sections proposed by DeCandolle, Endlicher, as already stated, adds two, referred by most other Botanists to the last order, namely Helictereae and Bombaceae. Under Bombaceae I have already presented a summary of Bartling's arrange- ment, and will here in preference to attempting to give a general view of the whole order pre- sent the characters first of Endlicher's three sections, and subsections so far as they refer to the Indian flora, and then complete the view by adding from other sources those which are left, as yet, untouched by Endlicher, merely premising, that the whole are essentially characterized, by having a wholly superior ovarium of several carpels combined into a solid pistil with the
placentas in the axis : valvate oestivation of the calyx : monadelphous stamens ; 2-celled anthers : and alternate stipulate leaves. All Indian plants having the above combination of characters, ought to find a place in one or other of the following sections. Tiliaceae and Elseocarpeae two very nearly allied orders are distinguished, the former by its distinct stamens, the latter by its lacerated petals.
Tribe I — Helictereae. Flowers bisexual. Calyx irregular. Corolla irregular. Filaments either united into a tube longer than the ovary, or embracing the carpophore (pedicel of the fruit,) and free at the apex; anthers 2-celled, with an obsolete transverse septum. Ovary sessile or stipitate. Fruit with the carpels either distinct, or cohering, one or many seeded. Seeds albuminous. Leaves simple.
- * Eupilectereae Tube of the stamens elongated, embracing the stipe o' the ovary. Fila-
ments free at the point, each bearing a single anther. —To this subsection our Helicteres isora (Isora corylifolia End.) belongs.
Tribe II — Sterculieae, Flowers by abortion unisexual, calyx having the sepals united regularly. Corolla none. Filaments united into a tube adhering to the carpophore anthers imperfectly one or two celled, oblong-curved, situated at the base of the per- fect or imperfect ovary. Fruit pod-shaped of several verticelled carpels, opening along the interior sature. Seed sometimes covered with an arillus, albuminous. Trees with simple or digitately compound leaves, with the petiol tumid at the apex.
To this section our genera Stercitlia and Herit.iera belong. The former, as left by Rox- burgh and DeCandolle, is completely broken down and now affords the types of no fewer than nine distinct genera, seven of which appertain to the Indian flora, the characters of these I shall add at the conclusion of this article.
Tribe III— Bombacece. Flowers bisexual. Calyx 5-cleft, often irregularly divided, the cestivation then obscure. Corolla regular or none. Filaments united into a tube, covering the ovary. Anthers solitary or several cohering, cells indistinct or confluent, often anfractuose. Ovary sessile. Fruit capsular composed of cohering carpels. Seeds albuminous or exalbumi- nous, often enveloped in wool or even in pulp. — To this section the genera quoted under the former order belong.
Tribe IV — Byttneriece. Flowers bisexual. Calyx 5-partite or 5-sepaled, without an in- volucel. Petals frequently concave and vaulted at the base, expanded at the apex into a strap- shaped appendage. Stamens 10 — 30, or more ; the five that are opposite to the sepals sterile and strap-shaped ; the others, opposite to the petals, either solitary or pentadelphous, the bun- dles rarely bearing only one anther. Ovarium sessile, 5 celled ; cells usually 2-ovuled. Seeds sometimes exalbuminose with thick cotyledons ; sometimes albuminose with foliaceous, plane, or convolute cotyledons. Trees, shrubs, or very rarely herbaceous plants. Leaves alternate, entire, or sometimes cut. Stipules twin. Peduncles axillary, opposite to the leaves, and ter- minal, one or many flowered.
To this section the Cacoa tree, (Theobroma) and the bastard cedar tree (Guazuma) and several other Indian genera belong.
Tribe V — Hermanniece. Flowers bisexual. Calyx 5-lobed, persistent, either naked or with an involucel. Petals 5, spirally twisted in cestivation. Samens 5, monadelphous, all fertile, opposite to the petals. Carpels united into a single fruit. Albumen between fleshy and mealy. Embryo included: radical inferior, ovate: cotyledons flat, leafy, entire. Shrubs or herbaceous plants. Leaves alternate, simple, or variously cut. Stipules 2, adhering to the petioles. Peduncles axillary, or opposite to the leaves, or terminal, with 1, 3, or many flowers, which are usually in umbels.
To this tribe Riedleia and Waltheria belong. The former as left by DeCandolle a very confused genus, demanding a careful revision, as it certainly includes within itself the types of several. None of those referred to it from India are genuine species. Riedleia tr>mcafa I have removed to MalvacecB, and of our three other species, which I think, should be reduced to one, Dr. Arnott has formed a new genus under the name of Lochennia. Tribe VI — Dombeyacecs. Calyx usually with an involucel, 5-partite or rarely 5-lobed. Petals 5, flat, rather large, unequal-sided, convolute in aestivation. Stamens some multiple of the number of petals, in a single row, monadelphous, sometimes all fertile, but. usually 5 of them sterile and filiform or strap shaped. Styles 2, 3, 5, or 10, distinct, or united together. Ovules 2, placed side by side, or several, in two rows in each cell of the ovarium. Embryo straight, usually in the axis of a fleshy albumen. Cotyledons leafy, often bifid, crumpled or flat.
To this tribe Pentapetes, Melhania, Pterospermum and Kydia belong. The two former genera are for the most part composed of small herbaceous or suffruticose plants, the latter of handsome flowering trees. They are all widely distributed over the Peninsula. Dombeya, which is a fine flowering shrub and a favourite in gardens, is a doubtful native of Southern India.
Tribe VII — Eriochlcenecp. Am. Wallichece D.C. Calyx 4 5 partite or lobed, with a 3-3 leaved involucel. Petals 4-5 flat. Stamens numerous in a multiple series, the outer ones shorter, all united into one conical column as in Malvaceae: sterile filaments none, anthers 2-celled erect. — To this tribe one or perhaps two Indian genera belong. The one Microchlcena, which is abundant on the slopes of both the Pulney and on the Shevaroy hills, is a small stunted looking tree with rough cracked bark.
Affinities. A slight examination of the peculiarities of the preceding tribes will show how difficult it must be to draw up any character suited to include the whole order without introducing so many contradictions as to render such a one almost useless in practice, and yet, it is generally easy to distinguish the members of the order. They are nearly allied to Mal- vacece and Tiliacece, from the former of which they are separated by their 2-celled anthers, and from the latter by their monadelphous stamens.
Geographical Distribution. This as already observed is mainly a tropical order, being nearly confined to the tropics, but widely distributed over those regions of both the old and new world. Of the tribes above enumerated, it may be mentioned that Sterculiece are prin- cipally of Indian and African origin ; a small proportion only being found in America. Roxburgh in his Flora Indica describes 12 species of Sterculia — Blume has seven from Java, Wallich in his list of Indian plants increases the number to twenty-two for all India, while Humboldt has not one from America, of the whole order, excluding Bombacece, Java has according to Blume 22, the Indian peninsula 33, and Equinoctial America from Hum- boldt's collections 27. The Dombeyacece are all either Asiatic or African, but I believe predo- minate in the former. Of Hermanniece, a small proportion only are found in India, and a considerably greater number in Africa, especially about the Cape. Those found in Senegal are pronounced by the authors of the Flora Senegambiae to be identical with the Indian ones. Byttneriece are principally from South America and the West Indies, and there the most important plant of the order, the Cacoa tree, is indigenous. Eriochlinece are few in number, and with one or two exceptions of Indian origin. Supposing Helicterece and Bombacece to belong to this order, India can boast of but few of either tribe, while they are numerous in America.
Properties anh Uses. The plants of this order, in common with those of the whole of the class Coiumniferce, abound in mucilage, and possess in a pre-eminent degree emollient pro- perties. One of the African species of Sterculia affords a gum, known as the gum Tragacanth of Sierra Leone, whence called $ tragacantha by Dr. Lindley. The seeds of another species S. acuminata, affords the kola of the Africans, which, when chewed, has the curious property of making bad and half putrid water, that may be afterwards drank, taste sweet and agreeable.
The pod of Sterculia faetida, a common Indian tree, is, according to Horsfield, employed in Java as a remedy against gonorrhoea, and an American species of Wallheria is used in Brazil for similar purposes, for which it is fitted by its mucilaginous properties ; the Indian species, W. India, enjoying analogous properties might be rendered available here, for the same object, if prepared as a diet drink. In Martinique, the mucilaginous bark of Guazvma ulmifolia, a tree very common in India, is employed to clarify sugar. It might along with some others especially the fruit of Microchleena, which is highly mucilaginous, he converted here to a similar useful purpose, and affect a great saving in the process adopted in India for that object. The inner bark of some species, which in all is very tough and pliable, is employed for making cordage, that of Sterculia guttata, Microchleena spectabilis, and Abroma augusta, are particu- larly specified by Mr. Royle as being so employed, of the latter it is said, it " abounds with strong white fibres which make a good substitute for hemp, and as the plant succeeds well in every part of India, grows quickly, and yields annually two, three, or even four, crops of cuttings fit for peeling it is particularly recommended by Dr. Roxburgh for cultivation." The seed of several species of Sterculia are roasted and eat by the natives of this country ; but by far the most important plant of the order, at least in a dietetic point of view, is the Cacoa tree. This is a native of America, and has been introduced into India. Hitherto our attempts at culture have not been very successful, but I saw several very thriving young trees at Courtallum, and there is one at Palatncottah which annually bears a crop of fruit, and gives promise that it might be increased. I attempted to take grafts from that tree, and also to propagate it by slips and gooties, but failed in both attempts. It seems very desirable to extend the cultivation of this tree in India, not only on account of the commercial advantages that might accrue from its produce, but for the benefit we might ourselves derive from it. In the former point of view it may be mentioned, that upwards of twenty million of pounds are annually consumed in Europe. The elevated table-land of Mexico being the native country of the Cacoa, where it enjoys a cool and humid climate, I presume the most probable tracts of country in India for commencing its cultivation, on a considerable scale, would be the high and cool table-land of Mysore, in planta- tions well sheltered, and still further kept cool and damp by being made in only partially cleared forests. Wherever such localities are to be found, the Cacoa may be expected to thrive, and might be introduced with effect and at little charge, On the Malabar coast too, where forest lands abound, the humid and insular-like climate would, as in the West Indies where it is very extensively cultivated, counteract the injurious effect of excessive heat, and render the chances of success, fully equal to those of Mysore. The only drawback to its extended cultivation is the slowness of its growth in the first instance, which however is well compensated for, by its after duration and productiveness. The fresh virgin soil, the shade, and humid atmosphere, of forests recently cleared of their brushwood only, are all dwelt upon by Humboldt as peculiarly favourable for Cacoa plantations, and in such of course they ought to be tried in the first in- stance, until we get the tree acclimated.
Remarks on Genera. The genus Sterculia, as mentioned above, has been completely broken down, and no fewer than nine genera formed from the apparently heterogeneous materials which were formerly combined under that name. The characters of these as given by Pro- fessor Endlicher, will be given below, and figures of several published in the early numbers of my Icones. Heriteria is a genus nearly allied to Sterculia — of which one species is found in Malabar, and another in Ava. Guazuma is said to have been introduced from America, whether correctly may be difficult to ascertain, but whether or not it is cer- tainly very widely diffused over India now, and affords a proof, if introduced, that it has found a most congenial climate, and holds out the prospect of equal success attending the introduction of the Cacoa tree. The wood which is generally known under the English name of bastard cedar, though a light and rather loose grained timber, is much employed in making furniture. Ranking next this large umbragious tree is Byttneria, a humble herb, only found in dry gravelly soil, usually seeking the support and shelter afforded by the few stunted bushes growing in such situations. The Abroma I have never met with, but as above stated, it merits being better known on account of the valuable purposes to which its bark may be applied. Waltheria is a very common herbaceous plant, but of a most variable description, in so far as external appearance goes, being sometimes glabrous, at others hairy, and at others again covered with a thick coat of whitish down or shag, thus appearing as if there were several species. This genus is remarkable in the order for having a one-seeded coccus.
Pentapetes another of the few herbaceous genera of this order are principally marsh plants. P. phcenicia, which is met with in marshy grounds all over India during the cool season, is also found in the Tenaserim provinces, and I may here mention as an instance of how little things common about our own doors, however beautiful, attract attention, that I once had specimens of this plant, raised with much care from seed brought from Rangoon, sent several hun- dred miles as one of the greatest beauty ami rarity, but which, had never been seen by the cul- tivator in India, though he must have passed it hundreds of times. The plant is really a beau- tiful one and richly merited all the attention bestowed on that occasion, but would equally have merited it if brought from the neighbouring marsh, in place of from a foreign country. Mel hania is not very common, though widely diffused, but like some other members of the order is very variable. The M. incana when growing in a fertile soil, changes so much in appearance from what it is in a more arid one, that it no longer seems to be the same plant, and indeed I greatly doubt whether the two forms can belong to the same species, I have since the publication of our Prodromus met with a new species having much the appearance of an Abutilon, hence called C. abutiloides. It grows in rocky ravines among the Ballagaut hills, and attains the size of a small shrub.
The determination of the species of the genus Pteraspermum, is an undertaking of consi- derable difficulty, owing to the great variations in the form of the foliage in different specimens of the same species. In my recent excursions I have added a new species to this genus, and have reason to suspect that there are several, yet unknown to us, to be met with in our alpine jungles. I had not the good fortune to find fructification of some that I consider new, and can- not in consequence describe them, but their trailing arborious habit, leave little reason to doubt their being different from all those already described.
Kydia. a genus established by Dr. Roxburgh, and so called in honor of the late Colonel Kyd, the founder of the Calcutta Botanic Garden, consists of fine shrubs, bearing their nu- merous flowers in large clusters on the ends of the branches. Of this genus there is one species met with in the Pulicat jungles towards the foot of the hills, and one very fine new species in Ceylon, to which Dr. Arnott has given the name of K. angusti folia, a peculiarity by which it is well distinguished from the continental forms which have the leaves nearly round.
Other two genera are characterized in our Prodromus as belonging to the order, namely, Eriochlcena and Microchlcena. At the time of publication we expressed a doubt of the stability of both these genera, conceiving that the characters assigned by DeCandolle were insufficient to keep them distinct. Of the justice of these doubts further observation has not only satisfied me, but have even led me to doubt, whether two plants described in our Prodromus under these names form more than one species, indeed I feel almost certain that they do not, and ought to be united. These genera are made to rest on the circumstance of one having a quinary the other a quaternary series of parts, a difference of every day occurrence in different specimens taken from the same tree, and of course more likely to occur when taken from different trees, though of the same species. The following are the new genera of Slerculiece proposed by Professor Endlicher in his Meletemata Botanica.
Tribus. Sterculie^. Flores abortu di clines. Calyx e sepalis regulariter connatis, Corolla nulla. Filamenta in tubum carpophoro connexum connata. Antherae subuni -1. bilo- culares curvato-oblongae. ad ovarii perfect! 1, imperfecti basin. Fructus e carpellis legumini- formibus verticillatis, sutura interiore dehiscentibus. Semina interdum arillo obducta, albumi- nosa. Arbores. Folia simplicia — 1. digitato-composita, peliolo apice tumido.
Pterygota. Calyx campanulatus 5 partibus carnosus, apice reflexus. Tubus stamineus masculus cylindricus elongatus calyce inclusus, apice in urceolum expansus, antheris sessilibus in 5 fasciculos coacervatis onustus, fasciculis singulis superposite-subpentandris. Tubus stami- num fetnineus vix ullus, antherae imperfectae in 5 fasciculos superposite coacervatae, fasciculis earpellorum sinubus oppositis. Ovaria subdistincta multiovulata. Styli subsejuncti. Stigmata dilatata radiatim posita. Fructus carpella subglobosa lon^e stipitellata polysperma. Semina ala longa cultriformi (spongiosa) terminata. — Indiae orientalis incola, foliis cordatis integerrimis, racemis axillaribus 1. alaribus, floribus majusculis rubro tinctis. Pt. Roxburghii (Sterculia aiata Roxb.).
Sterculia L. Calyx profunde 5 partitus patens. Tubus stamineus maris ac feminaa elongatus cylindricus, apice in urceolum 5 lobum expansus, lobis 3 dentatis, 3 antheriferis. Styli connexi abrupte recurvi. Stigmata .... Fructus carpella follicularia subsessilia palysperma. — Arbor generis typum praebens Indiam orientalem inhabitans foliis gaudet palmatim composif is, floribus laxe-racemosis, rubris, foetidissirnis. Ceterae species cum indioa hac con- sociatas siraplicifolise, verosimiliter genus proprium (Ivira) constituentes, Americana tropicam incolunt.
Southwellia Salisb. Calyx campanulatus 5—7 fidus, laciniis apice connexis. Tubus stamineus masculus eylindricus calyce inclusus, filamentis apice liberis antheras in capitulum inordinate coacervatas gerentibus. Tubus stamineus femineus masculo conformis, antheris sterilibus 15—30 sessilibus, serie simplici sinuata dispositis onustus. Ovaria coadunata. Styli connexi recurvi. Stigmata subpeltata cohaerentia, radiata. Fructus carpella follicularia sessi- lia oligosperma. (Semina nuda.) — Orbis veteris, Africae, Asiae et Australasias tropicee incolae, foliis simplicibus v. compositis, floribus plerumque flavescentibus.
S. nobilis Salisb. S. Balanghas, S. versicolor, S. Blumii, S, Tragacanthce, S, angustU folia, etc. (Steruliae spec, Auct.).
Cavallium. Calyx campanulatus 5 fidus, erectus. Tubus stamineus maris ac feminae brevis, calyce inclusus medio constrictus, apice in filamenta 10 monanthera solutus, quorum 5 alterna longiora. Styli connexi breves. Stigmata coadunata 5 lobe-disposita. Fructus carpel- la coriacea follicularia sessilia oligosperma. — Indices, foliis cordatis lobatis, floribus paniculatis copiosis minutis.
C. wens (Sterculia urens Roxb.) C. comosum (Sterculia comosa Wallich.;.
Hildegardia. Calyx profunde 5 partitus reflexus. Tubus stamineus maris (?) et femi- nae fusiformi-clavatus elongatus, antheris 10 bilocularibus duplici serie sessilibus ; inferioribus 5 ovarii angulis oppositis. Styli continui connexi. Stigmata coadunata planiuscula minuta. Fructus carpella longe-stipitellata membranacea veriosa, ventricosa, apice ala lata cultriformi terminata. Semina pauca (?), — Asiaticae tropicae, foliis cordatis acutis, glabris, membranaceis, floribus odoratis. H. populifolia (Sterculia populifolia Roxb.) H. Candollei (Sterculia populifolia DC.) H, macrophylla (Sterculia macrophylla Vent.).
Scaphium. Flores . . ». Fructus carpella stipitellata membranacea venosa, longe ante maturitatem aperta demum cymbaeformia magna. Semen unicum ad basin carpelli exsertum; — Indica, nobis e fructu tantum nota. Sc. Wallichii (St. scaphigera Wall.).
Firmiana Marsigli. Calyx ad basin usque 5 partitus reflexus. Tubus stamineus maris et feminaa eylindricus elongatus, antheris plurimis. Ovarium e carpellis 5. Styli elongati. Stig- mata ... . Fructus carpella membranacea longe ante maturitatem aperta, demum foliorum adinstar expansa (dependentia ?). Se'iiina .... Arbor Chinensis fo liis lobatis glabris. S. platanifolia (Sterculia platanifolia L.)
Erythropsis Lindl, Calyx infundibuliformis 5 dentatus, Tubus stamineus maris et feminae eylindricus exsertus, antheris 30 sessilibus inordinatis. Ovarium e carpellis 5 subdis- tinctis. Styli breves obsoleti. Stigmata acuta recurva. Fructus carpella stipitellata mem- branacea longe ante maturitatem aperta foliorum adinstar expansa dependentia. Semina 2 in quoque carpello marginibus alterne adhaerentia. — Arbor indica foliis lobatis, calycibus carpel- lisque rubro-coccineis. E. Roxburgkiana. (Sterculia colorata Roxb.).*
The following are the only additions to this order I have recently become acquainted with,
Melhania abuliloides. (Arn. MSS.) shrubby, dif- beneath, crenately serrated acute: peduncles axillary fuse; branches villous : leavps broadly ovate, cordate and torminal 2-3 flowered : involucel leaves broad cor- at the base softly pubescent above, whitish tomentose date acuminated closely embracing the flower, persis-
- Meletemata Botanica by Schott and Endlicher, pages 32, 33. tent: calyx segments tapering to a fine point, nearly
twice the length of the involucel, but shorter than the oblong obtuse petals: stamens and sterile filaments united at the base: capsule tomentose. M. Rupestries Wight's MSS.
Hab. Talapoodatoor among rugged broken rocks in the bed of a mountain stream.
This is a very rare species, which I have never met with since I first gathered it in 1834. It is evident- ly very closely allied to Wallichs M. Hamiltoniana a native of Pegu but differs sufficiently to entitle it to be looked upon as a new species. I adopt Dr. Arnott's name in preference to my own, though mine was first given , partly as being characteristic of the plant in place of the locality in which it grows, partly, and principally, because 1 believe the other is already published. Dr. A.'s specimens were gathered at the same time and place by Lieut. Campbell of the 50th Regt. N. I. who accompanied me on that excursion.
Pterospermum abtusifolium R. W. Arborious : leaves cuniate at the base, very broad truncated at the apex sometimes irregularly 2 lobed, or somewhat obcordate, the lobes coarsely toothed ; glabrous above, under side covered with mealy whitish pubescence, reticulated with prominent veins: sepals linear, coroll a densely covered externally with white stellate pubesctnee: capsules ovate, very obtuse or roundish at the apex, covered witli dense rusty coloured furfuracious tomen- t um ; seeds about 4 in each cell. Habo Courtallum in dense forests.
This species comes nearest P. reticulatum, but the leaves are so totally distinct, that I cannot think of uniting them. I only found it in fruit, the description of the flowers is made from some old ones, more per- sistent than the generality, and is therefore imperfect, the involucel I have not seen.
In the same jungles I found P. glabrescens, P. Heyneanum and P. rubiginosum. The latter, except in the very peculiar form of its leaves, which are quite characteristic, much resembles P. sub en folium especially in its unexpanded flower buds. I have not yet seen either full blown flowers or capsules. P. glabrescens differs from all the other species I have seen in having its ovary supported on a long slender stypu or gynophore, and the sepals, which aie linear, upwards of 5 inches long and only about | of an inch broad, peculiarities well represented in Rheede's figure.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE 30.
1. Sterculia Balanghas flowering branch. Natural size, 2. A flower, showing the divisions of the calyx united at the apex. 3. Male flower opened. 4. Sta- minal column separated from the calyx. 5. A fertile flower, showing the ovary with the sterile anthers at the base and the lobed stigma at the apex. 6. Ovary cut transversely showing the 5 carpels with 2 rows of seeds in each. 7. A seed cut transversely. 8. The same cut vertically showing the erect folia- cious cotyledons of the embryo. All more or less mag- nified.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE 31.
1. Guazuma tomentosa flowering branch natural size. 2. A flower full blown, shewing the vaulted petals with their strap shaped appendages. 3. The same, the petals removed to shew the tube of the sta- mens and the alternate, sterile and antheriferous filamenti. 4. A petal removed. 5. Antheriferous fila- ments removed, each composed of a bundle of united filaments free at the apex, and bearing a single 2-celled anther. 6. Ovary, style, and stigma, apex of the same with the style broken into its component parts, showing that it is composed of 5 slightly adherent styles. 7. Ovary cut vertically. 8. Cut transversely, showing its 5 carpels. 9. Mature fruit.— Natural size. 10. A capsula cut transversely. 11. Seed one cut transversely, all more or less magnified.
This is a very small order, consisting of a single genus, and so far as I am aware of as yet only four species. Dr. Arnott was the first to propose the separation of this genus as the type of a distinct order, and published it as such in our prodromus. Dr. Lindley has since adopted the order in his natural system of Botany, whence we may infer, that he considers it justly separated from those with which it had been previously associated, and indeed there can scarcely be any doubt on the subject, since, for the reasons stated by Dr. Arnott, it could not be associated either with Malvacece nor Chlenaceae.
I republish from the Prodromus Dr. Arnott's character and remarks, the correctness of which I have verified by again carefully comparing them with the plant.
Calyx without an involucel, persistent, 5-sepaled : sepals distinct, acute, unequal : the two exterior lanceolate, densely pubescent on the back ; another dimidiate-ovate, the straight side pubescent, the rounded side testaceous and shining ; the two inner ones roundish ovate and