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Index:Western Europe in the Middle Ages.djvu

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Western Europe in the Middle Ages.djvu

CONTENTS


PREFACE v
INTRODUCTION 1

1. THE MAKING OF EUROPE 11
I. The Roman Empire 13
II. The Church 21
III. The Germanic Migrations 26
IV. The End of Mediterranean Unity 35
V. The Work of Charlemagne 44

2. THE YEARS OF TRANSITION 55
I. The Collapse of the Carolingian Empire—Feudalism 57
II. The Revival of the Empire—Germany and Italy 66
III. The Renewal of Western Civilization 74

3. THE FLOWERING OF MEDIEVAL CIVILIZATION 89
I. The Temper of the Twelfth Century 91
II. The Commonwealth of Christendom 100
III. The Development of Secular Governments 106
IV. New Ideas and Their Expression in the Twelfth Century 127

4. THE MEDIEVAL SUMMER 141
I. The Temper of the Thirteenth Century 143
II. The Papal Monarchy—Innocent III 147
III. The Papal Monarchy—The Popes and the Hohenstaufen 157
IV. The Rise of the Secular State 163
V. Economic, Intellectual, and Artistic Activities in the Thirteenth Century 176

5. THE LONG AUTUMN 187
I. The Changing Climate of Opinion 189
II. The First Frosts 191
III. The Failure of the Secular States 196
IV. Lost in the Fog 205
V. Premature Spring in Italy 212
VI. Fire Under the Northern Ashes 220

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING 231
INDEX 237