Implementation of Second War Guilt Information Program (June, 1946 - Feburary, 1948)
IMPLEMENTATION OF SECOND WAR GUILT INFORMATION PROGRAM
JUNE, 1946 - FEBRUARY, 1948
1. Most press activity, including thrice-weekly press conferences, daily press releases, and indoctrination of newspaper executives and writers, has been devoted to a positive program of democratization. Thus, the entire press of Japan, through CI&E at the national level and through Military Government at the prefectural level, has been kept awake of daily developments in SCAP's accomplishment of the primary missions of the Occupation. Datailed statements and answers and questions on all phases of the Occupation have been handled through this medium, specifically in the fields of politics and government, social trends, economics, public health and welfare and foreign trade. SCAP, through this medium, has shown the Japanese what steps it has taken to advise and assist them. It has also detailed philosophies and methods whereby the nation not only cloud achieve democracy but cloud help itself economically and socially.
2. While this process of democratization was in progress, direct reminders of Japan's war guilt and ultra-nationalism, which led to disaster, have not been neglected. Before the War Crimes Trials opend in June, 1946, CIE held two press conferences for the Chief of the International Prosecution Section and one for the Defense Section, attended by representatives of Kyodo News Service and all leading newspapers in the nation. The purposes and methods of the International Tribunal were discussed thoroughly and were covered thoroughly by the press. Conferences were held at Yokohama to launch the information program for the Class B war criminal trials there. Since the opening of both series of trials, CIE has distributed daily the PIO release on the Class B trials and has conducted a full-time information program on the major trials, by assigning a liaison officer to daily duty with Japanese correspondents at the Tribunel.
3. Particular attention has been paid, through the War Crimes information program, to obtaining for Japanese press all possible information on the trials, particularly on details of the prosecution's case and the testimony of prosecution witnesses. Coverage has been extended to newsreels and the radio several times monthly, but widespread press coverage has also resulted daily. While it is true that because of the extremay critical newsprint situation full stories have not often been feasible, the coverage has been constant and top display has often been given.4. Through the activies of the CIC, Press and Publications Unit, press and magazine executives have become aware of the fact that the economic, social and human waste of war is such that no civilised person can countenance it as a method of resolving conflicts between nations; that a free press manned by journalists of integrity is feared by all tyrants, bosses, and dictators, who would impose one will upon the many. Such a press is the voice of the people. Without such free newspapers, the people
1. The program "War Trial Reports" presenting testimony and evidence of the progress of war trials, has been in effect since the Yokohama trials began. In June, 1946, this program was switched to cover the Tokyo trials for a twenty minute period daily except Sundays, on which days time is devotad to trial observations by representives of leading Tokyo newspapers.
2. Concurrently, the "War Trial Summary", presenting a summation of highlights of trials for the week and ?????? of testimony, with commentaries by competent trial observers, is broadcast every Saturday night except during court recesses.
3. During the Yokohama trials semi-weekly recordings through the "Man On The Street" program have been presented, to give the "average man" in attendance the opportunity to express his views of the trials.4. In addition to these programs an undetermined numbers of references, examples discussions, roundtables and news items have been presented. Each has been concered with direct quotations of, or reference to, Japan's war guilt, or indirect reference to the trials or the defeat which ultira-nationalistic leaders brought upon Japan.
1. The following phonographe summarize Japanese newsreel coverage, under guidance of CIE, through the three major newsreel communies enjoing national distribution:
- a. Nippon Motion Picture Company: 61 newsreel sequences of the Tokyo trials, three of the Yokohama trials, and three documentaries entitled: "The First Week of the Tokyo Trials", "Under the Flag of Peace", and "Pearl Harbor Attack".
- b. Shinseiki Motion Picture Company: 58 sequences convering the Tokyo trials and one covering the Yokohama trials.
- c. Riken Motion Picture Company: 15 sequences convering the Tokyo trials.
2. CIS has ?????? constantly to stimulate the production of feature pictures built around the war guilt theme. Many pictures have ? on the theme, but four outstanding films, produced in 1946 and 1947, have been principally concerned with it. They have played to a total audience conservatively estimated at 15,000,000. These films are:
- a. As Long as I Live, produced by Toho, released 1 August 1946 to an estimated audience of 2,000,000. Story: A drama portraying oppression by the secret police of a man who opposed the war by "going underground".
- b. What Did the Parrot Sea?, Produced by Shochiku, released 5 August 1946 to an estimated audience of 3,500,000. Story: The tyranny of the Japanese Army as told through the biography of the demobilised soldier.
- c. Touth Regrets Not, produced by Toho, released 29 October 1946 to an estimated audience of 4,000,000. Story: The life of a Kyoto Imperial University professor and a student who engages in underground activity against the militarists. This picture was selected as the best in the Japanese 1946 "Motion Picture Concours", which corresponds with the National Motion Picture Academy and its "Oscar" awards in the United States.
- d. War and Peace, produced by Toho, released 22 July 1947 to an estimated audience of 5,500,000. Story: A fanily tragedy brought on by the war. Women into the plot is the theme of renunciation of war and the placing of war guilt. This film was initiated by the Constitution Polarization Society of ??? the renunciation of war and was selected as the best picture in the Japanese 1947 "Motion Picture Concours".
1. The first Japanese book devoted exclusively to the war crimestrials was Japan on Trial, written by four Tokyo authors and published by Ijin Sha, Tokyo, on 20 October 1946. It listed the defendents and the charges against them, supplied a roster of the Tribunal, the Prosesution and the Defence and covered the first 28 days of the trials against the major war crimes defendents. Thirteen thousand copies were published and sold. (Tab J-1).
2. Currently, a booklet is being published by Asahi Shumbin in Tokyo, entitled ????? of Civilizations. This ????siste of the entire text of Chief Cononel Ka?????'s ?????? of the pro????tian's case, with a prefers written by Maj. Daniel C. I?????, OIC, Press and Publications Unit, CIE, at the invitation of the publisher. (See Tab H-2 for English
version and Tab J-3 for Japanese translation). The first edition will ???? of 100,000 copies, more editions are centeplated as newsprint strip, left over from the Asahi's newspaper requirements, becomes available.
This booklet will be sold throughut the nation.