Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan
GENERAL VIEW OF PALENQUE
INCIDENTS OF TRAVEL
CENTRAL AMERICA, CHIAPAS,
BY THE LATE
JOHN LLOYD STEPHENS.
With numerous Engravings.
REVISED FROM THE LATEST AMERICAN EDITION, WITH ADDITIONS,
BY FREDERICK CATHERWOOD.
ARTHUR HALL, VIRTUE & CO
23 PATERNOSTER ROW
R. CLAY, PRINTER, BREAD STREET HILL.
In preparing the present Work for publication in a cheap form, and which, although it has been favourably received by the British Public, has never before been printed in England, I have not omitted any of the Illustrations which appear in the American Edition, and have given some additional ones, which are now published for the first time.
The Illustrations are all re-engraved from the Original Drawings and Sketches, and the greatest attention has been paid to make them accurate. The reader will thus have the entire discoveries and antiquarian researches as at first presented, and the material wherewith to form a correct judgment of their character and importance.
I have found it necessary to curtail a portion of the narrative written by Mr. Stephens, with a view of condensing the whole into a single volume; but those parts only are omitted which appeared to me of less interest, as not being connected with the original, and, I may say, only object of our journey, an Exploration of the Ruined Cities of Central America, the appointment of Mr. Stephens as Special Confidential Agent from the United States to Central America, having taken place but a very short time previous to our leaving, and after all our arrangements were completed.
Should this volume be favourably received, it will be followed by a continuation of our travels in Yucatan in the years 1841, 1842.
London, Feb. 1854.
PORTRAIT OF MR. STEPHENS.
(From a Daguerrotype.)
A short biographical notice of my late fellow-traveller may not be uninteresting to the readers of the present volume. Mr. John Lloyd Stephens, the second son of Mr. Benjamin Stephens, was born at Shrewsbury in the State of New Jersey, in the United States of America, in the year 1805. Until the age of thirteen, Mr. Stephens studied at the school of Mr. Nelson, who, although blind, is described as an admirable reader of the classics. For four years Mr. Stephens pursued his studies at Columbia College, New York, afterwards entered a law school, and when of age was admitted to the practice of the legal profession.
In the year 1834, the state of Mr. Stephens's health rendering it necessary for him to travel abroad, he visited many of the countries of Europe, extending his tour to Egypt and Syria. On his return to New York, he published Incidents of Trayel in Egypt, Arabia, Petræs, and the Holy Land," followed very shortly by "Incidents of Travel in Greece, Turkey, Russia, and Poland."
These works were received with great favour, and were very extensively read in the United States; and in this country have been several times reprinted, establishing Mr. Stephens's reputation as an excellent and agreeable writer of Travel and Narrative.
In 1839 Mr. Stephens and myself made arrangements for a tour in Central America, with a view to the examination of the remains of ancient art said to exist in the dense forests of those tropical regions.
Our preparations were scarcely completed, when Mr. Leggett, who was on the point of setting out as United States Minister for that country, died very suddenly, and upon application for it, Mr. Stephens immediately received the appointment. We had some misgivings lest it should interfere with our antiquarian pursuits, but Mr. Stephens contrived, as the reader will find, to combine the chase after a Government with a successful hunt for ruined cities. Our journey occupied about seven or eight months of the years 1839 and 1840. The results of our researches were published in 1841. In the autumn of that year, we resumed our travels, and explored the Peninsula of Yucatan, and in 1843 a second work was brought out. After our last visit to Yucatan, we were urged to pursue the researches so successfully carried on in Central America by a journey to Peru, and Mr. Prescott, the admirable historian of that country, was of opinion that much useful information would thereby have been elicited. Mr. Stephens was, however, disinclined to undertake so distant an expedition, and was confirmed in this resolve by my being obliged to absent myself for several years on a professional engagement in the West Indies; he therefore remained in New York, and undertook the formation of the first American Ocean Steam Navigation Company, which in the end has proved highly successful. He next visited the Isthmus of Panama, with the view of forming a Railway across the narrow but difficult neck of land that separates the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
A Company was formed, of which he subsequently became the President, and a concession for the line was obtained from the Government of New Grenada. The necessary surveys were made, and the works began in 1850. Having completed my engagement in the West Indies, I rejoined Mr. Stephens to assist in his great enterprise of spanning the Isthmus with a road of iron, and took charge of the works while he made a second journey to Santa Fé de Bogotá, the capital of New Grenada. We expected to meet in a few months, but Mr. Stephens's health, already much shattered by exposure in tropical regions, and mine still more so by a seven months' residence in one of the most unhealthy climates in the world, separated us for nearly two years; Mr. Stephens going to New York to recruit his strength, and I to California for the same object. Subsequently Mr. Stephens returned to the Isthmus, and by long and incautious exposure in that deadly climate in forwarding the interests of the Railway Company, brought on a disease which terminated fatally in the autumn of 1852.
As his fellow-traveller and intimate friend, I may be permitted to bear testimony to his kindly disposition, and the many excellent qualities of head and heart which endeared him to a large circle of friends and connexions.
Departure—The Voyage—Arrival at Balize—Mixing of Colours—Government House—Colonel M'Donald—Origin of Baliza—Negro Schools—Scene in a Court-Room—Law without Lawyers—The Barracks—Excursion in a Pit-Pan—A Beginning of Honours—Honours accumulating—Departure from Balize—Sweets of Office
Everyone for himself—Travellers' Tricks—Puenta Gorda—A Visit to the Carib Indians—A Carib Crone—A Baptism—Rio Dolce—Beautiful Scenery—Yzabal—Reception of the Padre—A Barber in Office—A Band of "Invincibles"—Parties in Central America—A Compatriot—A Grave in a Foreign Land—Preparations for the Passage of "the Mountain"—A Road not Macadamized—Perils by the Way—A well-spiced Lunch—The Mountain Passed
A Canonigo—How to roast a Fowl—Extempore Shoemaking—Motagua River—Beautiful Scene—Crossing the River—The Luxury of Water—Primitive Costumes—How to make Tortillas—Costly Timber—Gualan—Oppressive Heat—Shock of an Earthquake—A Stroll through the Town—A troublesome Muleteer—A Lawsuit—Important Negotiations—A Modern Bona Dea—How to gain a Husband—A Kingdom of Flora—Zacapa—Making free with a Host
Purchasing a Bridle—A School and its Regulations—Conversation with an Indian—Chiquimula—A Church in Ruins—A Veteran of the French Empire—St. Stephanos—A Land of Mountains—An Affair with a Muleteer—A deserted Village—A rude Assault—Arrest—Imprisonment Release
An Indian Funeral—Copan River—Woman's Kindness—Hacienda of San Antonio—Strange Customs—A Mountain of Aloes—The State of Honduras—Village of Copan—An ungracious Host—Wall of Copan—History of Copan—First View of the Ruins—Vain Speculations—Applications for Medicine—Search for an Abode—A sick Woman—Plagues of a Muleteer—An unpleasant Situation—A Thunder-storm—Thoughts of buying Copan.
How to begin—Commencement of Explorations—Interest created by these Ruins—Visit from the Alcalde—Vexatious Suspicions—A welcome Visitor—Letter from General Cascara—Buying a City—Visit from Don Gregorio's Family—Distribution of Medicines.
Survey of the Ruins—Account of them by Huarres and by Colonel Galindo—Their Situation—Their Extent—Plan of Survey—Pyramidal Structures—Rows of Death's Heads—Remarkable Portrait—"Idols"—Character of the Engravings—Ranges of Terraces—A Portrait—Courtyards—Curious Altar—Tablets of Hieroglyphics—Gigantic Headstone Quarries—More Applicants for Medicine—"Idols" and Altars—Buried Image—Material of the Statues—Idols originally painted—Circular Altar—Antiquity of Copan.
Separation—An Adventure—Copan River—Don Clementino—A Wedding—A Supper—A Wedding Ball—Buying a Mule—The Sierra— View from the top—Esquipulas—The Cura—Hospitable Reception—Church of Esquipulas—Responsibility of the Cura—Mountain of Quezaltapeque—An narrow Escape—San Jacinto—Reception by the Padre—A Village Fête—An Ambuscade—Motagua River—Village of Santa Rosalia—A Death Scene.
Chimalapa—The Cabildo—A Scene of Revelry—Guastatoya—A Hunt for Robbers—Approach to Guatimala—Beautiful Scenery—Volcanoes of Agua and Fuego—First View of the City—Entry into the City—First Impressions—The Diplomatic Residence—Parties in Central America—Murder of Vice-President Flores—Political State of Guatimala—An embarrassing Situation—The Constituent Assembly—Military Police.
Hacienda of Naranjo—Lazoing— Diplomatic Correspondence—Formulas—Féte of La Concepcion—Taking the Black Veil—A Countrywoman—Renouncing the World—Fireworks, etc.—Procession in Honour of the Virgin—Another Exhibition of Fireworks—A fiery Bull—Insolent Soldiery
The Provisor—News of the Day, how published in Guatimala—Visit to the Convent of La Concepcion—The Farewell of the Nun—Carrera—Sketch of his Life— The Cholera— Insurrections—Carrera heads the Insurgents—His Appearances in Guatimala—Capture of the City—Carrera triumphant—Arrival of Morazan—Hostilities—Pursuit of Carrera—His Defeat—He is again uppermost—Interview with Carrera—His Character.
Party to Mixco—A Scene of pleasure—Procession in Honour fo the Patron Saint of Mixco—Fireworks—A Bombardment—Smoking Cigars—A Night-Brawl—Suffering and Sorrow—A Cockfight—A Walk in the Suburbs—Sunday Amusement—Return to the City.153
Excursion to La Antigua and the Pacific Ocean— San Lucas—Mountain Scenery—El Rio Pensativo—La Antigua— Account of its Destruction—An Octogenarian—The Cathedral— San Juan Obispo—Santa Maria—Volcano de Agua—Ascent of the Mountain—The Crater—A lofty Meeting-place—The Descent—Return to La Antigua—Cultivation of Cochineal—Classic Ground—Ciudad Vieja—Its Foundation—Visit from Indians—Departure from Ciudad Vieja—First Sight of the Pacific—Alotenango—Volcan de Fuego—Escuintla—Sunset Scene—Masagua—Port of Istapa—Arrival at the Pacific.161
The Return—Hunt for a Mule—Overo—Masagua—Escuintla—Falls of San Pedro Martyr—Michatoyal River—Village of San Pedro—A Major-Domo—San Cristoval—Amatitan—A roving American—Entry into Guatimala—Letter from Mr. Catherwood—Christmas Eve —Arrival of Mr. Catherwood—Plaza de Toros—A Bullfight—The Theatre—Official Business—The Aristocracy of Guatimala—State of the country—New Year's Day—Ferocity of Party.178
Hunt for a Government—Diplomatic Difficulties—Departure from Guatimala—Lake of Amatitan—Attack of Fever and Ague—Overo—Istapa—A French Merchant Ship—Port of Acajutla—Illness—Zonzonate—The Government found—Visit to the Volcano of Izalco—Course of the Eruptions—Descent from the Volcano189
Sickness and Mutiny—Illness of Captain Jay— Critical Situation—Rough Nursing— Dolphins—Succession of Volcanoes—Gulf of Nicoya—Harbour of Caldera—Another Patient— Hacienda of San Felipe—Mountain of Aguacate—"Zillenthal Patent Self-Acting Cold Amalganation Machine"—Gold Mines—View from the Mountain-top 199
La Garita—Alajuela—A friendly People—Heredia—Rio Segundo—Coffee Plantations of San Jose—The Sacrament for the Dying—A happy Meeting—Travelling Embarrassments— Quarters in a Convent—Señor Carillo, Chief of State—Vicissitudes of Fortune—Visit to Cartago—Tres Rios—An unexpected Meeting—Ascent of the Volcano of Cartago—The Crater—View of the two Seas—Descent—Stroll through Cartago—A Burial— Another Attack of Fever and Ague—A Vagabond—Cultivation of Coffee 208
Departure for Guatimala—Esparza—Town of Costa Rica—The Barranca—Wild Scenery—Hacienda of Aranjuez—River Lagartos—Cerros of Collito—Herds of Deer—Santa Rosa—Don Juan José Bonilla—An Earthquake—A Cattle Farm—Bagases—Guanacaste—An agreeable Welcome—Belle of Guanacaste—Pleasant Lodgings—Cordilleras—Volcanoes of Rincon and Orosi—Hacienda of San Teresa—Sunset View—The Pacific again.220
Visit to the Volcano of Masaya—Village of Masaya—Lake of Masaya—Nindiri—Ascent of the Volcano—Account of it—The Crater—Descent into it—Volcano of Nindiri—Ignorance of the People concerning Objects of Interest—Return to Masaya—Another Countryman—Managua—Lake of Managua—Fishing—Beautiful Scenery—Mateares—Questa del Relox—Nagarotis—Crosses—A Gamekeeper—Pueblo Nuevo.231
Beantiftul Plain—Leon—Stroll through the Town—Baneful Effects of Party Spirit—Scenes of horror—Unpleasant Intelligence—Journey continued—A fastidious Beggar—Chinandega—Gulf of Conchagua—Visit to Realejo—Cotton Factory—Harbour of Realejo—El Viejo—Port of Naguiscolo—Importance of a Passport—Embarking Mules—A Bungo—Volcano of Coseguina—Eruption of 1835—La Union.239
Journey to San Salvador—A new Companion—San Alejo—War Alarms—State of San Salvador—River Lempa—San Vicente—Volcano of San Vicente—Thermal Springs—Cojutepeque—Arrival at San Salvador—Prejudice against Foreigners—Contributions—Press-Gangs—Vice-President Vigil—Taking of San Miguel and San Vicente—Rumours of a March upon San Salvador—Departure from San Salvador—La Barranca de Guaramal—Volcano of Izalco—Depredations of Rascon—Zonzonate—News from Guatimala—Journey continued—Aguisalco—Apeneca—Mountain of Aguachapa—Subterranean Fires—Aguachapa—Defeat of Morazan—Confusion and Terror.249
Approach of Carrera’s Forces—Terror of the Inhabitants—Their Flight—Surrender of the Town—Ferocity of the Soldiery—A Bulletin—Diplomacy—A Passport—A Breakfast—An Alarm—The Widow Padilla—An Attack—Defeat of Carrera's Forces—The Town taken by General Morazán—His Entry—The Widow's Son—Visit to General Morazán—His Appearance, Character, etc.—Plans deranged.263
Visit from General Morazan—End of his Career—Procuring a Guide—Departure for Guatimala—Fright of the People—The Rio Paz—Hacienda of Pamita—A fortunate Escape- Hacienda of San José—An awkward Predicament—A kind Host—Rancho of Hoctilla—Oratorio and Leon—Rio de los Esclavos—The Village—Approach to Guatimala—Arrival at Guatimala—A Sketch of the Wars—Defeat of Morazan—Scene of Massacre.275
Ruins of Quirigua—Visit to them—Los Amates—Pyramidal Structure—A colossal Head—An Altar—A Collection of Monuments—Statues—Character of the Ruins—A lost City—Purchasing a ruined City.291
Reception at the Government House—The Captain in Trouble—A Change of Character—Arrangements for Journey to Palenque—Arrest of the Captain—His Release—Dangers in Prospect—Fearful State of the Country—Last Interview with Carrera—Departure from Guatimala—A Don Quixote—Ciudad Vieja—Plain of El Vieja—Volcanoes, Plains, and Villages—San Andres Isapa—Dangerous Road—A Molino—Journey continued—Barrancas—Tecpan Guatimala—A noble Church—A sacred Stone—The ancient City—Description of the Ruins—A Molino—Another Earthquake—Patzum— A Ravine—Fortifications—Los Altos—Godines—Losing a good Friend—Magnificent Scenery—San Antonio—Lake of Atitan.298
Lake of Atitan—Conjectures as to its Origin, &c.—A Sail on the Lake—A dangerous Situation—A lofty Mountain Range—Ascent of the Mountains—Commanding View—Beautiful Plain— An elevated Village—Ride along the Lake—Solola—Visit to Santa Cruz del Quiché—Scenery on the Road—Barrancas—San Thomas—Whipping Posts—Plain of Quiché—The Village—Ruins of Quiché—Its History—Desolate Scene—A facetious Cura—Description of the Ruins— Plan—The Royal Palace—The Place of Sacrifice—An Image—Two Heads, &c.—Destruction of the Palace recent— An Arch.319
Interior of a Convent—Royal Bird of Quiché—Indian Languages—The Lord's Prayer in the Quiché Language—Numerals in the same—Church of Quiché—Indian Superstitions— Another lost City—Tierra de Guerra—The Aborigines—Their Conversion to Christianity—They were never conquered—A living City—Indian Tradition respecting this City—Probably has never been visited by the Whites—Presents a noble Field for future Enterprise—Departure—San Pedro—Virtue of a Passport—A difficult Ascent—Mountain Scenery—Totonicapan—An excellent Dinner—A Country of Aloes—"River of Blood"—Arrival at Quezaltenango. 339
Quezaltenango—Account of it—Conversion of the Inhabitants to Christianity—Appearance of the City—The Convent—Insurrection—Carrera’s March from Quezaltenango—His Treatment of the Inhabitants—Preparations for Holy Week—The Church—A Procession—Good Friday—Celebration of the Resurrection—Opening Ceremony—The Crucifixion—A Sermon—Descent from the Cross—Grand Procession—Church of Calvario—The case of the Cura—Warm Springs of Almolonga. 348
Journey continued—A Mountain Plain—Lost Guides—A trying Moment—Aguas Callentes—A magnificent View—Gold Ore—San Sebastiano—Gueguetenango—Sierra Madre—A huge Skeleton—The Ruins—Pyramidal Structures—A Vault—Mounds—A welcome Addition—Interior of a Mound—Vases— Ascent of the Sierra Madre—Buena Vista—The Descent—Todos Santos—San Martin—San Andres Petapan—A Forest on Fire—Suffering of the Mules from Swarms of Flies—San Antonio Guista. 360
Comfortable Lodging—Journey continued—Stony road—Beautiful River—Suspension Bridge—The Dolores—Rio Lagertero—Enthusiasm brought down—Another Bridge—Entry into Mexico—A Bath—A solitary Church—A Scene of Barrenness—Zapoaluta—Comitan—Another Countryman—Mere Perplexities—Official Courtesy—Trade of Comitan—Smuggling—Scarcity of Soap.373
Parting—Sotana—A Millionaire—Ocosingo—Ruins—Beginning of the Rainy Season—A Female Guide—Arrival at the Ruins—Stone Figures—Pyramidal Structures—An Arch—A Stucco Ornament—A WoodenLintel—A curious Cave—Buildings, &c.—A Causeway—More Ruins—Journey to Palenque—Rio Grande—Cascades— Succession of Villages—A Maniac-The Yahalon—Tumbala—A wild Place—A Scene of grandeur and sublimity—Indian Carriers—A steep Mountain—San Pedro382
A wild Country—Ascent of a Mountain—Ride in a Silla—A precarious Situation—The Descent-Rancho of Nopa—Attacks of Mosquitoes—Approach to Palenque—Pasture Grounds—Village of Palenque—A crusty Official—A courteous Reception—Scarcity of Provisions—Sunday—Cholera—The Conversion, Apostasy, and Recovery of the Indians—River Chacamal—The Caribs—Ruins of Palenque.404
Preparations for visiting the Ruins—A Turn out—Departure—The Road—Rivers Micel and Otula—Arrival at the Ruins—The Palace—A Feu-de-jois—Quarters in the Palace— inscriptions by former Visitors—The Fate of Beanham—Discovery of the Ruins of Palenque—Visit of Del Rio—Expedition of Dupaix—Drawings of the present Work—First Dinner at the Ruins—Mammoth Fireflies—Sleeping Apartments—Extent of the Ruins—Obstacles to Exploration—Suffering from Mosquitoes. 404
Precautions against the Attacks of Mosquitoes—Mode of life at Palenque—Description of the Palace—Piers—Hieroglyphics—Figures—Doorways—Corridors—Courtyards—A wooden Relic—Stone Steps—Towers—Tablets—Stucco Ornaments, &c. &c.—The Royal Chapel—Explorations—An Alarm—Insects—Effect of Insect Stings—Return to the Village of Palenque.417
A Voice from the Ruins—Buying Bread—Arrival of Padres—Cura of Palenque—Card Playing—Sunday—Mass—A Dinner Party—Mementoes of Heme—Dinner Customs—Return to the Ruins—A marked Change—Terrific Thunder—A Whirlwind—A Scene of the sublime and terrible.438
Plan of the Ruins—Pyramidal Structure—A Building—Stucco Ornaments—Human Figures—Tablets—Remarkable Hieroglyphs—Range of Pillars—Stone Terrace—Another Building—A large Tablet—A Cross—Conjectures in regard to this Cross—Beautiful Sculpture—A Platform—Curious Devices—A Statue—Another Pyramidal Structure surmounted by a Building—Corridors—A curious Bas-relief—Stone Tablets, with Figures in Bas-relief—Tablets and Figures—The Oratorio—More Pyramidal Structures and Buildings—Extent of the Ruins—These Ruins the Remains of a polished and peculiar People—Antiquity of Palenque.447
Departure from the Ruins—Bad Road—An Accident—Arrival at the Village—A Funeral Procession—Negotiations for purchasing Palenque—Making Casts—Final Departure from Palenque—Beautiful Plain—Hanging Birds'-nests—A Sitio—Adventure with a monstrous Ape—Hospitality of Padres—Las Playas—A Tempest—Mosquitoes—A youthful Merchant—Alligators—Another Funeral—Disgusting Ceremonials. 475
Embarkation—An inundated Plain—Rio Chico—The Usumasinta—Rio Palisada—Yucatan—More Revolutions—Vespers—Embarkation for the Laguna—Shooting Alligators—Tremendous Storm—Boca Chico—Lake of Terminos—A Calm, succeeded by a Tempest—Arrival at the Laguna…486
Laguna—Journey to Merida—Sisal—A new Mode of Conveyance—Village of Hunucama—Arrival at Merida—Aspect of the City—Féte of Corpus Domini—The Cathedral—The Procession—Beauty and Simplicity of the Indian Women—Palace of the Bishop—The Theatre—Journey to Uxmal—Hacienda of Vayalquex—Value of Water—Condition of the Indians in Yucatan—A peculiar kind of Coach—Hacienda of Mucuyché—A beautiful Grotto.497
Journey resumed—Arrival at Uxmal—Hacienda of Uxmal—Major-Domos—Adventures of a young Spaniard—Visit to the Ruins of Uxmal—First Sight of the Ruins—Character of the Indians—Details of Hacienda Livt—A delicate Case—Illness of Mr. Catherwood—Breaking up.509
Ruins of Uxmal—A lofty Building—Magnificent View from Its Doorway—Peculiar sculptured Ornaments—Another Building, called by the Indians the House of the Dwarf—An Indian Legend—The House of the Nuns—The House of Turtles—The House of Pigeons—The Guard-house—Absence of Water—The House of the Governor—Terraces—Wooden Lintels—Details of the House of the Governor—Doorways—Corridors—A Beam of Wood, inscribed with Hieroglyphics—Sculptured Stones, &c. 515
Exploration finished—Who built these ruined Cities?—Opinion of Dupaix—These Ruins bear no resemblance to the Architecture of Greece and Rome—Nothing like them in Europe—Do not resemble the known Works of Japan and China—Neither those of Hindu—No excavated Temples found—The Pyramids of Egypt, in their original state, do not resemble what are called the Pyramids of America—The Temples of Egypt not like those of America—Sculpture not the same as that of Egypt—Probable Antiquity of these Ruins—Accounts of the Spanish Historians—These Cities probably built by the Races inhabiting the country at the time of the Conquest—These Races not yet extinct. 527
Journey to Merida—Village of Moona—A Pond of Water, a Curiosity—Aboula—Indian Runners—Merida—Departure—Hunucama—Siege of Campeachy—Embarkation for Havana— Incidents of the Passage—Fourth of July at Sea—Shark-fishing—Getting lost at Sea—Relieved by the Helen Maria—Passage to New York —Arrival—Conclusion.542
LIST OF PLATES.
AND DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER.
|General View of Palenque||Frontispice|
|Portrait of Mr. Stephens|
|2||Ruined Church at Chiquimula|
|3||Wall of Copan|
|4||Rancho at Copan.|
|5||Plan of Copan||To face page|
|8||Stone Idol, 18 Feet high, at Copan||To face page|
|9||Stone Statue, Front View||ditto|
|11||Stone Idol||To face page|
|12||Tablet of Hieroglyphics|
|13||No. 13.— Sides of Altar||To face page|
|14||No. 14.— Sides of Altar||ditto|
|16||No. 16.— Stone Idol, Front View||ditto|
|17||No. 17.— Stone Idol||ditto|
|18||Idol, half Buried||ditto|
|19||Idol, Front View||ditto|
|20||Idol, Back View||ditto|
|21||Idol, Front View||ditto|
|22||Idol, Back View||ditto|
|23||Idol and Altar||ditto|
|25||Idol, Front View||ditto|
|26||Idol, Back View||ditto|
|27||Idol, Side View||ditto|
|30||Stone Idol, Front View||To face page|
|31||Stone Idol, Back View||ditto|
|32||Stone Idol, Side View||ditto|
|33A||Great Square of the Antigua Guatimala||ditto|
|34||Crater of the Volcano de Agua|
|35||Esquintla||To face page|
|36||Idol at Quirigua|
|37||Idol at Quirigua|
|38||Santa Cruz del Quiché|
|39||Place of Sacrifice|
|40||Figures found at Santa Cruz del Quiché|
|41||Plaza at Quezaltenango|
|42||Vases found at Gueguetenango|
|44||Riding in a Silla|
|45||Palace at Palenque|
|46||Plan of the Palace at Palenque|
|47||Stucco Figure on Pier|
|48||Front Corridor of Palace|
|49||East Side of Courtyard of Palace|
|50||Colossal Bas-reliefs in Stone|
|51||West Side of Courtyard of Palace|
|52||No. 1.— Bas-relief in Stucco|
|53||No. 2.— Bas-relief in Stucco|
|54||No. 3.— Bas-relief in Stucco|
|55||Oval Bas-relief in Stone|
|56||Bas-relief in Stucco|
|57||General Plan of Palenque|
|58||Casa No. 1. in Ruins|
|59||Casa No. 1. Restored|
|60||No. 1. Bas-relief in Stucco|
|61||No. 2. — Bas-relief in Stucco|
|62||No. 3. — Bas-relief in Stucco|
|63||No. 4.— Bas-relief in Stucco|
|64||No. 1.— Tablet of Hieroglyphics|
|65||No. 2.— Tablet of Hieroglyphics|
|66||Tablet of Hieroglyphics on Inner Wall|
|67||Casa de Piedras, No. 2|
|68||Tablet on Back Wall of Altar, Casa No. 2||Between 460 de|
|69||Stone Statue||To face page|
|70||Casa No. 3|
|72||Large Stone Tablet (Figures and Hieroglyphics)||Between 464 de|
|73||No. 1.—Bas-relief on Side of Doorway leading to Altar|
|74||No. 2.—Bas-relief on Side of Doorway leading to Altar|
|75||Adoratorio of Altar|
|76||Casa No. 4|
|78||House of the Dwarf|
|79||Plan of the Casa del Gobernador|
|80||Sculptured Front of the Casa del Gobernador|
|82||Central American and Mexican Hieroglyphical Writing|
Map of Journey in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan
- It is confidently expected that the Panama railway will be completed by the end of 1855, and will become the favourite route to Australia, as well as to California.