Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson LIX
NUMERALS (Continued) • THE ACCUSATIVE OF EXTENT
333. Learn the first twenty of the ordinal numerals (§ 478). The ordinals are all declined like bonus.
334. The distributive numerals are declined like the plural of bonus. The first three are
singulī, -ae, -a, one each, one by one
bīnī, -ae, -a, two each, two by two
ternī, -ae, -a, three each, three by three
335. We have learned that, besides its use as object, the accusative is used to express space relations not covered by the ablative. We have had such expressions as per plūrimōs annōs, for a great many years; per tōtum diem, for a whole day. Here the space relation is one of extent of time. We could also say per decem pedēs, for ten feet, where the space relation is one of extent of space. While this is correct Latin, the usual form is to use the accusative with no preposition, as,
Vir tōtum diem cucurrit, the man ran for a whole day
Caesar mūrum decem pedēs mōvit, Cæsar moved the wall ten feet
336. Rule. Accusative of Extent. Duration of time and extent of space are expressed by the accusative.
a. This accusative answers the questions how long? how far?
b. Distinguish carefully between the accusative of time how long and the ablative of time when, or within which.
Select the accusatives of time and space and the ablatives of time in the following:
When did the general arrive? He arrived at two o’clock. How long had he been marching? For four days. How far did he march? He marched sixty-five miles. Where has he pitched his camp? Three miles from the river, and he will remain there several days. The wall around the camp is ten feet high. When did the war begin? In the first year after the king’s death.
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 298.
I.Cæsar in Gaul. Caesar bellum in Gallia septem annōs gessit. Prīmō annō Helvētiōs vīcit, et eōdem annō multae Germanōrum gentēs eī sēsē dēdidērunt. Multōs iam annōs Germānī Gallōs vexabant et ducēs Germānī cōpiās suās trāns Rhēnum saepe trādūcēbant. Nōn singulī veniēbant, sed multa milia hominum in Galliam contendēbant. Quā dē causā prīncipēs Galliae concilium convocāvērunt atque statuērunt legates ad Caesarem mittere. Caesar, simul atque hunc rūmōrem audīvit, cōpiās suās sine morā coēgit. Primā lūce fortiter cum Germanīs proelium commīsit. Tōtum diem ācriter pugnātum est. Caesar ipse ā dextrō cornū acicm dūxit. Magna pars exercitūs Germānī cecidit. Post magnam caedem paucī multa milia passuum ad flūmen fūgērunt. II.
- Caesar pitched camp two miles from the river.
- He fortified the camp with a ditch fifteen feet wide and a rampart nine feet high.
- The camp of the enemy was a great way off (was distant by a great space).
- On the next day he hastened ten miles in three hours.
- Suddenly the enemy with all their forces made an attack upon (in with acc.) the rear.
- For two hours the Romans were hard pressed by the barbarians.
- In three hours the barbarians were fleeing.
- Translate as if pluperfect.