Key to the Book of Psalms
BOOK OF PSALMS.
All things, ſaid Jeſus, muſt be fulfilled, which were
written in the Pſalms, concerning me, Luke xxiv. 44.
And they, to wit, the redeemed of the Lord, who
had gotten the victory over the beaſt, ſing the
ſong of Moſes the ſervant of God, and the ſong of the
Lamb, ſaying, Great and marvellous are thy works,
Lord God Almighty ; juſt and true are thy ways, thou
King of ſaints, Rev. xv. 3.
Printed for and ſold by Mrs. Orr, at her Shop,
corner of Gibſon’s-wynd, Saltmarket.
What is contained in the following
pages, is chiefly taken from the
Preface of Dr. Horne’s Com-
mentary on the Book of Pſalms.
BOOK OF PSALMS.
THE right of the book of Pſalms to a place in the ſacred canon hath never been diſputed; and it is often cited by our Lord and his apoſtles, in the New Teſtament, as the work of the Holy Spirit. Whether David, therefore, or any other prophet, was employed, as the inſtrument of communicating to the church ſuch or ſuch a particular Pſalm, is a queſtion, which, if it cannot always be ſatisfactorily anſwered, need not diſquiet our minds. When we diſcern, in an epiſtle, the well known hand of a friend, we are not ſolicitous about the pen with which it was written.
The Pſalms treat occaſionally of the creation and formation of the world; the diſpenſations of providence; the diſcoveries of God’s free and unmerited favour to his people; the tranſactions of the patriarchs; the departure of the children of Iſrael out of Egypt; their journey through the wilderneſs, and ſettlement in Canaan; their law, preiſthood, ſacrifices, and ceremonies; the exploits of their great men, wrought through faith; their ſins and captivities; their repentances and reſtorations; the ſufferings and victories of David; the peaceful and happy reign of Solomon; the coming of the Meſſiah, with its effects and conſequences; his incarnation, birth, life, paſſion, death, reſurrection, aſcenſion, kingdom, and prieſthood; the effuſion of the Spirit; the converſion of the Gentiles; the rejection of the Jews; the eſtabliſhment, increaſe, and perpetuity of the church of Chriſt; the end of the world; the general judgment; the condemnation of the wicked, and final triumph of the righteous with their Lord and King.
The Pſalms were written upon a divine, preconcerted, prophetical plan; and contain much more, than, at firſt ſight, they appear to do. Moſt of them have a double ſenſe or meaning, viz. a literal or hiſtorical ſenſe, and a ſpiritual or prophetical ſenſe. In theſe pſalms we have on one ſide, the Jewiſh nation; and on the other, the choſen in Chriſt Jeſus: On one ſide, Canaan, and earthly happineſs; on the other, heaven, and eternal bleſſedneſs: On one ſide a redemption from Egyptian bondage, and temporal evil; on the other, a redemption from the ſlavery of ſin, and the damnation of hell: On one ſide, crimes atoned for by legal ceremonies, ſacrifices, and prieſts; on the other, ſins expiated by the offering of the body of Jeſus, once for all: On one ſide, temporal ſaviours and kings; on the other, the Saviour, who delivers from eternal deſtruction, and brings to the enjoyment of eternal happineſs; the everlaſting King: On one ſide, the law, and every branch of it, adapted to a favourite nation; on the other, the goſpel, ſuited to ſinners of every nation, tribe, and tongue. It is evident then, that whatever God ſaith to David, under the quality of king of his choſen nation, he doth, at the ſame time, ſpeak to Jeſus Chriſt, as king, of all the choſen in him, who are brought to the knowledge of the truth. To each of them he indeed ſpeaks in a ſenſe adapted to the nature of their reſpective kingdoms. The application to Meſſiah, of what God ſaith unto David, as king of his people Iſrael, is not a bare accommodation of words; but, when properly made, gives the higheſt and moſt noble meaning of them. The literal or hiſtorical meaning of the Pſalms, ſo far as it can be attained, is worthy of our attention: but it hath no glory, in compariſon of the glory that excelleth.It may not be amiſs to run through the book of Pſalms, and point out ſome of the more remarkable paſſages, which are cited from thence by our Lord and his apoſtles, and applied to matters evangelical.
No ſooner have we opened the book, but the ſecond pſalm preſenteth itſelf, as an inauguration-hymn, compoſed by David, the anointed of Jehovah, when by him crowned with victory, and placed triumphant on the ſacred hill of Zion. But let us turn to Acts iv. 25. and we there find the apoſtles, with one voice, declaring the pſalm to be deſcriptive of the exaltation of Jeſus Chriſt, and of the oppoſition raiſed againſt his goſpel, both by Jew and Gentile.
In the eighth pſalm, we might imagine the writer to be ſetting forth the pre-eminence of man in general, above the reſt of the creation; but by Heb. ii. 6. we are informed, that the ſupremacy conferred on the ſecond Adam, the man Chriſt Jeſus, over all things in heaven and earth, is the ſubject there treated of.
The apoſtle Peter ſtands up, Acts ii. 25. and preaches the reſurrection of Jeſus, from the latter part of the ſixteenth pſalm; and, lo, three thouſand ſouls are converted by the ſermon.
Of the eighteenth pſalm we are told, in the courſe of the ſacred hiſtory, 2 Sam. xxii. that “David ſpake before the Lord the words of that ſong, in the day, that the Lord delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul.” Yet in Rom. xv. 9. the fiftieth verſe of that pſalm is adduced as a proof, that “the Gentiles ſhould glorify God for his mercy in Jeſus Chriſt, as it is written, For this cauſe will I confeſs to thee among the Gentiles, and ſing unto thy name.”
In the nineteenth Pſalm, David ſeems to be ſpeaking of the material heavens, and their operations only, when he ſays, “Their ſound is gone out into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world.” But Paul, Rom. x. 18. quotes the paſſage to ſhew, that the goſpel had been univerſally publiſhed by the apoſtles.
The twenty-ſecond pſalm Chriſt appropriated to himſelf, by beginning it in the midſt of his ſufferings on the croſs; “My God, my God,” &c. Three other verſes of it are, in the New Teſtament, applied to him; and the words of the eighth verſe were actually uſed by the chief prieſts, when they reviled him; “He truſted in God,” &c. Matth. xxvii. 43.
When David ſaith, in the fortieth pſalm, “Sacrifice and offering thou didſt not deſire— Lo I come to do thy will.” we might ſuppoſe him only to declare, in his own perſon, that obedience is better than ſacrifice. But from Heb. x. 5. we learn, that Meſſiah, in that place, ſpeaketh of his coming in the fleſh, to aboliſh the legal ſacrifices, and to do away ſin, by the ſacrifice of himſelf.
That tender and pathetic complaint, in the forty-firſt pſalm, “Mine own familiar friend, in whom I truſted, which did eat of my bread, hath lift up his heel againſt me,” undoubtedly might be, and probably was, originally uttered by David, upon the revolt of his old friend and counſellor, Ahithophel, to the party of his rebellious ſon, Abſalom. But we are certain, from John xiii. 18. that this ſcripture was fulfilled, when Chriſt was betrayed by his apoſtate diſciple— “I ſpeak not of you all; I know whom I have choſen; but that the ſcriptures may be fulfilled, He that eateth bread with me, hath lift up his heel againſt me.”
The forty-fourth pſalm we muſt ſuppoſe to have been written on occaſion of a perſecution, under which the church, at that time, laboured; but a verſe of it is cited, Rom. viii. 36. as expreſſive of what Chriſtians were to ſuffer, on their bleſſed Maſter’s account; “As it is written, For thy ſake are we killed all the day long; we are counted as ſheep appointed to be ſlain.”
A quotation from the forty-fifth pſalm, in Heb. i. 8. certifies us, that part of it is addreſſed to the Son of God, and that it celebrates his ſpiritual union with the church, and the happy fruits of it.
The ſixty-eighth pſalm, though apparently converſant about Iſraelitiſh victories, the tranſlation of the ark to Zion, and the ſervices of the tabernacle; yet does, under thoſe figures, treat of Chriſt’s reſurrection, his going up on high, leading captivity captive, pouring out the gifts of the Spirit, erecting his kingdom in the world, and enlarging it, by bringing the Gentiles to the knowledge of the truth; as will be evident to any one, who knows the meaning, and conſiders the force and conſequence of the apoſtle’s citation from it, Ephef. iv. 7, 8. “Unto every one of us is given grace, according to the meaſure of the gift of Chriſt. Wherefore he ſaith, When he aſcended up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men.”
The ſixty-ninth pſalm is five times referred to in the goſpels, as being uttered by the prophet, in the perſon of Meſſiah. The imprecations, or rather predictions, at the latter end of it, are applied, Rom. xi. 8. to the Jews; and to Judas, Acts i. 20. where the hundred and ninth pſalm is alſo cited, as prophetical of the ſore judgments which ſhould befal that arch traitor, and the wretched nation of which he was an epitome.
The evangeliſt Matthew, informing us, chap. xiii. 34. that Jeſus ſpake to the multitude in parables, gives it as one reaſon why he did ſo, “that it might be fulfilled which was ſpoken by the prophet;” Pſal. lxxviii. 2. “I will open my mouth in a parable; I will utter things which have been kept ſecret from the foundation of the world.”
The ninety-firſt pſalm was applied, by the tempter, to Meſſiah: nor did our Lord object to the application, but only to the falſe inference, which his adverſary ſuggeſted from it. Matth. iv. 6,7.
The ninety-fifth pſalm is explained at large in Heb. iii. and iv. as relative to the ſtate and trial of Chriſtians in the world, and to their attainment of the heavenly reſt.
The hundred and tenth pſalm is cited by Chriſt himſelf, Matth. xxii. 44. as treating of his exaltation, kingdom, and prieſthood.
The hundred and ſeventeenth pſalm, conſiſting only of two verſes, is employed, Rom. xv.ii. to prove, that the Gentiles were one day to praiſe God for the mercies of redemption.
The twenty-ſecond verſe of the hundred and eighteenth pſalm, “The ſtone which the builders refuſed,” &c. is quoted ſix different times as ſpoken of our Saviour.
And laſtly, “the fruit of David’s body,” which God is ſaid, in the hundred and thirty-ſecond pſalm, to have promiſed that he would “place upon his throne,” is aſſerted, Acts ii. 30. to be Jeſus Chriſt.
It would be unreaſonable to ſuppoſe, that no parts of the pſalms may by us be ſpiritually applied, but ſuch as are already thus expreſsly applied for us by the inſpired writers. Let the believers of the truth conſider attentively a New Teſtament citation from the book of Pſalms; then let them as carefully read over, with a view to it, the pſalm from which it is taken, and ſee if it will not ſerve them as a key, wherewith to unlock the treaſures of eternal wiſdom; if it will not “open their eyes,” and ſhew them “wonderful things” in God’s law. When we are taught to conſider one verſe in a pſalm as ſpoken by Meſſiah, and there is no change of perſon, what can we conclude, but that he is the ſpeaker through the whole? In that caſe, the pſalm becomes at once as much transfigured, as the bleſſed perſon who is the grand ſubject of it, was, on the mount, when his countenance did ſhine as the ſun, and his raiment was white as ſnow. And if Meſſiah be the ſpeaker of one pſalm, what good reaſon can be given why another pſalm, where the ſame kind of ſcene is evidently deſcribed, and the ſame expreſſions are uſed, ſhould not be conſidered in the ſame manner?
The citations from the Pſalms, in the New Teſtament, were made incidentally, and as occaſion was given. But can we imagine that the church of Chriſt is not thereby-farther inſtructed in the manner of applying the pſalms to her Redeemer, and to herſelf? Should the diſciples of Chriſt ſtop at the applications of the pſalms to matters evangelical, thus incidentally and occaſionally made by the inſpired writers; becauſe they are thereby directed how to proceed, with reſpect to the application of other pſalms? Surely they ſhould not.
In ſuch of the pſalms as were written by David, and treat of his affairs, that extraordinary perſon is conſidered as an illuſtrious repreſentative of Meſſiah, who is more than once foretold under the name of David, and to whom are applied in the New Teſtament, pſalms which do undoubtedly, in the letter of them, relate to David, and were compoſed on occaſion of particular circumſtances which befel him.
Iindeed few of the pſalms, comparatively, appear to be ſimply prophetical, and to belong to Meſſiah without the intervention of any other perſon. Moſt of the pſalms that are fulfilled in him, have a double meaning, which ſtands upon this foundation, that the ancient patriarchs, prophets, prieſts, and kings, were typical characters, in their ſeveral offices, and in the more remarkable paſſages of their lives, their extraordinary depreſſions and miraculous exaltations, foreſhewing him who was to ariſe, as the Head of the holy family, the great Prophet, the true Prieſt, the everlaſting King. The government of Iſrael, and the religious ſervices appointed by the law of Moſes, were types and figures of good things to come in Meſſiah’s day; and the events which happened to the ancient people of God, were deſigned to ſhadow out particular occurrences, which ſhould take place, in the accompliſhment of man’s redemption, and the riſe and progreſs of the church of Chriſt. For this reaſon, the pſalms compoſed for the uſe of Iſrael, and Iſrael’s monarch, and by them accordingly uſed, do admit of an application to us, who are now “the Iſrael of God,” and to our Redeemer, who is the king of this Iſrael.
Of the pſalms which relate to Iſrael, ſome are employed in celebrating the mercies vouchſaſed them, from their going forth out of Egypt, to their compleat ſettlement in Canaan. Theſe were the conſtant ſtanding ſubjects of praiſe and thankſgiving in the Iſraelitiſh church. But we are taught by the writers of the New Teſtament, to conſider this part of their hiſtory as one continued figure, or allegory. We are informed, that there is another Iſrael of God; other children of Abraham, and heirs of the promiſe; another Egypt, from the bondage of which they are redeemed; another wilderneſs, through which they journey; other dangers and difficulties, which there await them; other bread from heaven, for their ſupport; and another rock, to ſupply them with living water; other enemies to overcome; another land of Canaan, and another Jeruſalem, which they are to obtain, and to poſſeſs for ever. The provocations and puniſhments, captivities and reſtorations of old Iſrael afterwards, “happened unto them for examples,” types, or figures, of what ſhould take place with reſpect to thoſe who were to enjoy all the external privileges of the people of God, in New Teſtament times; “and they are written for our admonition”
What is ſaid in the Pſalms, occaſionally, of the ceremonies, ſacrifices, waſhings, and purifications, appointed by the law; of the tabernacle and temple, with the ſervices therein performed; and of the Aaronical prieſthood; all this, the believers of the truth ſhould transfer to the ſacrifice of Chriſt; to juſtification by his blood, and ſanctification by his Spirit; to the true tabernacle, or temple, not made with hands; to what was therein done for the ſalvation of men, by him who was, in one reſpect, a ſacrifice; in another, a temple; and in a third, the prieſt of the moſt high God; and to the things which concern this peerleſs One, as he alſo now is, a miniſter of the ſanctuary, and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man. The variety of ſtrong expreſſions uſed in the nineteenth, and the hundred and nineteenth pſalms, to extol the enlivening, ſaving, healing, comforting efficacy of a law, which, in the letter of it, could miniſter nothing but condemnation to guilty men, do ſufficiently prove, that the Pſalmiſt underſtood the ſpirit of it, which is the goſpel itſelf, or the law as fulfilled by the Meſſiah.
The Pſalms, thus applied, have advantages which no freſh compoſitions, however finely executed, can poſſibly have; ſince, beſides their incomparable fitneſs to expreſs our ſentiments when under the influence of the truth, they are, at the ſame time, memorials of, and appeals to former mercies and deliverances; they are acknowledgments of prophecies accompliſhed; they point out the connection between the old and new diſpenſations, thereby teaching us to admire and adore the wiſdom of God diſplayed in both, and furniſhing us, while we read, or ſing them, with an inexhauſtible variety of the nobleſt matter that can engage the contemplations of man.
In ſome of the pſalms David deſcribeth himſelf, as one hated and perfecuted without a cauſe; as one accuſed of crimes which he never committed, and ſuffering for ſins, the very thoughts of which he abhorred; and one whoſe life was enbittered by afflictions, and his ſoul overwhelmed with ſorrows; yet, withal, as one whom no troubles could induce to renounce his truſt and confidence in the promiſes of God concerning him. In pſalms of this ſort, he repeateth his reſolutions of adhering to the divine law, and complaineth of the implacable malice, and unrelenting fury, of his enemies. In them alſo, contrary to all appearances, he predicteth their deſtruction, with his own final exaltation. But it hath been already obſerved, that the ancient patriarchs, prophets, prieſts, and kings, were typical characters, in their ſeveral offices, and in the more remarkable paſſages of their lives, their extraordinary depreſſions and miraculous exaltations, foreſhewing him who was to ariſe, as the Head of the holy family, the great Prophet, the true Prieſt, the everlaſting King. And it is remarkable, that in the pſalms referred to, the diction is now and then exaggerated, as it were on purpoſe to intimate, that they are to have their full accompliſhment in the hiſtory of the true David; his ſorrows and ſufferings; his reſignation under them all; his obedience to the will of his father; the temper and behaviour of his betrayers and murderers; the judgments to be inflicted upon his enemies, and the glory to be conferred upon him.
Other pſalms there are, which diſcloſe far different ſcenes. In them, the ſorrows of David are at an end, and the day of his deliverance hath already dawned. Jehovah appeareth in the cauſe of his afflicted ſervant. The adverſary is diſmayed and confounded. The anointed of God, according to his original deſignation, is at length elevated to the throne; the temple is planned by him, and erected his ſon; the ſervices of religion are appointed in perfect order and beauty; Jeruſalem becometh a praiſe in all the earth; and the kingdom is eſtabliſhed in honour, peace, and ſafety. In theſe pſalms, there is frequently an uncommon glow in the expreſſions, and ſublimity in the figures, as it were on purpoſe to intimate, that they are to have their full accompliſhment in Meſſiah the prince, and in the things that concern his kingdom. The colouring which may ſeem too bold and glaring for David the Son of Jeſſe, or for Solomon his ſon, will no longer appear ſo, when laid upon their great antitype.
In ſome of the pſalms David appears as one ſuffering for his ſins. When man ſpeaks of ſin, he ſpeaks of what is his own; and therefore, every pſalm, where ſin is confeſſed to be the cauſe of ſorrow, belongs originally and properly to us, as fallen ſons of Adam, like David, and all other men. This is the caſe of the fifty-firſt pſalm, and other pſalms which are called penitential pſalms. Sometimes, indeed, it happens that we meet with heavy complaints of the number and burden of ſins, in pſalms from which paſſages are quoted in the New Teſtament, as uttered by our Redeemer, and in which there ſeems to be no change of perſon, from beginning to end. We are aſſured, for inſtance, by the Apoſtle, Heb. x. 5. that the ſixth, ſeventh, and eighth verſes of the fortieth pſalm, “Sacrifice and offering thou didſt not defire,” &c. are ſpoken by Meſſiah, coming to aboliſh the legal ſacrifices, and to put away ſin, by the ſacrifice of himſelf. The ſame perſon, to appearance, continues ſpeaking, and, only three verſes after, complains in the following terms; “Innumerable evils have compaſſed me about, mine iniquities have taken hold upon me, ſo that I am not able to look up: they are more than the hairs of my head, therefore my heart faileth me.” So again, there are no leſs than five quotations from different parts of the ſixty-ninth pſalm, all concurring to inform us, that Chriſt is the ſpeaker through that pſalm. Yet fifth verſe of it runs thus; “O God, thou knoweſt my “fooliſhneſs, and my guiltineſs is not hid from thee.” The ſolution of this is, that Chriſt, in the days of his fleſh, ſtanding charged with the ſin and guilt of his people, ſpeaks of ſuch their ſin and guilt, as if they were his own, acknowledging thoſe debts to be his, for which, in the capacity of a ſurety, he had made himſelf reſponfible.— The lamb which, under the law, was offered for ſin, had the name “Guilt” given unto it, becauſe the guilt contracted by the offerer was transferred to that innocent creature, and typically expiated by its blood. Was not this exactly the caſe, in truth and reality, with the Lamb of God? “He did no ſin, neither was guile found in his mouth; but he bare our ſins in his own body on the tree. He was made ſin for us, who knew no ſin, that, we might be made the rightcouſneſs of God in him.” In acknowledging the ſin and guilt of his people as his own, he intimates that his death ſhould be conſidered as a true and proper ſacrifice for ſin. Chriſt and his church are alſo repreſented in the ſcriptures as one body. He is the head, and his people are the members. As the head ſpeaks of the ſin of the members, as his ſin; the members ſpeak of the righteouſneſs of the head, as their righteouſneſs. This is a key to any claims of righteouſneſs made in the pſalms by the church and people of God, and to any confeſſion of ſin made by Jeſus Chriſt.
In ſome of the pſalms there are paſſages which may be applied to Jeſus Chriſt, and to the people who are connected with him, as they are conformed to his image according to their meaſure, and ſhare with him in the happineſs which is the reward of his obedience unto the death. This is the caſe of the pſalms wherein the bleſſedneſs of all who fear God, or who ſerve him, is declared.
The offence taken at the ſuppoſed uncharitable and vindictive ſpirit of the imprecations, which occur in ſome of the pſalms, ceaſes immediately, if we change the imperative for the future, and read, not, “Let them be confounded,” &c. but, “They shall be confounded,” &c. of which the Hebrew is equally capable. Such paſſages will then have no more difficulty in them, than the other frequent predictions of divine vengeance in the writings of the prophets, or denunciations of it in the writings of the apoſtles and evangeliſts, intended to warn, to alarm, and to lead ſinners to repentance; or to leave them inexcuſable. It is true, that in the citation made by Peter from Pſal. cix. in Acts i. 20. as alſo in that made by Paul from Pſal. lxix. in Rom. xi. 9. the imperative form is preſerved; “Let his habitation be void, &c. Let their table be made a ſnare,” &c. But the apoſtles generally cited from the Greek of the LXX verſion; and took it as it there ſtood, when it was ſufficient, without any alteration, to prove the point it was adduced to prove.
The glory and bleſſedneſs of Meſſiah’s reign, are repreſented, in ſome of the pſalms, under images borrowed from the natural world, the manner of its original production, and the operations continually carried on in it. We behold a renovation of all things, and the world, as it were, new created, breaks forth into ſinging. The earth is crowned with ſudden verdure and fertility; the field is joyful, and all that is in it; the trees of the wood rejoice before the Lord; the floods clap their hands in concert, and ocean fills up the mighty chorus, to celebrate the coming of the great King, when all things reſpecting the church of God ſhall be perfected.
Spiritual mercies are alſo repreſented, in ſome of the pſalms, by temporal deliverances from ſickneſs, priſon, danger of periſhing in ſtorms at ſea, and the ſundry kinds of calamity and death to which the human body is ſubject; as alſo by ſcenes of domeſtic felicity, and by the flouriſhing ſtate of well ordered communities, eſpecially that of Iſrael in Canaan while the bleſſing of Jehovah reſted upon it.
The ſituation of the Iſraelitiſh church, during the captivity of the Jews in Babylon, as deſcribed in the hundred and thirty-ſeventh pſalm, is a repreſentation of the ſituation of the New Teſtament church, during the reign of Antichriſt. And the deſtruction of ancient Babylon, as predicted in that pſalm, is a figure of the deſtruction of myſtery Babylon, the mother of harlots and abominations of the earth.
The parts of the book of Pſalms which remain, are chiefly ſuch as treat, without figures or examples, of wiſdom and folly; of righteouſneſs and ſin; of the vanity of human life; of the perfections of God; of that patience with which the faithful ſhould bear the ſight of wickedneſs triumphant in this world, looking forward to the day of final retribution; and ſubjects of the like nature.
From what hath been obſerved, it is evident, that the objections which may ſeem to lie againſt the uſe of the Pſalms, in the churches of Chriſt, ceaſe at once. If it is ſaid, Are we concerned with the affairs of David and of Iſrael? Have we any thing to do with the ark and the temple? They are no more. Are we to go up to Jeruſalem, and worſhip on Zion? They are deſolate, and trodden under foot by the Turks. Are we to ſacrifice young bullocks, according to the law? The law is aboliſhed, never to be obſerved again. Do we pray for victory over Moab, Edom, and Philiſtia, or for deliverance from Babylon? There are no ſuch nations, no ſuch places in the world. What then do we mean, when, taking ſuch expreſſions in our mouths, we utter them in our own perſons, as parts of our devotions before God? Aſſuredly we mean a ſpiritual Jeruſalem and Zion; a ſpiritual ark and temple; a ſpiritual law; ſpiritual ſacrifices; and ſpiritual victories over ſpiritual enemies; all deſcribed under the old names, which are ſtill retained, though “old things are paſſed away, and all things are become new.”— By ſubſtituting Meſſiah for David, the goſpel for the law, the church of Chriſt for that of Iſrael, and the enemies of the one for thoſe of the other, the pſalms are made our own.