Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson XXIX

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LESSON XXIX

PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE PASSIVE OF -IŌ VERBS • PRESENT PASSIVE INFINITIVE AND IMPERATIVE

172. Review the active voice of capiō, present, imperfect, and future, and learn the passive of the same tenses (§ 492),

a. The present forms capior and capiuntur are like audior, audiuntur, and the rest of the tense is like regor.
b. In like manner inflect the passive of iaciō and rapiō.

173. The Infinitive. The infinitive mood gives the general meaning of the verb without person or number ; as, amāre, to love. Infinitive means unlimited. The forms of the other moods, being limited by person and number, arc called the finite, or limited, verb forms.

174. The forms of the Present Infinitive, active and passive, are as follows:

Conj. Pres. Stem Pres. Infinitive Active Pres. Infinitive Passive
I. amā- amā´re, to love amā´, to be loved
II. monē- monē´re, to advise monē´, to be advised
III. rege- re´gere, to rule re´gī, to be ruled
cape- ca´pere, to take ca´pī, to be taken
IV. audī- audī´re, to hear audī, to be heard
1. Observe that to form the present active infinitive we add -re to the present stem.
a. The present infinitive of sum is esse. There is no passive.
2. Observe that the present passive infinitive is formed from the active by changing final -e to -ī, except in the third conjugation, which changes final -ere to -ī.
3. Give the active and passive present infinitives of doceō, sedeō, volō, cūrō, mittō, dūcō, mūniō, reperiō, iaciō, rapiō.

175. The forms of the Present Imperative, active and passive, are as follows:

Active[1]

Active[2] Passive
CONJ. SING. PLUR. SING. PLUR.
I. a´mā amā´te amā´re, be thou loved amā´minī, be ye loved
II. mo´nē monē´te monē´re, be thou advised monē´minī, be ye advised
III. re´ge re´gite re´gere, be thou ruled regi´minī, be ye ruled
ca´pe ca´pite ca´pere, be thou taken capi´minī, be ye taken
IV. au´dī audī´te audī´re, be thou heard audī´minī, be ye heard
1. Observe that the second person singular of the present passive imperative is like the present active infinitive, and that both singular and plural are like the second person singular[3] and plural, respectively, of the present passive indicative.
2. Give the present imperative, both active and passive, of the verbs in §174-3.
176.

EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289.

I.

  1. Tum Perseus ālīs ad terrās multās volābit.
  2. Mōnstrum saevum per aquas properat et mox agrōs nostrōs vāstābit.
  3. Si autem Cēpheus ad ōrāculum properābit, ōrāculum ita respondēbit.
  4. Quis tēlīs Perseī superābitur? Multa mōnstra tēlīs eius superābuntur.
  5. Cum cūrīs magnīs et lacrimīs multīs agricolae ex domiciliīs cārīs aguntur.
  6. Multa loca vastabantur et multa oppida delebantur.
  7. Mōnstrum est validum, tamen superābitur.
  8. Crēdēsne semper verbīs ōrāculī? Ego iīs nōn semper crēdam.
  9. Pārēbitne Cēpheus oraculo? Verba ōrāculī eī persuādēbunt.
  10. Sī nōn fugiēmus, oppidum capiētur et oppidānī necābuntur.
  11. Vocāte puerōs et nārrāte fābulam clāram dē mōnstrō saevō.

II.

  1. Fly thou, to be cared for, be ye sent, lead thou.
  2. To lead, to be led, be ye seized, fortify thou.
  3. To be hurled, to fly, send thou, to be found.
  4. To be sent, be ye led, to hurl, to be taken.
  5. Find thou, hear ye, be ye ruled, to be fortified.

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References

  1. For the sake of comparison the active is repeated from § 161.
  2. 1
  3. That is, using the personal ending -re. A form like amāre may be either indicative, infinitive, or imperative.