Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson XVI

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LESSON XVI

THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

108. There are nine irregular adjectives of the first and second declensions which have a peculiar termination in the genitive and dative singular of all genders:

Masc. Fem. Neut.
Gen. -īus -īus -īus
Dat.
Otherwise they are declined like bonus, -a, -um. Learn the list and the meaning of each:
alius, alia, aliud, other, another (of several)
alter, altera, alterum, the one, the other (of two)
ūnus, -a, -um, one, alone; (in the plural) only
ūllus, -a, -um, any
nūllus, -a, -um, none, no
sōlus, -a, -um, alone
tōtus, -a, -um, all, whole, entire
uter, utra, utrum, which? (of two)
neuter, neutra, neutrum, neither (of two)

109

PARADIGMS

Singular

masc. fem. neut. masc. fem. neut.
Nom. nūllus nūlla nūllum alius alia aliud
Gen nūllī'us nūllī'us nūllī'us ali'us ali'us ali'us
Dat. nūllī nūllī nūllī aliī aliī aliī
Acc. nūllum nūllam nūllum alium aliam aliud
Abl. nūllō nūllā nūllō aliō aliā aliō

The Plural is Regular

a. Note the peculiar neuter singular ending in -d of alius. The genitive alius is rare. Instead of it use alterius, the genitive of alter.

b. These peculiar case endings are found also in the declension of pronouns (see § 114). For this reason these adjectives arc sometimes called the pronominal adjectives.

110. Learn the following idioms:

alter, -era, -erum … alter, -era, -erum, the one … the other (of two)
alius, -a, -ud … alius, -a, -ud, one … another (of any number)
aliī, -ae, -a… . aliī, -ae, -a, some … others

EXAMPLES

  1. Alterum oppidum est magnum, alterum parvum, the one town is large, the other small (of two towns).
  2. Aliud oppidum est validum, aliud infīrmum, one town is strong, another weak (of towns in general).
  3. Aliī gladiōs, aliī scūta portant, some carry swords, others shields.

111.

EXERCISES

I.

  1. In utrā casā est lūlia? lūlia est in neutrā casā.
  2. Nūllī malō puerō praemium dat magister.
  3. Alter puer est nauta, alter agricola.
  4. Aliī virī aquam, alii terram amant.
  5. Galba ūnus (or sōlus) cum studiō labōrat.
  6. Estne ūllus carrus in agrō meō?
  7. Lesbia est ancilla alterīus dominī, Tullia alterīus.
  8. Lesbia sōla cēnam parat.
  9. Cēna nūllīus alterīus ancillae est bona.
  10. Lesbia nūllī aliī virō cēnam dat.

Note. The pronominal adjectives, as you observe, regularly stand before and not after their nouns.

II.

  1. The men of all Germany are preparing for war.
  2. Some towns are great and others are small.
  3. One boy likes chickens, another horses.
  4. Already the booty of one town is in our fort.
  5. Our whole village is suffering for (i.e. weak because of) lack of food.
  6. The people are already hastening to the other town.
  7. Among the Romans (there) is no lack of grain.

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References